Guda, Guḍa, Guḍā: 28 definitions
Guda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Guḍa (गुड, “globe, ball”) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “Molasses”, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. Molasses (commonly known as ‘black treacle’) is a by-product created during the refinement of sugarcane into sugar.
2) Guḍa (गुड) refers to the “Jaggery”, a type of cane sugar traditionally obtained from the concentrated juice of a Sugarcane or a Palm. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.
3) Guda (गुद) is the name of a specific marma (vital points) of the human body, according to the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya-saṃhitā. When affected severely, these marmas causes death. The commonly accepted number of marmas in the human body, as described in the Suśruta-saṃhita, is 107 divided into 5 categories: the muscular, vascular, ligament, bone and joints.
The Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya-saṃhitā by Vāgbhaṭa is a classical Sanskrit treatise dealing with Āyurveda dating from the 6th-century. Together with the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhita, it is considered one of the three main Indian medical classicsSource: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs
Guda in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. from the Euphorbiaceae (Castor) family having the following synonyms: Euphorbia neriifolia Roxb., Euphorbia helicothele. For the possible medicinal usage of guda, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.
Guda [गुडा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Gossypium hirsutum L. from the Malvaceae (Mallow) family having the following synonyms: Gossypium mexicanum, Gossypium religiosum.
Guda in the Malayalam language is the name of a plant identified with Euphorbia tirucalli L. from the Euphorbiaceae (Castor) family having the following synonyms: Euphorbia media, Euphorbia scoparia, Euphorbia viminalis, Tirucalia indica.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Guḍa (गुड) refers to “jaggery”, according to the Arthaśāstra II.15.15, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Chewing of sugarcane (ikṣu) is referred to in Atharvaveda. Pāṇini mentions the plantations of sugar cane. Kauṭilya mentions of some products of sugarcane such as phāṇita (inspissated juice of sugarcane), guḍa (jaggery), khaṇḍa (raw sugar), matsyaṇḍikā (sugar candy) and śarkarā (sugar). Vālmīki-Rāmāyaṇa (Bālakāṇḍa 52.4) states the guḍa is used frequently in the preparation of many sweets. The usage of guḍa as the sweetening agent in the preparation of a lot of sweet varieties is also referred to in the text.
Suśruta (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.163) also states that if the derivatives of sugar cane like guḍa, śarkarā, khaṇḍa, phāṇita become more white, they become more cold, sweeter, more pure and more difficult to digest.
Guḍa or “jaggery” represents one of the varieties or products of Ikṣu (sugercane juice), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—The properties and varieties of sugarcane are discussed in the ikṣu-prakaraṇa. The properties of sugarcane which is crushed with teeth and crushed in a huge machine are also explained in detail. Different products made out of sugarcane juice and their properties are also discussed. It include the properties of [viz., guḍa (jaggery)].
Guḍa or “jaggery” is mutually incompatible (viruddhāhāra) with the following: Ānūpamāmṣa (the meat of animals living in marshy lands) and fruit of Lakuca (the fruit of bread-fruit tree).
Guḍa (jaggery) is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., nāraṅga (lemon)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., guḍa (jaggery)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
Guḍa (jaggery) is also mentioned as a remedy for indigestion caused by sūraṇa (elephant foot yam) nāgaraṅga (citron).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Guda (गुद):—[gudaḥ] Rectum
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Guḍa (गुड) refers to “jaggery”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, “a charitable gift given to a needy person yields the utmost benefit. If it is given after entreaties it yields only half the benefit. [...] Gift of jaggery (guḍa-dāna) yields sweet food”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Guḍa (गुड).—With ghee for piṇḍa at Gaya.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 105. 34.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Guda (गुद) refers to the “anus”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as Bhairava explains: “[...] The womb (of energy) (yoni) between the anus and the genitals [i.e., guda-meḍhra-antara] shines like heated gold. One should imagine that it [i.e., parāśakti—the supreme energy] enters the other body up to the end of emission (in the End of the Twelve). O goddess, that very moment, (the disciple) is well pierced and so falls shaking (to the ground). Having visualized (the goddess) entering into the middle of the Heart in the form of a flame, the goddess in the sheath of the lotus (of the Heart) can cause even mountains to fall”.
2) Guda (गुद) refers to the “anus”, which is associated with the Kaulagranthi, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(6) The Kaula Knot is in the foundation of the anus [i.e., guda-ādhāra]. [...]”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
1) Guḍa (गुड) refers to “jaggery”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 10), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Āśleṣā, the creatures of water and serpents will suffer; if through the constellation of Maghā, the Bāhlīkas, the Cīna (Chinese), the people of Gāndhāra, of Śūlika, of Pārata, the Vaiáyas, store houses and merchants will suffer. If his course should lie through the constellation of Pūrvaphālguni, juice-sellers, prostitutes, virgins and the people of Mahāraṣṭras will suffer miseries; if through Uttaraphālguni, kings, ascetics, jaggery [i.e., guḍa], salt, water and the town of Takṣaśilā will suffer”.
2) Guḍā (गुडा) refers to a country belonging to “Madhyadeśa (central division)” classified under the constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa represent the Madhyadeśa or central division consisting of the countries of [i.e., Guḍā] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Gudā (गुदा) refers to the “anus” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, gudā]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Guda (गुद) refers to the “anus”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] This body with its nine gates (nanadvāra [=navadvāra?]) is always secreting impurity: the eyes (akṣi) spill out rheum (akṣi-gūthaka) and tears (aśru); the ears (karṇa) produce wax (karṇagūthaka); the nose (nāsā) contains snot (siṃghāṇaka); the mouth (mukha) has saliva (lālā) and vomit (vāntīkṛta); the anus (guda) and the urethra (mūtramārga) constantly empty out excrement (viṣ) and urine (mūtra); and the hair-pores (romakūpa) sweaty impurity. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Guḍa (गुड, “molasses”) refers to one of the ten classifications of food (āhāra), also known as vikṛtis, according to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Guḍa.—cf. a-lavaṇa-guḍa-kṣobha (IE 8-5); sugar, the pro- duction of which was the monopoly of the king or landlord. Note: guḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
guda : (nt.) the anus.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
guḍa (गुड).—m S Raw sugar, inspissated juice of the sugarcane.
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guda (गुद).—n (S) gudadvāra n (S) The anus.
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gūḍa (गूड) [or ढ, ḍha].—n Sometimes the word bājarīcēṃ or jōndhaḷyācēṃ or gavhācēṃ is prefixed, and designates the corn accordingly. Sheaves or bundles (of jōndhaḷā, sajagurāṃ, wheat &c.) with the ear.
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gūda (गूद).—m Prickly itching and burning (in the system). v yē, suṭa. 2 fig. Vehemence, ardor, force (as of a disease, of rain &c.)Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
guḍa (गुड).—m Raw sugar, inspissated juice of the sugarcane.
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guda (गुद).—n The anus.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Guḍa (गुड).—a. Thick; मुखं मुकुन्दस्य गुडालकावृतम् (mukhaṃ mukundasya guḍālakāvṛtam) Bhāgavata 1.38.9. cf. गुडाकेशः (guḍākeśaḥ).
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1) Treacle, molasses; गुडधानाः (guḍadhānāḥ) Sk.; गुडौदनः (guḍaudanaḥ) Y.1. 34; गुडद्वितीयां हरीतकीं भक्षयेत् (guḍadvitīyāṃ harītakīṃ bhakṣayet) Suśr.
2) A globe, ball; साग्निः सगुडशृङ्गिका (sāgniḥ saguḍaśṛṅgikā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.15.8.
3) A ball for playing with.
4) A mouthful, bit.
5) An elephant's armour.
6) The cotton tree.
7) A pill; Śāraṅgdhara 13.1.
Derivable forms: guḍaḥ (गुडः).
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1) The cotton plant.
2) A pill.
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Guda (गुद).—The anus; intestine; rectum; आन्त्रेभ्यस्ते गुदाभ्यो वनिष्ठोर्हृदयादधि (āntrebhyaste gudābhyo vaniṣṭhorhṛdayādadhi) Ṛgveda 1.163.3; Y.3.93; Manusmṛti 5.136; 8.262.
-dā The anus; vein (nāḍī); सिन्धवो द्रुगुदा (sindhavo drugudā) Bṛ. Up.1.1.1.
Derivable forms: gudam (गुदम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Guḍa (गुड).—nt. (in Sanskrit m.), ball: Lalitavistara 339.11 (verse) kecit sumerusadṛśān (note m. form!) ayasā (v.l. °so) guḍāni… nikṣipanti.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ḍaḥ-ḍā-ḍaṃ) Round, globular, m.
(-ḍaḥ) 1. A globe or ball. 2. Treacle, molasses, the first thickening of the juice of the cane by boiling. 3. Anelephant's trappings or armour. 4. A mouthful. f.
(-ḍā) 1. A plant, (Euphorbia tirucalla:) see snuhī 2. Powder, pounded substance. E. guṅ to sound, affix ḍa.
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(-daṃ) The anus. E. gud to play, affix ka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Guḍa (गुड).—m. 1. A ball, Mahābhārata 7, 9212. 2. Molasses, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 326.
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Guda (गुद).—m. and n. The anus, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 283.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Guḍa (गुड).—[masculine] a globe or ball (also ka [masculine]); treacle, molasses, a pill (also guḍikā [feminine]); [plural] [Name] of a people.
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Guda (गुद).—[masculine] ([neuter]) the rectum or anus.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Guḍa (गुड):—m. (cf. guṭikā, gula; √guḍ, [Uṇādi-sūtra 1]) a globe or ball, [Mahābhārata iii, vii]
2) a ball to play with (cf. giri-), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) a pill, [Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā xiii, 1]
4) a bit, mouthful, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) sugar which forms itself into lumps, dry sugar, treacle, molasses, first thickening of the juice of the sugar-cane by boiling, [Kātyāyana; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.
6) an elephant’s trappings or armour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) the cotton tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) Euphorbia antiquorum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) ([plural]) Name of a people (in Madhya-deśa), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xiv, 3]
10) Guḍā (गुडा):—[from guḍa] f. a small ball, pill, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] the reed uśīrī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] Euphorbia antiquorum, [Caraka vii, 10]
13) Guda (गुद):—m. an intestine, entrail, rectum, anus, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā vi; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii, viii; Kauśika-sūtra] etc.
14) f(ā, ī). (ifc. ā [gana] krodādi [or ī [gana] bahv-ādi, not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti] and in [gana] śoṇādi])
15) n. idem
16) m. [dual number] with kauṣṭhyau, the two intestines, [Yājñavalkya iii, 95]
17) Gudā (गुदा):—[from guda] f. [plural] (gudās) the bowels, [Ṛg-veda x, 163, 3; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda ix-xi; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa x, xii.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Guḍa (गुड):—(śi) guḍati 6. a. To defend. (ki, i) guṇḍati, guṇḍayati 1. 10. a. To enclose; to pound.
2) (ḍaḥ) 1. m. A globe or ball; raw sugar; elephant’s trappings; a mouthful. ḍā f. A plant; a powder.
3) Guda (गुद):—(daṃ) 1. n. The anus.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Guḍa (गुड):—(nm) jaggery;—[khānā -gulagule se paraheja karanā/baira] to swallow a camel, to strain at a gnat; —[gobara karanā] to make a hash of, to mar a happy occasion; to undo all that has been done; —[dikhākara ḍhelā māranā] to commence with a caress and conclude with a stab; —[na de guḍa jaisī bāta kare/kaha de] a good word costs nothing; —[bharā haṃsiyā] a sugar-coated quinine pill; —[se mare to jahara kyoṃ de] ? why administer quinine, should sweet stuff serve the purpose ?
2) Gudā (गुदा):—(nf) the anus; ~[bhaṃjana/maithuna] act of sodomy; (fig.) undoing.
3) Gūdā (गूदा):—(nm) flesh (of fruits and vegetables, etc.) pulp; ~[dedāra] fleshy; pulpy.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Guḍa (गुड) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Guḍ.
2) Guḍa (गुड) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Guḍ.
3) Guḍa (गुड) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Guḍa.
4) Guḍā (गुडा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Guḍā.
5) Guda (गुद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Guda.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a dark, crude sugar from the sap of sugarcane; jaggery.
2) [noun] anything that is round or globular in shape, as a ball.
3) [noun] an armour that covers the back and the sides of a horse or elephant.
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Guda (ಗುದ):—[noun] the excretory opening at the lower end of the alimentary canal; the anus.
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Gūḍa (ಗೂಡ):—[noun] that which is kept or meant to be kept secret.
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Gūda (ಗೂದ):—[noun] = ಗೂಥ [gutha].
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+150): Gudabha, Gudabhramsha, Gudabija, Gudachi, Gudaci, Gudada, Gudadamalla, Gudadana, Gudadanem, Gudadaru, Gudadavanem, Gudadavinem, Gudadhana, Gudadhanika, Gudadhara, Gudadhavinem, Gudadhenu, Gudadhimamsa, Gudadi, Gudadidanapaddhati.
Ends with (+46): Adharaguda, Adhoguda, Aikenguda, Ainguda, Asamvritaguda, Ashmaguda, Ayoguda, Baddhaguda, Bahuguda, Bahushalaguda, Bhenguda, Bhrashtaguda, Buguda, Chodanaguda, Codanaguda, Duguda, Gadaguda, Ghanguda, Giriguda, Gudaguda.
Full-text (+224): Gudakesa, Gudakila, Gudankura, Gudodbhava, Gudara, Codanaguda, Gudatrina, Gudamula, Gudadhenu, Gudatvac, Gula, Gudapishta, Giriguda, Gudabhramsha, Gudavartman, Gudagraha, Gudasharkara, Gudadaru, Gudashaya, Gudatvaca.
Search found 31 books and stories containing Guda, Guḍa, Gūḍa, Gūda, Guḍā, Gudā, Gūdā; (plurals include: Gudas, Guḍas, Gūḍas, Gūdas, Guḍās, Gudās, Gūdās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Charaka Samhita (English translation) (by Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurvedic Society)
Chapter 10 - The Pharmaceutics of the Thorny Milk-hedge Plant (sudha-kalpa) < [Kalpasthana (Kalpa Sthana) — Section on Pharmaceutics]
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 11.94 < [Section VIII - Expiation of drinking Wine (surā)]
Verse 3.266 < [Section XXI - Relative Merits of the Offering-Materials]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
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