Madhura, aka: Madhurā, Mādhura; 17 Definition(s)
Madhura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Madhura—A taste (rasa), which is pleasant, proves comfortable to, and contributes to the life-preservation of a man, keeps his mouth moist, and increases the quantity of bodily Kapham, is called Sweet (Madhura).
A sweet taste is largely endued with attributes which specifically appertain to the material principles of earth (bhumi or pṛthivī) and water (toya or ap).
A sweet taste, which is possessed of the same properties as the Kapham, respectively increases the sweetness, oiliness, heaviness, coldness and sliminess of the latter with the help of similar properties of its own.
The tastes such as sweet, acid and saline are heavy and emollient in their character.
The tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are cold in their properties.
Tastes such as sweet, acid and saline are endued with the virtues of subduing Vāyu.
Tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are possessed of the virtue of subduing the deranged Pittam.
Virtue of Madhura—The sweet taste is possessed of the virtue of increasing the quantity of lymph-chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone marrow, albumen (ojas), semen, and milk in a parturient woman. It materially contributes to the growth of bones, strengthens the eyesight, favours the growth of hair, improves the complexion of the body, brings about the adhesion of fractured bones (Sandhanam), and purifies the blood and the lymph-chyle. Likewise, it proves wholesome to infants, old and weak men and ulcer-patients (suffering from Endocarditis—Urah-Kshata) and is most coveted by bees and ants. It exhilarates the mind as well as the five sense-organs, relieves thirst, swooning and a burning sensation of the body, and originates Kapham. Similarly, it favours the germination of intestinal parasites.
Largely and exclusively partaken of, it brings on cough, dyspnoea, flatulence (Alasaka), vomiting, sweet taste in the mouth, hoarseness of the voice (aphonia), worms in the intestines, tumours, elephantisis, Vasti-lepa (mucous deposit in the bladder), Gudopolepa (mucous or slimy deposit in the anus), and Abhisandya (ophthalmia), etc.(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Sweet (Madhura) decreases vata and pitta, increases kapha—Sweet has a cooling virya, with some exceptions, and a sweet vipak. Of all the six tastes, sweet is the most grounding and nourishing. It’s balancing to vata and pitta and, when eaten in moderation, promotes longevity, strength, and healthy bodily fluids and tissues. It’s the taste to emphasize for someone who is trying to gain weight, as it will quickly increase kapha when taken in excess. Its heavy, oily, moist qualities tend to slow down digestion, so it’s often suggested in ayurveda to eat dessert first. The sweet taste abounds in foods such as wheat, rice, maple syrup, brown rice syrup, agave nectar, dates, licorice root, and slippery elm bark.(Source): Gaiam life: The Six Tastes of Ayurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Madhurā (मधुरा).—Also Mathurā (s.v.).*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 49. 6; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 12. 4; IV. 4. 101.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Madhura (मधुर, “charming”) refers to one of the ten good qualities (guṇa) of a song (gīta), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 14.75-76, where they are commonly known as the gītaguṇa. The Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”) is a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra). Accordingly, “when the song fascinates the listener, it is charming (madhura)”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi
Madhura (मधुर, “sweet”) refers to a musical expression corresponding with sumatī (devotional), the eighth word of the elā composition (prabandha).—A sound which is delightful, even when it moves in the higher octave, is called sweet (madhura).(Source): Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Itihasa (narrative history)
Madhura (मधुर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.66) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Madhura) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Madhura (मधुर) or Madhuradhvani refers to one of the ten kinds of sounds (śabda) according to the Padārthādarśā of Rāghavabhaṭṭa.(Source): academia.edu: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Madhura. The capital of Surasena, situated on the Yamuna. Its king, soon after the death of Bimbisara, was Avantiputta (M.ii.83), who, judging by his name, was probably related to the royal family of Ujjeni. Madhura was visited by the Buddha (A.ii.57; iii.256), but there is no record of his having stayed there. In fact, the Madhura Sutta (2) (q.v.) states that he viewed the city with distinct disfavour. But Maha Kaccana evidently liked it, for he stayed there in the Gundavana, and was visited there by the king of the city, Avantiputta (M.ii.83), and the brahmin Kandarayana (A.i.67). One of the most important suttas on caste, the Madhura Sutta 1, was preached to Avantiputta by Maha Kaccana at Madhura. Perhaps it was through the agency of Maha Kaccana that Buddhism gained ground in Madhura. Already in the Buddhas time there were, in and around Madhura, those who accepted his teachings, for the Anguttara Nikaya (A.ii.57) mentions that once when he was journeying from Madhura to Veranja and stopped under a tree by the wayside, a large number of householders, both men and women, came and worshipped him. Later, about 300 B.C., Madhura became a Jain centre (CHI.i.167), but when Fa Hsien (Giles, p. 20) and Hiouen Thsang visited it, Buddhism was flourishing there, and there were many sangharamas and stupas. Beal.i.179ff.; for a prophecy (attributed to the Buddha) regarding the future greatness of Madhura, see Dvy.348ff.
From Sankassa to Madhura was a distance of four yojanas (thus in Kaccayanas Grammar, iii.1).
Madhura is sometimes referred to as Uttara Madhura, to distinguish it from a city of the same name in South India. Thus, in the Vimanavatthu Commentary (VvA.118f), a woman of Uttara Madhura is mentioned as having been born in Tavatimsa as a result of having given alms to the Buddha.
The Ghata Jataka (J.iv.79ff) speaks of Mahasagara as the king of Uttara Madhura, and relates what is evidently the story of Kamsas attempt to tyrannize over Madhura by overpowering the Yadavas and his consequent death at the hands of Krsna, a story which is found both in the Epics and in the Puranas. This Jataka confirms the Brahmanical tradition as to the association of Vasudevas family with Madhura (PHAL, p. 89).
There is a story (Cv.xcii.23ff ) of a king called Mahasena of Pataliputta, who was very generous in feeding the monks, and once thought of giving alms by cultivating a piece of land himself. He, therefore, went to Uttara Madhura in disguise, worked as a labourer, and held an almsgiving with the gains so obtained.
Madhura is generally identified with Maholi, five miles to the Southeast of the present town of Mathura or Muttra. It is the Modura of Ptolemy and the Methoras of Pliny (CAGI. 427f).
The Milindapanha (p. 331) refers to Madhura as one of the chief cities of India.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)
Madhura (मधुर, “Sweet”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., madhura). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
General definition (in Jainism)
Madhura (मधुर, “sweet”) refers to one of the five types of Rasa (taste) which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma (eg., madhura).(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Madhurā (मधुरा) or Mathurā.—Hathipumpha inscription of Khāravala refers to the city called Madhurā, i.e.. Mathurā, the famous city of the Śūrasenas. In five other inscriptions, four discovered from Mathurā or from its neighbourhood and one discovered at Bandhogarh, mention the persons belonging to this city. The mention of the inhabitants of Mathurā in Jaina inscriptions of the Kushana period is a proof of its being the centre of Jainism during that period. The majority of the inscriptions found at Mathura are Jain in character. An inscription of the time of Candragupta II dated in the year 61 of the Gupta era refers to Śaiva establishments of the Lakulīśa sect in this city.(Source): archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
madhura : (adj.) sweet. (nt.) sweet thing.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Madhura, (adj.) (fr. madhu) 1. sweet Sn. 50; J. III, 493; V, 324; Pv. II, 67; PvA. 119, 147.—2. of intoxicating sweetness, liquor-like, intoxicating J. IV, 117.—3. (nt.) sweetness, sweet drink Dh. 363; J. I, 271 (catu° the 4 sweet drinks, used as cure after poison); Dhs. 629; DhsA. 320.—4. (nt.) flattery, praise SnA 287 (opp. avaṇṇa).
—rasa sweet (i.e. honey-) juice, sweet liquor DhA. II, 50; PvA. 119. —ssara sweet-sounding VvA. 57; PvA. 151; Mhvs 5, 32. (Page 519)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
madhura (मधुर).—a (S) Sweet. 2 Sweet, in all its figurative senses.
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madhurā (मधुरा).—m A fever of a putrid type, characterized by the eruption of spots about the throat, and sometimes by coma or delirium; then termed vēḍā madhurā.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
madhura (मधुर).—a Sweet. madhurāī f Sweetness.
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madhurā (मधुरा).—m A fever of a putrid type.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Madhura (मधुर).—a. [madhu-mādhuryaṃ rāti rā-ka, madhu-astyarthe ra vā]
1) Sweet; यथा प्रकृत्या मधुरं गवां पयः (yathā prakṛtyā madhuraṃ gavāṃ payaḥ) H.
2) Honied, mellifluous.
3) Pleasant, charming, attractive, agreeable; अहो मधुरमासां दर्शनम् (aho madhuramāsāṃ darśanam) Ś.1; Ku.5.9; Māl.2.11; किमिव हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम् (kimiva hi madhurāṇāṃ maṇḍanaṃ nākṛtīnām) Ś.1.2; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी (madhurayā madhubodhitamādhavī) ... Śi.6.2.
4) Melodious (as a sound); पुंस्कोकिलोऽयं मधुरं चुकूज (puṃskokilo'yaṃ madhuraṃ cukūja) Ku. 3.32.
-raḥ 1 The red sugar-cane.
3) A kind of sugar, molassess (guḍa).
4) A kind of mango.
-rā 1 Liquorice.
2) Sour ricewater.
3) Name of the city Mathurā.
4) Name of plants like काकोली, शतावण, बृहज्जीवन्ती (kākolī, śatāvaṇa, bṛhajjīvantī).
5) Sweet fennel (Mar. baḍīśepa).
-rī A kind of musical instrument.
-ram 1 Sweetness.
2) A sweet drink, syrup.
-ram ind. Sweetly, pleasantly, agreeably. (madhureṇa ind. in a kindly or friendly manner; nahi duryodhano rājyaṃ madhureṇa pradāsyati Mb.5.4.1.)
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Mādhura (माधुर).—[madhura-aṇ] The flower of the Mallikā creeper.
Derivable forms: mādhuram (माधुरम्).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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vēḍā madhurā (वेडा मधुरा).—m Fever of a putrid type with coma. See madhurā.
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Madhuravipāka (मधुरविपाक).—a. sweet after digestion. Madhuravipāka is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Sumadhura (सुमधुर).—a very sweet or gentle speech, agreeable words. Derivable forms: sumadhuram...
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Search found 37 books and stories containing Madhura, Madhurā or Mādhura. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 3.5.19 < [Part 5 - Conjugal Love (mādhurya-rasa)]
Verse 3.5.1 < [Part 5 - Conjugal Love (mādhurya-rasa)]
Verse 3.3.56 < [Part 3 - Fraternal Devotion (sakhya-rasa)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.151 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 2.7.19 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Verse 2.2.219 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter LXIII - Different Combinations of six different Rasas < [Canto V - Tantra-bhusana-adhyaya (embellishing chapters)]
Chapter XXVI - Treatment of diseases of the head < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter LVII - Symptoms and Treatment of aversion to food (Arochaka) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Guide to Tipitaka (by U Ko Lay)