Kumari, Kumārī, Kumāri: 20 definitions

Introduction

Kumari means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kumārī (कुमारी) is another name for Mallikā (Jasminum sambac “Sambac jasmine”), from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kumārī (कुमारी) is another name for Vandhyākarkoṭakī, a medicinal plant identified with Momordica dioica (spiny gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.61-63 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Kumārī and Vandhyākarkoṭakī, there are a total of nineteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kumārī (कुमारी) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Aloe barbadensis Mill.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kumārī] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Kumārī (कुमारी) is a Sanskrit technical term referring an “unmarried daughter ”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 9.131)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Kumārī (कुमारी).—One of the seven major rivers in Śākadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 86. Śākadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Medhātithi, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Kumārī (कुमारी) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Kumārī) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kumārī (कुमारी).—A princess of the Kekaya kingdom. She was the mother of Pratiśravas, and wife of Bhīmasena, a King of the Puru dynasty. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 43).

2) Kumārī (कुमारी).—In verse 31, Chapter 23 of the Vana Parva, it is stated that certain maidens were born from the body of Skanda. They were called Kumārīs and they used to eat unborn children in the womb of their mothers.

3) Kumārī (कुमारी).—Wife of the serpent called Dhanañjaya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 17).

4) Kumārī (कुमारी).—A river in ancient India. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 36).

5) Kumārī (कुमारी).—A river in the Śāka island. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 32).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kumārī (कुमारी).—A daughter of Lalitā aged nine, and trained in military art. Attacked and slew all the sons of Bhaṇḍa to the joy of the Śakti troops;1 goddess enshrined at Māyāpurī.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 26. 73-117.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 34.

1b) A R. from the Śuktimat hill.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 38; Matsya-purāṇa 163. 86.

1c) (siddhā)—A river of Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 96; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 81; 49. 92; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 65.

1d) Noted for Candratīrtha.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 28.

2) Kumāri (कुमारि).—Cape Comorin, fit for śrāddha offerings.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 11; III. 13. 28.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kumārī (कुमारी) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.34). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumārī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kumārī also refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.86.11).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Kumārī (कुमारी).—The name of a plant, possibly identified with Aloe indica. It is used in various alchemical processess related to mercury (rasa or liṅga), according to the Rasārṇavakalpa (11th-century work dealing with Rasaśāstra).

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Sreenivasarao's blog: Saptamatrka (part 4)

Kumari or Kaumari refers to one of the seven mother-like goddesses (Matrika).—The Matrikas emerge as shaktis from out of the bodies of the gods: Kaumari from Skanda. The order of the Saptamatrka usually begins with Brahmi symbolizing creation. Then, Vaishnavi and Maheshvari. Then, Kaumari, Guru-guha, the intimate guide in the cave of one’s heart, inspires aspirations to develop and evolve.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kumārī (कुमारी, “maidens”) refers to one of the classes of “women” (strī) who have dealings with the king, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “girls who have no experience of love’s enjoyment (rati-saṃbhoga), and are quiet, devoid of rashness, modest, and bashful, are said to be maidens (kumārī)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Kumārī (कुमारी) in both Sanskrit and Prakrit refers to the plant Elettaria cardamomum Maton. This plant is classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to both Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246) and Hemacandra (in his Yogaśāstra 3.44-46). Those plants which are classified as ananta-kāyas (eg., kumārī) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kumārī : (f.) a girl; virgin.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kumārī, (f.) a young girl Vin. II, 10; V, 129 (thulla°); A. III, 76; J. III, 395 (daharī k°); Pug. 66 (itthī vā k° vā).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kumarī (कुमरी).—f See kumbarī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kumārī (कुमारी).—f An unmarried girl, a young virgin. Aloe plant.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumārī (कुमारी).—

1) A young girl, one from 1 to 12 years old.

2) A maiden, virgin; त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यृतुमती सती (trīṇi varṣāṇyudīkṣeta kumāryṛtumatī satī) Ms.9.9;11.59; व्यावर्ततान्योपगमात्कुमारी (vyāvartatānyopagamātkumārī) R.6.69.

3) A girl or daughter in general.

4) Name of Durgā.

5) Name of several plants (Mar. koraphaḍa, karṭaulī, kāṃṭeśevaṃtī, baṭamogarā i.)

6) Name of Sītā.

7) Large cardamoms.

8) The southern extremity of the Indian peninsula (cf. the modern name Cape Comorin).

See also (synonyms): kumārikā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kumārī (कुमारी).—(1) , name of four female deities (mahāyakṣiṇyaḥ (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 575.10), also called Bhaginī, q.v., and noted only in (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa; they have a brother called Kumāra (but ap- parently not = Kārttikeya), 45.17; 518.14; but his real name seems to have been Tumburu (otherwise known in Sanskrit as a gandharva), 537.7; 538.1, et alibi; 575.10; in 538.1; 542.9 he is called sārthavāha; otherwise they may be simply bhrātṛ-pañcamāḥ, 44.25; they are to be por- trayed standing on ships and living in the ocean, 44.25; 45.17; 575.11; they are called Kumārī 45.17; 518.14; 575.10, but Bhaginī 17.4; 44.25; 519.8 ff. The last begins a long passage dealing with them, extending to p. 546, in which repeatedly their names appear as Jayā, Vijayā, Ajitā, and Aparājitā (523.6 ff.; 528.2, 9 ff.; 537.7 ff.; 539.7, 25; 540.5; 543.3 ff.); (2) name of one specific yakṣiṇī (hardly one of the above-mentioned four): (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 567.11; 569.5; also called (yakṣa-) Kumārikā (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 569.4.

--- OR ---

Kumārī (कुमारी) or Bhaginī.—(1), q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kumārī (कुमारी):—[from kumāra] a f. a young girl, one from ten to twelve years old, maiden, daughter, [Atharva-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] or (in the Tantras) any virgin up to the age of sixteen or before menstruation has commenced

3) [v.s. ...] Name of certain flags (set up along with Indra’s banner), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Bhīma-sena (son of Parīkṣit), [Mahābhārata i, 3796]

5) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Vasu-deva by Rohiṇī, [Harivaṃśa 1952]

6) [v.s. ...] of Sītā (Rāma’s wife), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] of the goddess Durgā, [Harivaṃśa 9425]

8) [v.s. ...] of Dākṣāyaṇī (in Māyā-purī), [Matsya-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] of a metre (a kind of Śakvarī, consisting of four lines of sixteen syllables each)

10) [v.s. ...] the bird commonly called Śyāmā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] the plant Aloe perfoliata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] the plant Clitoria ternatea (= a-parājitā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] the plant Jasminum Sambac, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] the plant commonly called bandhyā-karkoṭakī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] the blossom of the plants Taruṇī and Modinī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] great cardamoms, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] the most southerly of the nine portions of the known continent or of Jambū-dvīpa (the southern extremity of the peninsula, whence the modern name Cape Comorin [Kumārī]), [Horace H. Wilson]

18) [v.s. ...] the central part of the universe (according to Hindū geography, Jambū-dvīpa or India), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a river flowing from the mountain Śuktimat, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

20) [v.s. ...] of another river, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

21) [v.s. ...] (when a name is given to a pupil to indicate his attachment to any particular master, kumārī may be prefixed to denote that the pupil’s object is to gain the affections of the master’s daughter e.g. kumārī-dākṣa q.v. sub voce kumārī)

22) Kumāri (कुमारि):—[from kumāra] (shortened for q.v.; cf. [Pāṇini 6-3, 63]).

23) Kumārī (कुमारी):—[from kumāra] b f. of ra q.v.

24) [v.s. ...] mfn. desirous of a daughter, [Pāṇini 1-4, 3; Patañjali]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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