Udumbara, Uḍumbara, Uduṃbara: 22 definitions
Udumbara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Udumbara (उदुम्बर):—One of the eighteen types of Kuṣṭha (“skin disease”), according to the Caraka-saṃhitā (cikitsāsthāna), which is an important Sanskrit work dealing with Āyurveda. This condition of the skin (kuṣṭha) is caused by the corruption of the three doṣas (tridoṣa: vāta, pitta and kapha) which in turn corrupts the skin, blood, muscle and lymph. Udumbara-kuṣṭha is characterized by buring sensations, itching and pain, red colors with brown hair and resemble the udumbara fruit. Udumbara is caused by a preponderance of Kapha-doṣa (‘bodily phlegm’).
2) Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a Sanskrit word [probably] referring to Ficus racemosa (Indian fig tree), in the Moraceae family. Certain plant parts of Udumbara are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. It is a deciduous tree with few aerial roots. The bark has a soft surface. The flowers bear pleasantly fragrant orange to crimson fruits. It grows all over India.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—The Sanskrit name for an important Āyurvedic drug.—Udumbara is regarded as the best one among the milky trees. It is astringent, cold, pacifies kapha and pitta and checks diarrhoea.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
1) Udumbara (उदुम्बर) or Uduṃbara (उदुंबर) refers to a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Mahābhārata Anuśāsanaparva 53.19 , and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We can see the description of flowering and fruit bearing plants in Ṛgveda. But we come across the specific names of them only in the later Saṃhita and Brāhmaṇa literature. [...] From the epics, we know that the hermits generally lived on fruits, roots and tubers. [...] Mahābhārata prohibits the usage of certain fruits like the fruits of plakṣa, aśvattha, pippala and uduṃbara trees for the persons who are desirous of glory.
Udumbara or “custard apple” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., udumbara (custard apple)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., paryuṣitodaka] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
2) Uduṃbara (उदुंबर) refers to a sweet food-preparation, according to the Mānasollāsa III.1386-87.—It mentions sweets such as kāsāra, uduṃbara and varṣopalagolaka prepared with wheat flour and rice flour. Kṣīraprakāra which is similar to rasgulla according to Om Prakash is referred to in Mānasollāsa. Svapnavāsavadatta describes modaka as a sweet ball. Naiṣadhīyacarita refers to the sweet laḍḍuka which is a very common sweet even today.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Ficus glomerata by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as udumbara) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—A Trayārṣeya.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 198. 20.
1b) Belong to Kauśikagotra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 70; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 98.
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIII.4.27, XIII.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Udumbara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: Mālatīmādhava of Bhavabhūti
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to the family name of the ancestors of Bhavabhūti.—Bhavabhūti’s ancestors were Brāḥmaṇas of the Taittirīya branch of the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda. They belonged to the kāśyapa-gotra. They were very pious Brāḥmaṇas who observed vratas, performed Vedic sacrifices like the vājapeya and maintained the sacred fires. They were so venerated for their Vedic learning and piety that they came to be regarded as paṅktipāvana. They were known by the family name of Udumbara and they were expounders of the philosophy of Braḥman.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Udumbara - A thera of Makuva, author of a tika on the Petakopadesa. Gv.75, 65.
2. Udumbara - A village. Revata went there from Kannakujja and stopped there before proceeding to Aggalapura and Sahajati. Thither the Elders followed him to ask his opinion on the Vajjian heresy. Vin.ii.299.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Kāyacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the kāyacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Udumbara is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Akhaṇḍita and with the hell-guardian (narakapāla) named Udumbarī.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.
Different kinds of trees (eg., the Udumbara tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to five kinds of fruits that are forbidden to eat, listed under the khādima category of forbidden food (āhāra), according to Amitagati in his 11th century Śrāvakācāra (v6.96-97). For Amitagati, in the Subhāṣita-ratna-sandoha (v21.13), the common characteristic of meat (māṃsa), alcohol (madya), and honey (madhu) is their aphrodisiac quality. The udumbaras, perhaps because they live long and have nutritive fruits, perhaps because of their milky latex, have been identified with the source of all fertility, and possibly owing to the ceaseless rustling of their leaves have been regarded as homes of the spirits of the dead.
The udumbaras are the fruits of five trees of the genus Ficus:
- umbara, udumbara (Ficus glomerata Roxb.),
- vaṭa, nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis),
- pippala, aśvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.),
- plakṣa (Ficus infectoria Roxb.),
- kakombari, guphala (Ficus oppositifolia Willd.).
In the older texts the udumbaras are not ananta-kāyas though the sixteenth-century Digambara Rājamalla (Lāṭī-saṃhitā v2.79) says explicitly that the word udumbara is the symbolic representation (upalakṣaṇa) for the sādhāraṇa plants. The reason for not eating them is that they are full of innumerable tiny insects and of invisible living organisms, the epithet kṛmi-kulākula which is often applied to meat being used of them.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
Udumbara is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Its forest on the western sea shore is mentioned.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Udumbara), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Udumbara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Udumbara.—(LP), ‘threshold’; cf. gṛh-odumbara-madhye, ‘into the house’; cf. umbara-bheda. Note: udumbara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
udumbara : (m.) the glamorous fig tree.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Udumbara, (Sk. udumbara) the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D. II, 4; Vin. IV, 35; A. IV, 283 (°khādika), 283 (id.), 324 (id.); Sn. 5; DhA. I, 284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; VvA. 213. Cp. odumbara. (Page 135)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
udumbara (उदुंबर).—m (S) Glomerous fig-tree, Ficus glomerata.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Uḍumbara (उडुम्बर).—1 Name of a tree; Ficus Glomearata (Mar. audumbara).
2) The threshold of a house. उच्छ्रायात् पादविस्तीर्णा शाखा तद्वदुदुम्बरः (ucchrāyāt pādavistīrṇā śākhā tadvadudumbaraḥ) Bṛ. S.53.26.
3) A eunuch.
4) A part of a sacrifice.
5) A kind of leprosy with copper spots (-ram also).
6) A kind of worm said to be produced in the blood and to cause leprosy.
-ram 1 The fruit of the उदुम्बर (udumbara) tree.
3) A Karṣa, a measure of two tolās.
Derivable forms: uḍumbaraḥ (उडुम्बरः).
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Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—See उडुम्बर (uḍumbara). Threshold; विद्रुमोदुम्बरद्वारैर्वैदूर्यस्तम्भपङ्क्तिभिः (vidrumodumbaradvārairvaidūryastambhapaṅktibhiḥ) Bhāg.9.11.32. °मशक (maśaka) = कूपमण्डूक (kūpamaṇḍūka) q. v.
Derivable forms: udumbaraḥ (उदुम्बरः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—(= Pali id., n. of a village? compare also Lévi p. 94), n. of a town: Māy 51 (°re, loc.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. Glomerous fig tree, (Ficus glomirata, Rox.) 2. The threshold of a house. 3. A eunuch. 4. A species of leprosy with coppery spots. 5. A kind of worm, supposed to be generated in the blood, and to produce leprosy. n. (-ra) 1. Copper. 2. A Karsha, a measure of two Tolas. E. uḍu a constellation in the second case, vṛ to screen, and ap affix; it is also written ūḍumbara and udumbara.
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(-raḥ) 1. The glomerous fig tree, (Ficus glomerata.) 2. A kind of leprosy. 3. A threshold. 4. A eunuch. n.
(-raṃ) Copper; see uḍumbara, it is also written ūḍumbara.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+71): Audumbara, Udumbaradala, Umbara, Odumbara, Udumbaraparni, Pancavalkala, Kshiravriksha, Plaksha, Ashvattha, Yajnodumbara, Pippala, Mashakin, Nyagrodha, Kakombari, Kakodumbarika, Guphala, Valimukha, Audumbaraka, Sthali, Udumbaramashaka.
Search found 58 books and stories containing Udumbara, Uḍumbara, Uduṃbara; (plurals include: Udumbaras, Uḍumbaras, Uduṃbaras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
Chapter LXIII < [Book X - Śaktiyaśas]
Introduction to the tradition of Betel-chewing < [Appendix 8.2 - The Romance of Betel-Chewing]
Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang) (by Samuel Beal)
Chapter 7 - Country of Pun-nu-tso (Punacha) < [Book III - Eight Countries]
Chapter 17 - Plants and Trees, Agriculture, Food, Drink and Cookery in India < [Book II - Three Countries]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 14 - The appearance of the Buddha and the flower of an Udumbara < [Chapter VIII - The Bodhisattvas]
Appendix 3 - Buddha’s sermon to the Trāyastriṃśa gods < [Chapter XLII - The Great Loving-kindness and the Great Compassion of the Buddhas]
Appendix 3 - Descent of Buddha from the Trāyastriṃśa heaven < [Chapter XVI - The Story of Śāriputra]
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 6, brāhmaṇa 1 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa VI, adhyāya 6, brāhmaṇa 3 < [Sixth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa IX, adhyāya 2, brāhmaṇa 2 < [Ninth Kāṇḍa]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 2.45 < [Section XIII - Initiation (upanayana)]
Verse 4.39 < [Section IX - Personal Cleanliness]
Verse 8.246 < [Section XL - Disputes regarding Boundaries]
Hiranyakesi-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)