Udumbara, aka: Uḍumbara; 17 Definition(s)


Udumbara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Udumbara in Ayurveda glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

1) Udumbara (उदुम्बर):—One of the eighteen types of Kuṣṭha (“skin disease”), according to the Caraka-saṃhitā (cikitsāsthāna), which is an important Sanskrit work dealing with Āyurveda. This condition of the skin (kuṣṭha) is caused by the corruption of the three doṣas (tridoṣa: vāta, pitta and kapha) which in turn corrupts the skin, blood, muscle and lymph. Udumbara-kuṣṭha is characterized by buring sensations, itching and pain, red colors with brown hair and resemble the udumbara fruit. Udumbara is caused by a preponderance of Kapha-doṣa (‘bodily phlegm’).

2) Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a Sanskrit word [probably] referring to Ficus racemosa (Indian fig tree), in the Moraceae family. Certain plant parts of Udumbara are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. It is a deciduous tree with few aerial roots. The bark has a soft surface. The flowers bear pleasantly fragrant orange to crimson fruits. It grows all over India.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—The Sanskrit name for an important Āyurvedic drug.—Udumbara is regarded as the best one among the milky trees. It is astringent, cold, pacifies kapha and pitta and checks diarrhoea.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Ficus glomerata by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as udumbara) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Udumbara in Purana glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

1a) Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—A Trayārṣeya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 198. 20.

1b) Belong to Kauśikagotra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 70; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 98.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIII.4.27, XIII.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Udumbara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Udumbara in Kavya glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to the family name of the ancestors of Bhavabhūti.—Bhavabhūti’s ancestors were Brāḥmaṇas of the Taittirīya branch of the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda. They belonged to the kāśyapa-gotra. They were very pious Brāḥmaṇas who observed vratas, performed Vedic sacrifices like the vājapeya and maintained the sacred fires. They were so venerated for their Vedic learning and piety that they came to be regarded as paṅktipāvana. They were known by the family name of Udumbara and they were expounders of the philosophy of Braḥman.

Source: Shodhganga: Mālatīmādhava of Bhavabhūti
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Udumbara in Theravada glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

1. Udumbara - A thera of Makuva, author of a tika on the Petakopadesa. Gv.75, 65.

2. Udumbara - A village. Revata went there from Kannakujja and stopped there before proceeding to Aggalapura and Sahajati. Thither the Elders followed him to ask his opinion on the Vajjian heresy. Vin.ii.299.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Udumbara in Jainism glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Udumbara tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) refers to five kinds of fruits that are forbidden to eat, listed under the khādima category of forbidden food (āhāra), according to Amitagati in his 11th century Śrāvakācāra (v6.96-97). For Amitagati, in the Subhāṣita-ratna-sandoha (v21.13), the common characteristic of meat (māṃsa), alcohol (madya), and honey (madhu) is their aphrodisiac quality. The udumbaras, perhaps because they live long and have nutritive fruits, perhaps because of their milky latex, have been identified with the source of all fertility, and possibly owing to the ceaseless rustling of their leaves have been regarded as homes of the spirits of the dead.

The udumbaras are the fruits of five trees of the genus Ficus:

  1. umbara, udumbara (Ficus glomerata Roxb.),
  2. vaṭa, nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis),
  3. pippala, aśvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.),
  4. plakṣa (Ficus infectoria Roxb.),
  5. kakombari, guphala (Ficus oppositifolia Willd.).

In the older texts the udumbaras are not ananta-kāyas though the sixteenth-century Digambara Rājamalla (Lāṭī-saṃhitā v2.79) says explicitly that the word udumbara is the symbolic representation (upalakṣaṇa) for the sādhāraṇa plants. The reason for not eating them is that they are full of innumerable tiny insects and of invisible living organisms, the epithet kṛmi-kulākula which is often applied to meat being used of them.

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Udumbara is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Its forest on the western sea shore is mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Udumbara), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Udumbara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Udumbara.—(LP), ‘threshold’; cf. gṛh-odumbara-madhye, ‘into the house’; cf. umbara-bheda. Note: udumbara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Udumbara in Pali glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

udumbara : (m.) the glamorous fig tree.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Udumbara, (Sk. udumbara) the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D. II, 4; Vin. IV, 35; A. IV, 283 (°khādika), 283 (id.), 324 (id.); Sn. 5; DhA. I, 284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; VvA. 213. Cp. odumbara. (Page 135)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Udumbara in Marathi glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

udumbara (उदुंबर).—m (S) Glomerous fig-tree, Ficus glomerata.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Udumbara in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

Uḍumbara (उडुम्बर).—1 Name of a tree; Ficus Glomearata (Mar. audumbara).

2) The threshold of a house. उच्छ्रायात् पादविस्तीर्णा शाखा तद्वदुदुम्बरः (ucchrāyāt pādavistīrṇā śākhā tadvadudumbaraḥ) Bṛ. S.53.26.

3) A eunuch.

4) A part of a sacrifice.

5) A kind of leprosy with copper spots (-ram also).

6) A kind of worm said to be produced in the blood and to cause leprosy.

-ram 1 The fruit of the उदुम्बर (udumbara) tree.

2) Copper.

3) A Karṣa, a measure of two tolās.

Derivable forms: uḍumbaraḥ (उडुम्बरः).

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Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—See उडुम्बर (uḍumbara). Threshold; विद्रुमोदुम्बरद्वारैर्वैदूर्यस्तम्भपङ्क्तिभिः (vidrumodumbaradvārairvaidūryastambhapaṅktibhiḥ) Bhāg.9.11.32. °मशक (maśaka) = कूपमण्डूक (kūpamaṇḍūka) q. v.

Derivable forms: udumbaraḥ (उदुम्बरः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—(= Pali id., n. of a village? compare also Lévi p. 94), n. of a town: Māy 51 (°re, loc.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Uḍumbara (उडुम्बर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Glomerous fig tree, (Ficus glomirata, Rox.) 2. The threshold of a house. 3. A eunuch. 4. A species of leprosy with coppery spots. 5. A kind of worm, supposed to be generated in the blood, and to produce leprosy. n. (-ra) 1. Copper. 2. A Karsha, a measure of two Tolas. E. uḍu a constellation in the second case, vṛ to screen, and ap affix; it is also written ūḍumbara and udumbara.

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Udumbara (उदुम्बर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. The glomerous fig tree, (Ficus glomerata.) 2. A kind of leprosy. 3. A threshold. 4. A eunuch. n.

(-raṃ) Copper; see uḍumbara, it is also written ūḍumbara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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