Jivaka, Jīvaka: 17 definitions
Jivaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Jīvaka (जीवक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Malaxis acuminate D. Don” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning jīvaka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Jīvaka (जीवक) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant possibly identified with Microstylis wallichii Lindl., which is a synonym of Crepidium acuminatum (D.Don) Szlach. from the Orchidaceae or “orchid” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.11-13 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.
Jīvaka is mentioned as having fifteen synonyms: Jīvana, Jīvya, Śṛṅgāhva, Prāṇada, Priya, Cirajīvī, Madhura, Maṅgalya, Kūrcaśīrṣaka, Hrasvāṅga, Vṛddhida, Āyuṣmān, Jīvada, Dīrghāyu and Balada.
Properties and characteristics: “Jīvaka is cooling (śīta), sweet (madhura). It alleviates raktapitta (bleeding tendency), vāta-doṣa and pains. It cures tuberculosis, fevers and burning sensation and increases kapha and the formation of semen”.Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā
Jīvaka (जीवक) refers to Malaxis acuminata D. Don., and is the name of a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—Note: Malaxis acuminata D. Don. is a synonym of Microstylis wallichii Lindl—(Cf. Indian Medicinal Plants, Arya Vaidya Sala 3:367, 1993-96.).—“This is one of the group of eight drugs called aṣṭavarga, about whose identity nothing definite is known. … ”.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 170, Singh and Chunekar, 1999).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Jivaka Komarabhacca - A celebrated physician. He was the son of Salavati, a courtesan of Rajagaha. (AA. (i.216) says that Abhayarajakumara was his father). Directly after birth the child was placed in a basket and thrown on a dust heap, from where he was rescued by Abhayarajakumara. When questioned by Abhaya, people said he was alive (jivati), and therefore the child was called Jivaka; because he was brought up by the prince (kumarena posapito), he was called Komarabhacca. It has been suggested, however, that Komarabhacca meant master of the Kaumarabhrtya science (the treatment of infants); VT.ii.174; in Dvy. (506-18) he is called Kumarabhuta.
When grown up, he learnt of his antecedents, and going to Takkasila without Abhayas knowledge, studied medicine for seven years. His teacher then gave him a little money and sent him away as being fit to practise medicine. His first patient was the setthis wife at Saketa, and for curing her he received sixteen thousand kahapanas, a manservant, a maid servant and a coach with horses. When he returned to Rajagaha, Abhaya established him in his own residence. There he cured Bimbisara of a troublesome fistula and received as reward all the ornaments of Bimbisaras five hundred wives. He was appointed physician to the king and the kings women and also to the fraternity of monks with the Buddha at its head. Other cures of Jivakas included that of the setthi of Rajagaha on whom he performed the operation of trepanning, and of the son of the setthi of Benares who had suffered from chronic intestinal trouble due to misplacement, and for this case Jivaka received sixteen thousand kahapanas.
When Candappajjota, king of Ujjeni, was ill, Bimbisara lent Jivaka to him. Candappajjota hated ghee, which was, however, the only remedy. Jivaka prepared the medicine, prescribed it for the king, then rode away on the kings elephant Bhaddavatika before the king discovered the nature of the medicine. Pajjota, in a rage, ordered his capture and sent his slave Kaka after him. Kaka discovered Jivaka breakfasting at Kosambi and allowed himself to be persuaded to eat half a myrobalan, which purged him violently. Jivaka explained to Kaka that he wished to delay his return; he told him why he had fled from the court and, having returned the elephant, proceeded to Rajagaha. Pajjota was cured and, as a token of his favour, sent Jivaka a suit of Siveyyaka cloth, which Jivaka presented to the Buddha (Vin.i.268-81; AA.i.216). Jivaka was greatly attracted by the Buddha. Once when the Buddha was ill, Jivaka found it necessary to administer a purge, and he had fat rubbed into the Buddhas body and gave him a handful of lotuses to smell. Jivaka was away when the purgative acted,
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Jīvaka (जीवक) is the name of a place at Rājagṛha where was located the stoppig-place, or vihāra named Ambavana, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter V. Rājagṛha is the name of a sacred city where the Buddha was dwelling at the beginning of the discourse in the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra.
2) Jīvaka (जीवक) is the son of king Bimbisāra and Āmrapāli according to a note at “story of Bimbisāra” from the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII).—Āmrapāli was born miraculously in the flower of a mango-tree belonging to a Brāhman in Vaiśālī. The Brāhman adopted Āmrapāli and made her a courtesan. Seven kings disputed over the favors of the young lady; Bimbasāra, king of Magadha, even though he was at war with the Licchavi of Vaiśālī, surreptitiously entered the city, penetrated into the tower where Āmrapāli was shut up and amused himself with her for a week. Āmrapālī bore him a son who later became the famous physician Jīvaka.
Note: According to the Sarvāstivādin Vinaya, the son of Bimbisāra and Āmrapālī was called Abhaya (Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 2, p. 22), while Jīvaka was the son of Bimbisāra and the wife of a merchant whose name is not given. In the Pāli sources, Vimala-Kondañña is given as the son of Bimbisāra and Āmrapālī (Theragāthā Comm., I, p. 146): Jīvaka’s father was Abhaya-Rājakumāra—one of Bimbisāra’s sons—and his mother, a courtesan of Rājagṛha called Sālavati.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
jīvaka : (m.) one who lives; a personal name.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Jīvaka, (adj.)=jīva, in bandhu° N. of a plant VvA. 43.—f. °ikā q. v. (Page 285)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Jīvaka (जीवक).—a. [jīv-ṇic ṇvul]
1) Living, making a livelihood by, generating &c.
2) One who lives a long time.
-kaḥ 1 A living being.
2) A servant.
3) A Buddhist mendicant, any mendicant who lives by begging.
4) A usurer.
5) A snake-catcher.
6) A tree.
7) A medicinal plant of that name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Jīvaka (जीवक).—(= Pali id.), name of a physician and follower of Buddha (called in Pali Komārabhacca, in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] Kumāra- bhṛta, °bhūta, qq.v.): Divyāvadāna 270.12 ff.; 506.2 ff.; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.25.5 ff.; has epithet Vaidyarāja(n) Kāśyapa Parivarta 96.2, 3; Śikṣāsamuccaya 159.8, 12 (here, amazingly, Bendall and Rouse translate vaidyarāja as n. pr. (proper name) and jīvaka as adj., when alive!). See also Jīvika.
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Jīvaka (जीवक) or Jīvika.—(1) , the physician: Avadāna-śataka ii.134.6 ff.; [(2) in Lalitavistara 430.20 text jīvika-pariskāra, but most mss. jīvita- or javika-; read jīvita-, equipment or utensils for living.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. A servant, a slave, one who gets a livelihood by service. 2. A snake-catcher, one whose business is catching snakes, curing their bites, &c. 3. An usurer, or one who lives by lending money at high interest. 4. A mendicant or one who lives by begging. 5. One whose life is prolonged by blessings. m.
(-kaḥ) 1. A tree, (Pentaptera tomentosa:) see asana. 2. A medicinal plant, commonly called by the same name Jivaca, and considered as one of the eight principal drugs, classed together under the name aṣṭabarga. 3. An animal, any being endowed with life. E. jīv to live, affix ṇic ṇvul or vun.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Jīvaka (जीवक).—[jīv + aka], I. latter part of comp. adj. Maintaining one’s self by, Mahābhārata 13, 6455. Ii. m. A medicinal plant, considered as one of the eight principal drugs, [Suśruta] 1, 59, 16. Iii. f. vikā, 1. Life, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 11. 2. A means of subsistence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 76; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 13, 7.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Jīvaka (जीवक).—[feminine] ikā [adjective] = [preceding] adj.; [feminine] jīvikā life, livelihood, [plural] = [preceding] [feminine] [plural]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Jīvaka (जीवक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Jīvaka (जीवक):—[from jīv] mfn. living, alive, [Harṣacarita vii]
2) [v.s. ...] ifc. (f(ikā). ) ‘living’ See cira-: making a livelihood by (in [compound]), [Mahābhārata xii f.; Harivaṃśa 4484; Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya] (cf. akṣara-)
3) [v.s. ...] ‘generating’ See putraṃ-
4) [v.s. ...] ifc. (f(ā). ) long living, for whom long life is desired, [Pāṇini 3-1, 150; Kāśikā-vṛtti]
5) [v.s. ...] m. a living being, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] ‘living on others’, a servant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] an usurer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a beggar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] a snake-catcher, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] one of the 8 principal drugs called Aṣṭavarga (Terminalia tomentosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Coccinia grandis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of Kumāra-bhūta, [Divyāvadāna xix, xxxv]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Jīvaka (जीवक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. An animal; a tree (Pentaptera tomentosa). m. f. n. A servant, or slave; snake-catcher; usurer; mendicant.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Jīvaka (जीवक):—(wie eben)
1) adj. am Ende eines comp. a) lebend, s. cira . — b) lebend von: pakṣi [Mahābhārata 12, 5576.] adhyayana [13, 6455.] vṛddhi [5741.] mālya [Harivaṃśa 4484] (wo jīvaka st. jīvaja zu lesen ist). para [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 10, 144.] Vgl. akṣara . — c) leben machend, erzeugend; s. putraṃjīvaka . —
2) adj. proparox. (f. jīvakā) der lange lebt, dem ein langes Leben gewünscht wird (vgl. āyuṣmant) [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 150,] [Scholiast 7, 3, 54], Vārtt. [?4, Scholiast Vopadeva’s Grammatik 26, 42. 4, 6.] —
3) m. a) ein lebendes Wesen. — b) Diener, Untergebener (von Anderen lebend) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 43. 44.] [Medinīkoṣa k. 94.] — c) Bettler diess. [Rgva tch’er rol pa 355.] — d) Wucherer. — e) Schlangenfänger [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — f) Baum (lange lebend) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] — g) Name verschiedener Pflanzen: α) Terminalia tomentosa W. u. A. [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 24.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — β) Coccinia grandis, eine Cucurbitacee [AINSL. 2, 436.] — γ) ein best. vielgenanntes Heilmittel (= kūrcaśīrṣa u. s. w.) [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 5, 8.] [Medinīkoṣa] [Suśruta 1, 59, 16. 60, 9. 137, 5. 140, 8. 222, 11. 2, 21, 7. 38, 17. 206, 13. 207, 1.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 57, 6. 77, 25.] Vgl. aṣṭavarga . — h) Nomen proprium eines Mannes [Hiouen-Thsang I, 389. III, 19.] —
4) f. jīvikā a) das lebendige oder lebenbringende Element, Bez. des Wassers (vgl. jīvā, jīvajala u. jīva [1.]): jīvikā nāma stha (āpaḥ) [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 6, 9.] — b) das Leben, die Art und Weise zu leben: varaṃ vṛṇīṣva vittaṃ cirajīvikāṃ ca [Kaṭhopaniṣad 1, 24.] jīveyuḥ paśujīvikām [Mahābhārata 3, 1185.] āpannaḥ klīvajīvikām [1276.] (jīvāmi) pāpajīvikām [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 26, 25.] jīvatvasukhajīvikām [Nalopākhyāna 11, 17.] ajihmāmaśaṭhāṃ śuddhāṃ jīvedbrāhmaṇajīvikām [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 11.] jīvedvaiśyasya jīvikām [10, 82.] — c) Lebensunterhalt [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 1.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 865.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] ṣaṇṇāṃ tu karmaṇāmasya trīṇi karmāṇi jīvikā . yājanādhyāpane caiva viśuddhācca pratigrahaḥ .. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 76.] [Mahābhārata 14, 1255.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 2, 73.] [Mālavikāgnimitra 16.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 28, 4. fgg.] nopajīveta jīvikām [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 13, 7.] labdha [Pañcatantra 198, 5.] āpannajīvika, prāpta [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 2, 44,] [Scholiast] dattajīvikā adj. [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 22.] kṣatriyāṇāṃ viśeṣeṇa yena yuddhena jīvikā [Mahābhārata.7, 2544. 14, 35.] mṛgayāyāṃ ca jīvikā [3, 15869.] vaiśyo (karoti) vipaṇijīvikām [5, 2627.] jīvikākar zum Lebensunterhalt erwählen [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 4, 79.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 15, 5.] — d) Name einer Pflanze (jīvantī) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] — Vgl. ajajīvika .
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4) c) paravañcanajīvika adj. [Kathāsaritsāgara 66, 111.]
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4) b) cirajīvikā (Conj. für jīvitā) langes Leben [Spr. (II) 5770.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. — a) lebend , so v.a. lebend gefangen [Harṣacarita 185,8.] — b) am Ende eines Comp. (f. jīvikā) — α) lebend. — β) lebend von. — γ) Leben verleihend , erzeugend. — c) (*f. jīvakā) der lange lebt , dem ein langes Leben gewünscht wird. —
2) m. — a) *ein lebendes Wesen. — b) *Diener , Untergebener. — c) *Wucherer. — d) *Schlangenfänger — e) *Baum. — f) eine best. Heilpflanze. Nach den Lexicographen Terminalia tomentosa und Coccinia grandis. — g) *Nomen proprium eines Mannes. —
3) f. jīvikā — a) Pl. Wasser. — b) das Leben , die Art und Weise zu leben [Kāraṇḍavyūha 46,12.] — c) Lebens unterhalt. kar zum Lebensunterhalt erwählen. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. jīvikā — d) *eine best. Pflanze , = jīvantī.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with (+14): Ajivika, Aksharajivaka, Ardhajivaka, Bandhujivaka, Cakrajivaka, Chakrajivaka, Chirajivaka, Cirajivaka, Jivajivaka, Jivakajivaka, Jivanjivaka, Kuhakajivaka, Malyajivaka, Meghajivaka, Mritasamjivaka, Navupajivaka, Panyajivaka, Putramjivaka, Puttranjivaka, Rajivaka.
Full-text (+88): Rangajivaka, Jivika, Aksharajivaka, Shringaka, Cirajivaka, Hrasvanga, Kalaskandha, Ashtavarga, Cakrajivaka, Meghajivaka, Madhuraka, Bhringahva, Jivakapanhavatthu, Balada, Komarabhacca, Balavardhini, Dirghayus, Sandhijivaka, Balavardhin, Malyajivaka.
Search found 42 books and stories containing Jivaka, Jīvaka; (plurals include: Jivakas, Jīvakas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka (by I. B. Horner)
The story of the merchant of Rājagaha < [8. Robes (Cīvara)]
The story of the merchant’s wife < [8. Robes (Cīvara)]
The story of five diseases < [1. Going forth (Pabbajjā)]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 1 - Story of King Ajātasattu < [Chapter 37 - Story of King Ajātasattu]
Biography (9): Jīvaka, the Physician < [Chapter 45a - The Life Stories of Male Lay Disciples]
Biography (11-12): Two Panthaka Mahātheras < [Chapter 43 - Forty-one Arahat-Mahatheras and their Respective Etadagga titles]
History of Indian Medicine (and Ayurveda) (by Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurvedic Society)
Chapter 4 - The Story of Atreya < [Part 1 - The History of Medicine in India]
Chapter 19 - Nursing < [Part 2-3 - Medical Institutions in Ancient India]
Chapter 10 - The Method of Theoretical and Practical Study < [Part 2-3 - Medical Institutions in Ancient India]
The Gospel of Buddha (by Paul Carus)
Tibetan tales (derived from Indian sources) (by W. R. S. Ralston)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 8 - Permission for monks to wear fine robes (cīvara) < [Chapter XLI - The Eighteen Special Attributes of the Buddha]
Appendix 4 - The story of Cūḍapanthaka < [Chapter XXXIX - The Ten Powers of the Buddha according to the Abhidharma]
Story of Bimbisāra at Āmrapāli’s home < [Part 2 - Means of acquiring meditation]