Ayatana, Āyatāna, Āyatana: 24 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Ayatana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Āyatana (आयतन) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mayamata XIX.10-12 and the Mānasāra XIX.108-12, both populair treatises on Vāstuśāstra literature.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Āyatana (आयतन) is the name for a “building” that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The terms—bhavana, gṛha, niveśana, ālaya, veśma, āyatana, aṭṭālaka etc. have been used in the Nīlamata for buildings but it is not possible to distinguish between the significance of one term and the other. No example of the period of the Nīlamata has been preserved. The Nīlamata says nothing about the building-materials. All that is known about the houses mentioned in the Nīlamata is that those had doors and ventilators and were whitewashed. The decoration of houses with fruits, leaves and garlands of rice-plants is also referred to.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Āyatana (आयतन).—(of Deva)—called divya by the Veda, at the end of nirāloka and of ākāśa or ether: Inaccessible to gods.1 Temples as places for śrāddha; construction of: description shows the vaiṣṇava and śaiva shrines in the same compound.2 Shrines where purāṇas were read.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 168-9; III. 11. 34.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 17. 11; 58. 2; 83. 3; 105. 15; 268. 35; 270. 34.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 4. 7; 30. 150; 38. 31, 48, 58; 54. 3; 77. 63; 92. 52.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Āyatāna (आयतान) is another name for āya: one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Āya (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of an elephant. His right hand is in Pravacana-Mudrā and a viṇā in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Āyatāna) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsSense medium. The inner sense media are the sense organs: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The outer sense media are their respective objects.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N Unceasing appearance of namas and rupas, which are making up the six kinds of sensations experienced from the six senses doors.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Ayatana means the place where subjects dwell.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

The 12 of the perceptual process: āyatana.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

and objects: s. Āyatana (“sense organs”), dhātu.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Āyatana (आयतन) or “places” refers to the fifth and last book of the Abhidhamma according to the Haimavata school.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Āyatana (आयतन) or dvādaśāyatana refers to the “twelve sense spheres” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24):

  1. cakṣus (eye),
  2. śrotra (ear),
  3. ghrāṇa (nose),
  4. jihvā (tongue),
  5. kāya (body),
  6. manas (mind),
  7. rūpa (form),
  8. gandha (smell),
  9. śabda (sound),
  10. rasa (taste),
  11. sparśa (tangible),
  12. dharma (thought).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., dvādaśa-āyatana). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Āyatana.—(EI 30), a temple or shrine. Cf. bhavana, ālaya, pura, etc. Cf. ṣaḍa-ayatana; an organ. Cf. tuṣṭy-āyatana (CII 1), same as tuṣṭi-pātra. Note: āyatana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Ayatana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

āyatana : (nt.) sphere; region; sense-organ; position.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Āyatana, (nt.) (Sk. āyatana, not found in the Vedas; but frequent in BSk. From ā + yam, cp. āyata. The pl. is āyatanā at S. IV, 70.—For full definition of term as seen by the Pāli Commentators see Bdhgh’s explanation at DA. I, 124, 125, with which cp. the popular etym. at KhA 82: “āyassa vā tananato āyatassa vā saṃsāradukkhassa nayanato āyatanāni” and at Vism. 527 “āye tanoti āyatañ ca nayatī ti ā.”) — 1. stretch, extent, reach, compass, region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Bdhgh’s definition at DA. I, 124 as “samosaraṇa”) D. III, 241, 279 (vimutti°); S. II, 41, 269; IV, 217; V, 119 sq. , 318. sq. ; A. III, 141 (ariya°); V, 61 (abhibh°, q. v.) Sn. 406 (rajass° “haunt of passion” = rāgādi-rajassa uppatti-deso SnA 381); J. I, 80 (raj°). frequent in phrase araññ° a lonely spot, a spot in the forest J. I, 173; VvA. 301; PvA. 42, 54.—2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Bdhgh’s definition at DA. I, 124 as paññatti), usually —°, viz. kamm° Nd1 505; Vbh. 324, 353; kasiṇ° A. V, 46 sq. , 60; Ps. I, 28; titth° A. I, 173, 175; Vbh. 145, 367; sipp° (art, craft) D. I, 51; Nd2 505; Vbh. 324, 353; cp. an° non-exertion, indolence, sluggishness J. V, 121.—3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense-organ & object; relation, order.—Cpd. p. 183 says rightly: “āyatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects”.—These āyatanāni (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikāni) and outer (bāhirāni), and comprise the foll. : (a) ajjhatt°: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghāna nose, 4. jivhā tongue, 5. kāya body, 6. mano mind; (b) bāh°: 1. rūpa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. phoṭṭhabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object.—For details as regards connotation & application see Dhs. trsl. introduction li sq. Cpd. 90 n. 2; 254 sq.—Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh’s definition of āyatana at DA. I, 124 as sañjāti and as kāraṇa (origin & cause, i.e. mutually occasioning & conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nd2 under rūpa for further classifications.—For the above mentioned 12 āyatanāni see the foll. passages: D. II, 302 sq. ; III, 102, 243; A. III, 400; V, 52; Sn. 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps. I, 7, 22, 101, 137; II, 181, 225, 230; Dhs. 1335; Vbh. 401 sq. ; Nett 57, 82; Vism. 481; ThA. 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S. I, 113, II. 3; IV, 100, 174 sq. ; It. 114; Vbh. 135 sq. , 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism. 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D. II, 112, 156; of 2 at D. II, 69.—Here also belongs ākās’ānañc’āyatana, ākiñcaññ° etc. (see under ākāsa etc. and s. v.), e.g. at D. I, 34 sq. , 183; A. IV, 451 sq. ; Vbh. 172, 189, 262 sq. ; Vism. 324 sq.—Unclassified passages: M. I, 61; II, 233; III, 32, 216, 273; S. I, 196; II, 6, 8, 24, 72 sq. ; III, 228; IV, 98; V, 426; A. I, 113, 163, 225; III, 17, 27, 82, 426; IV, 146, 426; V, 30, 321, 351, 359; Nd1 109, 133, 171, 340; J. I, 381 (paripuṇṇa°); Vbh. 412 sq. (id.).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

āyatana (आयतन).—n S Place or seat; place of residence or inherence. In comp as bhōgāyatana The seat of enjoyment or feeling, viz. the body; mūlāyatana Source, spring, origin, birth-place.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

āyatana (आयतन).—n Seat, place. Source.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āyatana (आयतन).—[āyatante'tra, yat ādhāre lyuṭ]

1) Place, abode, house, resting-place; भूमेर्महदायतनं वृष्णीष्व (bhūmermahadāyatanaṃ vṛṣṇīṣva) Kaṭh.1.1.23. (fig. also); शूलायतनाः (śūlāyatanāḥ) Mu.7 hangmen; स्नेहस्तदेकायतनं जगाम (snehastadekāyatanaṃ jagāma) Ku.7.5 was centred in her; R.3.36; सर्वा- विनयानामेकैकमप्येषामायतनम् (sarvā- vinayānāmekaikamapyeṣāmāyatanam) K.13; °मृगेण (mṛgeṇa) 13 domestic deer; Chāṇ.32; (hence) a receptacle, home, support, seat.

2) The place of the sacred fire, altar, shed for sacrifices.

3) A sanctuary, sacred place; as in देवायतनम्, मठायतनम् (devāyatanam, maṭhāyatanam) &c. यथाक्रमविशेषेण सर्वाण्यायतनानि च । दर्शितानि (yathākramaviśeṣeṇa sarvāṇyāyatanāni ca | darśitāni) Mb.13.156.11; विजने वायतने गिरौ वने वा (vijane vāyatane girau vane vā) | Bu. Ch. 5.19.

4) The site of a house, ground-plot.

5) A barn; Y.2.154.

6) An inner seat (with Buddhists who consider the five senses with manas as the six Āyatanas).

7) The cause of disease.

Derivable forms: āyatanam (आयतनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Āyatana (आयतन).—nt. (in Sanskrit seat, abiding-place, home; the following senses seem hardly, if at all, to occur in Sanskrit, but most of them apparently in Pali), (1) department, field (of art): in śilpāyatana (= Pali sippāy°), Mahāvastu ii.434.16 sarvaśilpāyatanehi…kuśo kumāro viśiṣyati, Prince Kuśa excelled in all departments of art; but the same word is also used (2) personally, applying to practitioners of the arts (perhaps as vessels, pātra, of the arts, compare 3 below): Mahāvastu iii.113.12 sarve ca kapilavāstavyā śilpāyatanā (as masc. ? one ms. °nāḥ!), tad yathā lohakārakā etc. (list of artisans), all the artisans of Kapilavastu, such as…; similarly iii.442.17 śilpāyatanā (no v.l.), tad yathā lohakārakā etc.; in the same way tīrthyāyatana (vessel of heresy?) is used of heretical teachers Avadāna-śataka i.231.3 yānīmāni…pṛthag loke [Page101-b+ 71] tīrthyāyatanāni, tad yathā, Pūraṇaḥ Kāśyapo Māskarī etc. (all persons); Pali has titthāyatana, nt., only as heretical school or doctrine (according to Ledi Sadaw JPTS 1913.117 harbours of error), or at least, it seems, never clearly of persons (some passages are ambiguous and might be so interpreted); Pali sippāyatana also does not seem to be applied to artisans, but only to crafts; (3) a worthy object (compare an-āy°), = Sanskrit pātra: Divyāvadāna 419.(22—)23 (api tu Buddhadharmasaṃghe) prasādam utpādaya, eṣa āyatana- gataḥ prasāda iti,…this is favor bestowed on a worthy object; (4) stage of ecstasy or trance (four such), see ākā- śānantyāyat°, vijñānānantyāyat°, ākiṃcanyāyat°, nai- vasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyat°: listed Mahāvyutpatti 3110—3113; also 1492—5 in list of samāpatti, q.v.; Dharmasaṃgraha 129; see also s.v. deva; (5) sense; organ of sense (six in number), dis- tinguished as ādhyātmika āy° (= Pali ajjhattika āy°) or as sparśāy° (= Pali phassāy°); likewise object of sense (also six), distinguished as bāhira (= Pali id.) or bāhya āy°: Mahāvyutpatti 2027 dvādaśāyatanāni, listed 2028—2039 in pairs, each [compound] with āyatanam (cakṣur-āy° etc.); the standard list contains six of each category, viz. cakṣus and rūpa, śrotra and śabda, ghrāṇa and gandha, jihvā and rasa, kāya and spraṣṭavya (q.v.), manas and dharma (2); Dharmasaṃgraha 24 lists each group of six as a (dvandva) [compound] concluded by āyatanāni (with sparśa in lieu of spraṣṭavya); Śikṣāsamuccaya 244.15 ṣaḍ imāni…sparśāyatanāni, katamāni ṣaṭ, cakṣuḥ sparśāyatanaṃ rūpāṇāṃ darśanāya, etc., including kāya (read kāyaḥ) sparśāy° spraṣṭavyānāṃ sparśanāya, manaḥ sparśāy° dharmāṇāṃ vijñānāya; ādhyātmikam āy° and bāhiram āy° Mahāvastu iii.66.3 ff. (parallel passage in Pali, Majjhimanikāya (Pali) i.190.20 ff.); ṣaḍ-āyatanam, the six senses (sense-organs and their respective objects, each pair regarded as a unit), one of the steps in the pratītya-samutpāda (= Pali saḷ- āyatana), Mahāvyutpatti 2246; Mahāvastu ii.285.9 f.; Lalitavistara 347.2, 4; etc., compare Lévi, Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xi.30, Transl. n. 2; actions are rooted in them, Lalitavistara 374.13 (verse) iha me karmavidhānā…ṣaḍāyatanamūlā, chinnā drumendramūle (i.e. by attaining Buddhahood); compounded or associated with skandha, q.v., and dhātu (element, q.v.), the total being an expression for states of physical existence, Lalitavistara 420.17 (verse) na skandha āyatana dhātu (better as dvandva [compound]?) vademi buddhaṃ, I do not call…the Buddha; Lalitavistara 177.5 (cited Śikṣāsamuccaya 240.5; verse) skandhadhātvāyatanāni (probably read with Śikṣāsamuccaya skandhāya- tanāni, better meter; so also Tibetan) dhātavaḥ; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 18.6 skandha-dhātv-āyatanopagānāṃ sarvadharmāṇām; (6) abhibhv-āyatana, see s.v.; (7) kṛtsnāyatana, q.v., s.v. kṛtsna.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āyatana (आयतन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Abode, house. 2. An altar, also a shed for sacrifices. 3. A ground plot, the site of a house, &c. 4. The cause of disease. E. āyata nominal root, to lengthen, affix lyuṭ; extending from the house.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āyatana (आयतन).—i. e. ā-yat + ana n. 1. A place, [Cāṇakya] 32. 2. A seat, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 77; [Pañcatantra] 32, 23. 3. An outhouse, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 154. 4. An altar, [Pañcatantra] 199, 12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āyatana (आयतन).—[neuter] foot-hold, support, seat, object of (—°); fire-place, sanctuary; barn.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Āyatana (आयतन):—[=ā-yatana] [from ā-yat] n. resting-place, support, seat, place, home, house, abode, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Kumāra-sambhava] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the place of the sacred fire (= agny-āyatana), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra] and, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]

3) [v.s. ...] an altar

4) [v.s. ...] a shed for sacrifices

5) [v.s. ...] a sanctuary, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Rāmāyaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] a plot of ground, the site of a house

7) [v.s. ...] a barn, [Yājñavalkya ii, 154]

8) [v.s. ...] the cause of a disease, [Suśruta]

9) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) the five senses and Manas (considered as the inner seats or Āyatanas) and the qualities perceived by the above (the outer Āyatanas).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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