Tamala, Tamāla: 19 definitions



Tamala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Tamal.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Tamāla (तमाल) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Tamāla) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Tamāla (तमाल) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Cinnamomum tamala (Indian bay leaf) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat. Acacia nilotica is a synonym of Vachellia nilotica.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as tamāla).”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Tamāla (तमाल) is another name for “Ḍāḍima” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning tamāla] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Tamāla (तमाल)—Sanskrit word for a plant “gamboge tree” (Garcinia sp.).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Tamāla (तमाल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Tamāla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Tamāla (तमाल) is usually identified as Garcinia xanthochymus, which has very dark foliage.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Tamala is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Tamala ranges on the Southern Himalaya slopes are mentioned. ITs forests in the Vindhya tract are also mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Tamala), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Tamala, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tamāla : (m.) the tree Xantrochymus pictorius.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tamāla, (Sk. tamāla) N. of a tree (Xanthochymus pictorius) Pv III, 105 (+uppala). (Page 297)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tamāla (तमाल).—m (S) A tree, Xanthochymus pictorius. Rox.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल).—

1) Name of a tree with a very dark bark; तरुणतमालनीलबहलोन्नमदम्बुधराः (taruṇatamālanīlabahalonnamadambudharāḥ) Māl.9.18; R.13.15,49; Gīt.11.

2) A sectarial mark of sandal upon the forehead made with the juice of the Tamāla fruit.

3) A sword, scimitar.

4) The bark of the bamboo.

4) Tobacco.

Derivable forms: tamālaḥ (तमालः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. The sectarial mark made with Sandal, &c. upon the forehead. 2. The name of a tree bearing black blossoms, (Xantho-) cymus pictorios, Rox.) 3. A sword, a scymitar or large sacrificial knife. 4. A plant: see varuṇa. 5. A black kind of Mimosa. 6. The bark of the bambu. n.

(-laṃ) The leaf of the Laurus cassia. The bark or troubled, leaf of the Luarus cassia. E. tam to be dark or troubled, Unadi affix kālan.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल).—i. e. tam + a + āla, m. The name of a dark-coloured tree, Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb., [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 21, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamāla (तमाल):—[from tam] a m. ‘dark-barked (but white-blossomed)’ Xanthochymus Pictorius, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa 12837; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Mṛcchakaṭikā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a sort of black Khadira tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Crataeva Roxburghii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] tobacco, [Śikṣāp.]

5) [v.s. ...] sectarial mark on the forehead (made with the juice of the Tamāla fruit), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] mn. ([gana] ardharcādi) the bark of the bamboo, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. = -patra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [from tamas] b etc. See, [ib. & [column] 2.]

10) Tāmala (तामल):—[from tāma] mf(ī)n. made of the bark of the Tamāla plant, [Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra i, 2, 37.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल):—(laḥ) 1. m. The sectarial mark made with sandal on the forehead; a sword; name of a tree. n. Leaf of the Laurus cassia.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Tamāla (तमाल):—[Die Uṇādi-Affixe 1, 117.] m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 4, 31.] [Amarakoṣa 3, 6, 4, 33.]

1) m. Name eines Baumes mit überaus dunkler Rinde, Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb. (die Blüthe ist weisslich) [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 48.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3,3, 395.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1146.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 653.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 96.] [Mahābhārata 1, 7585. 3, 935. 11574. 13, 6369.] [Harivaṃśa 12837.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 21, 14. 18. 39, 22.] phalabhakṣiṇaḥ [4, 37, 28.] [Suśruta 1, 145, 7. 2, 485, 13.] [Raghuvaṃśa 13, 15. 49.] [Pañcatantra 80, 5.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 9, 33. 4, 6, 14. 8, 2, 11.] haragalagaralatamālasamaprabha (sattva) [Pañcatantra 63, 7.] tamālanīla [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 13, 32.] tamālabhāsurabhīṣaṇe naktaṃcarīmukhe [Kathāsaritsāgara 25, 238.] khacaddantāvalīḍhatamālaṃ mṛtyorivānanam [26, 142.] tamālālinīlaiḥabdanāgaiḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 24, 17.] tamāladalanīlatamaṃ tamisram [Gītagovinda 11, 12.] [Burnouf 178.] piṣṭatamālavarṇakanibha [Mṛcchakaṭikā 91, 10.] Nach den Lexicographen auch Name anderer Pflanzen: = varuṇa [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] = kṛṣṇakhadira [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) m. n. Bambusrinde [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa 3, 6, 4, 33.] [Śabdakalpadruma] —

3) n. = pattraka = tamālapattra [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

4) m. Sectenzeichen auf der Stirn (wohl daher, weil hierzu unter Anderm auch der Saft der Tamāla-Frucht verwendet wurde) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

5) m. Schwert [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Medinīkoṣa] —

6) f. ī Name verschiedener Pflanzen: a) = tāmravallī [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] [NIGH. PR.] — b) Phyllanthus emblica [NIGH. PR.] — c) = varuṇa [Rājanirghaṇṭa] — Das Wort steht mit tamas in etym. Zusammenhange. — Vgl. khatamāla .

--- OR ---

Tamāla (तमाल):—[Sp. 254,] [Z.] 6 ist das Beispiel [Kathāsaritsāgara 26, 142] zu streichen; vgl. unter 1. lih mit ava am Ende.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Tamāla (तमाल):——

1) m. — a) Xanthochymus pictorius. — b) *eine Art Khadira. — c) *Crataeva Roxburghii [Rājan 9,143.] — d) *Sectenzeichen auf der Stirn. — e) *Schwert.

2) *m. n. Bambusrinde.

3) *f. ī — a) Phyllanthus emblica. — b) Crataeva Roxburghii. — c) = tāmravallī [Rājan 3,110.] —

4) *n. = tamālapattra [Rājan 6,176.]

--- OR ---

Tāmala (तामल):—( tāmāla?) Adj. (f. ī) aus der Rinde von Tamāla verfertigt [Āpastamba’s Dharmasūtra]

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tamāla (तमाल) [Also spelled tamal]:—(nm) a big evergreen tree —Xanthocymus pictorius.

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