Ayana, aka: Āyāna, Āyanā, Ayāna, Āyana; 9 Definition(s)


Ayana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[Ayana in Jyotisha glossaries]

Ayana (अयन).—Northward or southward motion of a planet. Note: Ayana is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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[Ayana in Purana glossaries]

Ayana (अयन) refers to a time period consisting of three seasons (=6 months) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The divisions of the time are also mentioned as objects of worship. The passage of the sun through one sign of the zodiac, we are informed, is called a solar month. Two months make a season, three seasons an Ayana and two Ayanas a year.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Ayana (अयन).—A sādhya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 203. 11.

1b) Six months constitute an ayana. Distinguished as the southern and northern corresponding to the course of the sun towards the north and south of the equator;1 suitable for śrāddha and dāna.2 According to divine calculation dakṣiṇāyana is the night and the uttarāyaṇa, the day of the Devas;3 the months of tapa, tapasya, madhu, mādhava, śukra and śuci are uttarāyaṇa and the months of nabha, nabhasya, iṣa, ūrja, saha ānd sahasya are dakṣiṇāyana.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 11; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 126; 22. 10; 28. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 14; 23. 106, etc.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 17. 2; 82. 25; 83. 7; 98. 2; 101. 38; 124. 92; 184. 72.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 10; II. 8. 31, 36.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 81.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Ayana in Hinduism glossaries]

Smārta tradition (paurāṇika) holds that the year is divided into two periods (ayana) according to the northern and southern procession of the Sun, which respectively form the day and the night of the gods (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa 43.3–44; Kṛtyatattvārṇava, p. 5). The southern ayana (dakṣiṇāyana) is the period between the summer solstice and the winter solstice. As Āśvina falls in the dakṣiṇāyana, the ‘awakening’ of Durgā in this month is regarded as “untimely”(akāle-bodhanam), since it forms the time of Durgā’s sleep. Hence the eastern āśvinanavarātra includes as an opening rite the rousing of Durgā from her slumber, the Bodhana (Awakening).

(Source): Academia.edu: The Rite of Durgā in Medieval Bengal

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Ayana in Pali glossaries]

ayana : (nt.) path.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Ayana, (nt.) (Vedic ayana, fr. i) (a) “going", road.—(b) going to, goal S. V, 167 (ekāyano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA. I, 313; Dāvs. IV, 40. ‹-› See also eka°. (Page 75)

— or —

Āyanā, (f.) (?) at DhsA. 259 and Vism. 26 is a grammarian’s construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in °āyanā, e.g. kaṅkhā › kaṅkhāyanā, of which the correct expln. is a derivation fr. caus. -formation kaṅkhāyati › kaṅkhāy + a + nā. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his expln. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as āyāna. (Page 105)

— or —

Āyāna, (nt.) (fr. ā + to go) coming, arrival: see āyanā. (Page 106)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Ayana in Marathi glossaries]

ayana (अयन).—m (Or aīna or aina) A tree, Pentaptera tomentosa. Grah.

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ayana (अयन).—n S The sun's journey (north or south); solar northing or southing. See uttarāyana & dakṣiṇā- yana. 2 A half-year, the period of the sun's approach to the tropic of Cancer, or that of his recession to the tropic of Capricorn. Ex. kōṭhēṃ varṣa kōṭhēṃ a0. 3 In comp. Going, coming, progress. 4 A road or a way.

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ayanā (अयना).—m ( P) A looking-glass or mirror. 2 pl Spectacles.

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āyanā (आयना).—m ( P) A mirror or looking glass.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ayana (अयन).—n The sun's journey (North or South.). A half-year. Solstice.

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ayanā (अयना).—m A mirror, a looking-glass. pl spectacles.

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āyanā (आयना).—m A looking–glass, mirror.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Ayana in Sanskrit glossaries]

Ayana (अयन).—a. [ay-lyuṭ] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः (yathemā nadyaḥ syandamānāḥ samudrāyaṇāḥ) Praśn. Up.

1) Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम् (rāmāyaṇam).

2) A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापोऽयनमिच्छमानाः (āyannāpo'yanamicchamānāḥ) Rv.3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् (agastya- cihnādayanāt) R.16.44.

3) A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛ. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् (tā yadasyāyanaṃ pūrvam) Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word nārāyaṇa).

4) A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or vyūha); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः (ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgamava- sthitāḥ) Bg.1.11.

5) Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम् (aṅgirasāṃ ayanam); इष्टि°, पशु° (iṣṭi°, paśu°).

6) A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; Name of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम् (gavāmayanam).

7) The sun's passage, north and south of the equator.

8) (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण (uttarāyaṇa) and दक्षिणायन (dakṣiṇāyana); cf. also सायन (sāyana) and निरयण (nirayaṇa).

9) the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् (dakṣiṇam ayanam) winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् (uttaram ayanam) summer solstice;

1) Method, manner, way.

11) A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing.

12) Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय (nānyaḥ panthā vidyate'yanāya) Śvet. Up.

13) A commentary; treatise.

14) The deities presiding over the ayanas.

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Ayāna (अयान).—

1) Not going or moving, stopping, halt.

2) Natural disposition, nature.

Derivable forms: ayānam (अयानम्).

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Āyana (आयन).—Ved. Coming, approaching.

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Āyana (आयन).—a. Belonging to the solistice (as in uttarāyaṇa, dakṣiṇāyana).

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Āyāna (आयान).—

1) Coming, arrival; अस्मिन्ना वामायाने वाजिनीवसू (asminnā vāmāyāne vājinīvasū) Rv.8.22.18.

2) Natural temperament, disposition, nature.

3) An ornament of the horse; Hch.7.

Derivable forms: āyānam (आयानम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Uttarāyana (उत्तरायन, “winter solstice”) is regarded an auspicious day. In Buddhism too, it see...
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Ayanāṃśa (अयनांश).—Arc of the ecliptic intercepted between the vernal equinox and the zero poin...
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Ūrdhvāyana (ऊर्ध्वायन).—a. going upwards. -nam motion above. Ūrdhvāyana is a Sanskrit compound ...
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