Ayana, Āyāna, Ayāna, Āyana, Ayaṇa, Āyanā: 26 definitions


Ayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Āyana (आयन) refers to 6 solar months, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must have a correct, knowledge of a yuga (43,20,000 Solar years), varṣa (a solar year), āyana (6 solar months), ṛtu (2 solar months), māsa (a solar month), pakṣa (15 solar days), ahorātra (a solar day), yama (one-eighth of a solar day), muhūrta (one-thirtieth of a solar day), nāḍī (one-sixtieth of a solar day or 24 minutes), vināḍi (one sixtieth of a nāḍī or 24 seconds), prāṇa (4 seconds) truṭi (33, 75th of a second) and parts of a truṭi and other divisions of time and also of divisions of space”.

2) Āyana (आयन) refers to the “northward and southward course” (of planets), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] If the methods of calculation given in the five Astronomical works mentioned above should produce different results he must be able to calculate correctly the places of the sun and planets by actual observation (by means of shadow and water level and with the help of astronomical instruments) of the termination of their āyana (northward and southward course), of their being due east to the observer after rising and of their altitude at any time”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Ayana (अयन).—Northward or southward motion of a planet. Note: Ayana is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ayana (अयन) refers to the “period of tropical transit”, according to Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, regarding the benefit in the rites of Devayajña:—“[...] the period of equinoxes, the period of tropical transit (ayana), the period of transit to the capricornus, and the time of lunar eclipse are each of ten times more benefit than the previous one”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Ayana (अयन) refers to a time period consisting of three seasons (=6 months) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The divisions of the time are also mentioned as objects of worship. The passage of the sun through one sign of the zodiac, we are informed, is called a solar month. Two months make a season, three seasons an Ayana and two Ayanas a year.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Ayana (अयन).—A sādhya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 203. 11.

1b) Six months constitute an ayana. Distinguished as the southern and northern corresponding to the course of the sun towards the north and south of the equator;1 suitable for śrāddha and dāna.2 According to divine calculation dakṣiṇāyana is the night and the uttarāyaṇa, the day of the Devas;3 the months of tapa, tapasya, madhu, mādhava, śukra and śuci are uttarāyaṇa and the months of nabha, nabhasya, iṣa, ūrja, saha ānd sahasya are dakṣiṇāyana.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 11; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 126; 22. 10; 28. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 14; 23. 106, etc.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 17. 2; 82. 25; 83. 7; 98. 2; 101. 38; 124. 92; 184. 72.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 10; II. 8. 31, 36.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 81.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Āyana (आयन) refers to the “course of the sun”.—The six months in which the sun moves toward the north are called uttara-āyana, and the six months in which it moves south are called dakṣiṇa-āyana. One course represents a day for the demigods, and the other represents their night. Uttara-āyana (the northern course) begins from makara-saṅkrānti, which is in the Christian calendar month of January and is the day the sun enters the zodiacal sign of Capricorn. Dakṣiṇa-āyana (the southern course) begins on the Karkaṭa-saṅkrānti, which is also śayana-ekādaśī, and in the Christian calendar month of July. It is the day the sun enters the sign of Cancer. Another name for uttara-āyana is cittara-āyana. [...] In accordance with the time of the year, one would utter either uttara-āyana or dakṣiṇa-āyana.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Ayana (अयन) represents the number 2 (two) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 2—ayana] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Academia.edu: The Rite of Durgā in Medieval Bengal

Smārta tradition (paurāṇika) holds that the year is divided into two periods (ayana) according to the northern and southern procession of the Sun, which respectively form the day and the night of the gods (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa 43.3–44; Kṛtyatattvārṇava, p. 5). The southern ayana (dakṣiṇāyana) is the period between the summer solstice and the winter solstice. As Āśvina falls in the dakṣiṇāyana, the ‘awakening’ of Durgā in this month is regarded as “untimely”(akāle-bodhanam), since it forms the time of Durgā’s sleep. Hence the eastern āśvinanavarātra includes as an opening rite the rousing of Durgā from her slumber, the Bodhana (Awakening).

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Ayaṇa (अयण) refers to the “hemisphere” [i.e., śrī sūrya amuka ayaṇe], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ayana.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: ayana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ayana : (nt.) path.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ayana, (nt.) (Vedic ayana, fr. i) (a) “going”, road.—(b) going to, goal S. V, 167 (ekāyano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA. I, 313; Dāvs. IV, 40. ‹-› See also eka°. (Page 75)

— or —

Āyanā, (f.) (?) at DhsA. 259 and Vism. 26 is a grammarian’s construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in °āyanā, e.g. kaṅkhā › kaṅkhāyanā, of which the correct expln. is a derivation fr. caus. -formation kaṅkhāyati › kaṅkhāy + a + nā. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his expln. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as āyāna. (Page 105)

— or —

Āyāna, (nt.) (fr. ā + to go) coming, arrival: see āyanā. (Page 106)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ayana (अयन).—m (Or aīna or aina) A tree, Pentaptera tomentosa. Grah.

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ayana (अयन).—n S The sun's journey (north or south); solar northing or southing. See uttarāyana & dakṣiṇā- yana. 2 A half-year, the period of the sun's approach to the tropic of Cancer, or that of his recession to the tropic of Capricorn. Ex. kōṭhēṃ varṣa kōṭhēṃ a0. 3 In comp. Going, coming, progress. 4 A road or a way.

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ayanā (अयना).—m ( P) A looking-glass or mirror. 2 pl Spectacles.

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āyanā (आयना).—m ( P) A mirror or looking glass.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ayana (अयन).—n The sun's journey (North or South.). A half-year. Solstice.

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ayanā (अयना).—m A mirror, a looking-glass. pl spectacles.

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āyanā (आयना).—m A looking–glass, mirror.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ayana (अयन).—a. [ay-lyuṭ] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः (yathemā nadyaḥ syandamānāḥ samudrāyaṇāḥ) Praśn. Up.

1) Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम् (rāmāyaṇam).

2) A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापोऽयनमिच्छमानाः (āyannāpo'yanamicchamānāḥ) Ṛgveda 3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् (agastya- cihnādayanāt) R.16.44.

3) A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛ. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् (tā yadasyāyanaṃ pūrvam) Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word nārāyaṇa).

4) A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or vyūha); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः (ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgamava- sthitāḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.11.

5) Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम् (aṅgirasāṃ ayanam); इष्टि°, पशु° (iṣṭi°, paśu°).

6) A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; Name of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम् (gavāmayanam).

7) The sun's passage, north and south of the equator.

8) (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण (uttarāyaṇa) and दक्षिणायन (dakṣiṇāyana); cf. also सायन (sāyana) and निरयण (nirayaṇa).

9) the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् (dakṣiṇam ayanam) winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् (uttaram ayanam) summer solstice;

1) Method, manner, way.

11) A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing.

12) Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय (nānyaḥ panthā vidyate'yanāya) Śvet. Up.

13) A commentary; treatise.

14) The deities presiding over the ayanas.

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Ayāna (अयान).—

1) Not going or moving, stopping, halt.

2) Natural disposition, nature.

Derivable forms: ayānam (अयानम्).

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Āyana (आयन).—Ved. Coming, approaching.

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Āyana (आयन).—a. Belonging to the solistice (as in uttarāyaṇa, dakṣiṇāyana).

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Āyāna (आयान).—

1) Coming, arrival; अस्मिन्ना वामायाने वाजिनीवसू (asminnā vāmāyāne vājinīvasū) Ṛgveda 8.22.18.

2) Natural temperament, disposition, nature.

3) An ornament of the horse; Hch.7.

Derivable forms: āyānam (आयानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayana (अयन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. A road, a path. 2. The half year, that is, the sun’s road north and south of the equator. See uttarāyaṇa, &c. 3. The equinoetial and solstitial points. 4. A Sastra or inspired writing. E. iṇa to go, and lyuṭ aff.

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Ayāna (अयान).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Natural disposition or temperament. 2. Halt, stop. E. a neg. to go, lyuṭ affix; what never departs.

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Āyāna (आयान).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. The natural temperament or disposition. 2. Coming, arrival. E. āṅ before to obtain, affix lyuṭ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayana (अयन).—i. e. i + ana, n. 1. A place of motion, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 10. 2. A road. 3. A line, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 1, 11. 4. The half year, i. e. the sun’s road north and south of the equator, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 26.

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Āyāna (आयान).—i. e. ā-yā + ana, n. Coming near, Mahābhārata 3, 11029 (p. 570).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayana (अयन).—[adjective] going, coming; [neuter] motion, walk. course, [especially] the sun’s road between the solstitial points, also solstice, half-year; way, manner; refuge, residence.

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Āyāna (आयान).—[neuter] coming, arrival.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ayana (अयन):—[from ay] a mfn. going, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxii, 7; Nirukta, by Yāska]

2) [v.s. ...] n. walking, a road, a path, [Ṛg-veda iii, 33, 7etc.] (often ifc. cf. naimiṣāyana, puruṣāyaṇa, praśamāyana, samudrāyaṇa, svedāyana), (in [astronomy]) advancing, precession, [Sūryasiddhānta]

3) [v.s. ...] (with [genitive case] e.g. angirasām, ādityānām, gavām, etc. or ifc.) ‘course, circulation’, Name of various periodical sacrificial rites, [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. the sun’s road north and south of the equator, the half year, [Manu-smṛti] etc., the equinoctial and solstitial points, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] way, progress, manner, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] place of refuge, [Manu-smṛti i, 10]

6) [v.s. ...] a treatise (śāstra cf. jyotiṣām-ayana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) b See √ay, [column] 2.

8) Ayāna (अयान):—[=a-yāna] n. not moving, halting, stopping, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] (= sva.bhāva), ‘natural disposition or temperament’, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Āyana (आयन):—[from āya] 1. āyana n. coming, approaching, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

11) [v.s. ...] (for 2. āyana See sub voce)

12) 2. āyana mfn. ([from] ayana), belonging to the solstice [commentator or commentary] on [Sūryasiddhānta]

13) (for 1. āyana See under āya.)

14) Āyāna (आयान):—[=ā-yāna] [from ā-yā] n. coming, arrival, [Ṛg-veda viii, 22, 18; Mahābhārata] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] the natural temperament or disposition, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. ayāna.)

16) [v.s. ...] a [particular] ornament for horses, [Harṣacarita]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ayana (अयन):—(naṃ) 1. n. A road; half year.

2) Ayāna (अयान):—[a-yāna] (naṃ) 1. n. Disposition; halt.

3) Āyāna (आयान):—[ā-yāna] (naṃ) 1. n. The natural disposition; coming, arrival.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ayana (अयन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ayaṇa, Āyāṇa, Ejjaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ayana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Āyana (आयन) [Also spelled ayan]:—(nm) ion; movement, goings; ~[maṃḍala/vṛtta] ionosphere.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ayaṇa (अयण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Atana.

2) Ayaṇa (अयण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ayana.

3) Ayaṇa (अयण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Adana.

4) Ayāṇa (अयाण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ajñāna.

5) Ayāṇa (अयाण) also relates to the Sanskrit words: Ajña, Ajñāna.

6) Āyāṇa (आयाण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ādāna.

7) Āyāṇa (आयाण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ādāna.

8) Āyāṇa (आयाण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āyāna.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ayana (ಅಯನ):—

1) [noun] the act of going or moving.

2) [noun] a track or way worn by footsteps; a path.

3) [noun] a place, a site; an abode.

4) [noun] the suṇs apparent path on either side of the equator.

5) [noun] (geog.) the solstitial and equinoctial points.

6) [noun] a half-year (as divided into uttarāyana (approx. from January 14th to July 13th approx.), and dakṣināyana (approx. from July 14th to January 13th).

7) [noun] a gathering of people held every year for barter and sale of goods; an annual fair.

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Ayāna (ಅಯಾನ):—

1) [adjective] not moving; not going; not travelling; stationary.

2) [adjective] not having or provided with, a vehicle.

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Āyana (ಆಯನ):—[noun] (dial.) a festival observed in a temple; a temple fair.

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Āyāna (ಆಯಾನ):—

1) [noun] the act of coming; arrival.

2) [noun] the natural tendency; disposition; nature.

3) [noun] that which cannot be broken; an unbreakable thing.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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