Arka, Ārka: 51 definitions


Arka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Arka (अर्क).—According to Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, the gopīs' desperation to find Kṛṣṇa is clearly shown by the fact that they approached the insignificant arka plant. (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.30.9). Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī gives the following information about Vṛndāvana's trees: Even though the arka plant is very insignificant, it always grows near Lord Gopīśvara [the Śiva deity in Vṛndāvana forest] because it is dear to him.

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana

Arka (अर्क):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (e.g. arka flowers) leads to the blessings of the Lord Sun, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Arka (अर्क, “life-force”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Arkavināyaka, Arkagaṇeśa and Arkavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Arka is positioned in the South-Eastern corner of the first circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Lolarka Kund, near House No. B 2 / 17”. Worshippers of Arka will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the remover of all types of trouble”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.17510, Lon. 83.00387 (or, 25°10'30.4"N, 83°00'13.9"E) (Google maps)

Arka, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Arka (अर्क):—Son of Puruja (son of Suśānti). He had a son named Bharmyāśva. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.31)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Arka (अर्क) is the name of a plant which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] worldly pleasures (bhuktimukti) and salvation will be secured by a person who worships with Tulasī. Great valour (pratāpa) can be secured by worshipping with Arka or Kubjakalhāra flowers (puṣpa)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Arka (अर्क).—A son of Vasu, and a Vasu. Wife Vāsanā. Sons Tarṣa and others.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 21. 51; VI. 3. 14; 6. 11 and 13.

1b) The son of Puruja, and father of Bharmyāśva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 21. 31.

1c) The son of Vivici Agni; see vividha; he had a number of sons like Anīkavān, etc.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 145; 29. 40; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 42.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

1) Arka (ऋति) is the Sanskrit word translating to “copper”, a pure metal commonly found in nature. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

2) Arka (अर्क).—The name of a plant, possibly identified with Calotropis gigantea. It is used in various alchemical processess related to mercury (rasa or liṅga), according to the Rasārṇavakalpa (11th-century work dealing with Rasaśāstra).

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Arka (अर्क) is the name of a tree (Madāra) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Śravaṇa, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Arka], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Arka (अर्क) is another name for Ādityapatra, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Helianthus annuus Linn. or “common sunflower” from the Asteraceae or “aster” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.173-174 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Arka and Ādityapatra, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Arka (अर्क) refers to the “madder plant” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—The food-utensils that are made of Arka-patra (madder plant leaf) have the following dietetic effects: kṛmighna and pittakṛt (kills worms and aggravates bile).

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Arka (अर्क) refers to a medicinal plant known as Calotropis procera Ait.f., and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Arka). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Arka (अर्क) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning arka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Arka (अर्क) is the name of an herbal ingredient which is included in a (snake) poison antidote recipe, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Several herbal formulations have been recommended in the segment exclusively for lepa or ointment to counter poison. According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse VIII.41), “The formula consisting of the juice of Nirguṇḍi leaf with fresh garlic and Arka, when annointed , quickly neutralises the poison of even snakes of the class of Vāsukī”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Arka (अर्क):—A Sanskrit word referring to the “Milkweed” plant and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. Its official botanical name is Calotropis gigantea and is commonly known in English as “White arka”, “Giant milkweed”, “Giant calotrope”, “Swallow wort”, and others. It is a large shrub and gows on a variety of soils in different climates

Source: South Indian Festivities (ayurveda)

Sanskrit Arka (Calotropis gigantea) means Sun from cuneiform shape of leaf, smooth on the upper surface, clothed with wooly down on the under side, flowering all year. The juice mixed with uppu (common salt) is given in tooth-ache; the juice of the young buds is given in ear-ache; the leaves warmed and moistened with oil are applied as a dry fomentation in abdominal pains.

This is a large shrub, common all over India; it is commonly to be found in waste ground among rubbish, ruins, and such like places, flowers rose colour and purple mixed. (There is a white variety also to which great religious importance is attached). Of late years this plant has attracted much attention from the many useful and important purposes to which its several properties can be applied. An acrid milky juice flows from every part of the shrub when wounded; and this the natives apply to medicinal purposes in many different ways, besides preparations of the plant itself in epilepsy, paralysis, bites of poisonous animals, as a vermifuge, etc. In almost all cutaneous affections, especially in leprosy, it is frequently employed, and much attention has lately been bestowed upon its virtues in the cure of the latter dreadful complaint. The root, bark, and inspissated juice are used as powerful alteratives and purgatives. Its activity is said to be owing to a principle called Mudarine, discovered by the late Doctor Duncan of Edinburgh, which he found to possess the singular propeny of congealing by heat and becoming again fluid onexposure to cold. The root is used in the manufacture of gun-powder charcoal.

Source: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics

Arka (अर्क) refers to a liquid preparation obtained by distillation technique. It was taken from the unāni system of medicine. Arkaprakāśa, glory of arka, is an important ayurvedic treatise in Telugu of this period. Arka technique is useful to prepare the medicine from the plants containing volatile substances. In Āyurvēda pharmacopoeia, the ratio of volatile herbs is very low. With the entry of this technique utility of some plants like camphor became popular. Ajāmodārka, distilled fruits of ajāmoda (Apium leptophyllum) is used in the digestive disorders. The Arkaprakāṣa tries to extract distillations even from non-aromatic plants. However, the number of arkas is very less in number in today’s Āyurvēda pharmacopoeia.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Arka (अर्क) refers to the medicinal plant known as Calotropis gigantea, and is employed in the treatment of poison (viṣa), such as that resulting from rājila (krait snake-bites) and rājilaviṣa, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—Chapter four explains rājilaviṣa (krait family) treatment. Vegānusāra-cikitsā (stage wise treatment), symptoms and treatment of 13 types of rājila snakes are mentioned. [...] In excessive phlegm production, juice of Arka (Calotropis gigantea) leaf mixed with Hiṅgu (asafoetida) is recommended to be given internally. [...]

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Arka (अर्क) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Calotropis gigantea (crown flower) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as arka).”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Arka (अर्क).—The strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utterance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Arka (अर्क) refers to one of the various leaves and flowers used in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Arka][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Arka (अर्क) refers to the “sun”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 1), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] There was darkness (chaos) in the beginning. Then came water (into existence). On it (floated) a golden-coloured egg, the (divine) seed consisting of the Earth and the Firmament from which there arose Brahmā, the creative agent with the sun and moon [i.e., arka-śaśin] for his eyes. Kapila says that the universe had its origin in pradhāna; Kaṇātha in dravya and the like; a few in kāla (time); others in Svabhāva (nature); and some in karma. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Arka (अर्क) refers to one of the items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey, ghee, dadhi, and milk. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Arka (अर्क) refers to one of the thirty-six sacred trees, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “According to the Kula teaching (these) [i.e., Arka] are the most excellent Kula trees that give accomplishments and liberation. (They are full of) Yoginīs, Siddhas, Lords of the Heroes and hosts of gods and demons. One should not touch them with one’s feet or urinate and defecate on them or have sex etc. below them. One should not cut etc. or burn them. Having worshipped and praised them regularly with their own flowers and shoots, one should always worship the Śrīkrama with devotion with their best fruits and roots. [...]”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Arka (अर्क) represents the number 12 (twelve) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 12—arka] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Arka (अर्क) refers to “Calotropis gigantea” (used in the treatment of Hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “[...] For the first seven days all birds suffering from Śākhā should be given meat and the powder of the bark of the root of Morunga guilandina mixed up with the milk of Calotropis gigantea [e.g., arka-kṣīra]. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: ENVIS: Giant Milkweed

The Arka plant is considered very special to Lord Ganesha. The leaves and the flowers are offered to the deity, especially during Ganesh Chaturthi. Ganapathi carved from the Arka, also known as Arka-Ganapathi is worshipped by some Hindu households. The plant is closely associated with Suryadeva (Hindu Sun God). In fact, ‘Arka’ is one of the 108 names of the Sun God. According to the some ancient scriptures, the Gods were performing a sacrificial ritual to the Sun God, when they spilled milk. From this emerged a plant, which the Gods named ‘Arka’, after Lord Surya. On Rathasapthami, (traditionally regarded as the day when the chariot of Suryadeva is turned to North by his charioteer, Aruna), devout Hindus place arka leaves on their head while taking snanam, (sacred bath).

Source: Its Life: Arka

Arka means “ray of light” in Sanskrit and the Arka plant is native to India and grows in dry wastelands. Pooja to Lord Hanuman is incomplete without the offering of a garland made with Arka flowers or Arka leaves. Hindus worship the plant and the leaves are used while having a bath on Rathasapthami/festival of Sun god. In the ancient scripts of Ayurveda, Arka is mentioned as a healing herb.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Arka (अर्क) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Arka).

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Arka (अर्क) is the name of a tree mentioned in connection with a Tantric ceremony, according to the Vajraḍākatantra chapter 38.—Five techniques to please Dūtīs as well as the Yogin himself and to enlarge a Yogin’s gentials are introduced. Various kinds of woods and plants in addition to honey and butter are utilized for this purpose. [...] The mixture of aśvagandhā, pāṭhā, kaṭurohiṇī and sap of arka-tree is effective for growing his genitals.

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Arka (अर्क) refers to the “mudar tree”, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “when you wish to offer food, first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. Make use of these [aforementioned] leaves [...] from the bhallātaka tree, leaves from the arka (mudar) tree, leaves from the ‘bitter tree,’ or [leaves] that you happen to obtain at the time for the ābhicāruka [rite]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Arka (अर्क) refers to a particular substance (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “The wise one should prepare a pill having mixed padmaka, arka, blue lotus, orpiment, mixed copper powder, mustard seed, indrahasta and palāśa with sugar juice. Having enchanted with the mantra eighty times, pills measuring a jujube fruit should be made. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Arka (अर्क) refers to one of the warriors in Rāvaṇa’s army, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.7 [The killing of Rāvaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] When the battle had been going on for a long time, the army of the Rākṣasas was broken by the Vānaras like a forest by winds. [...] From anger at the killing of Hasta and Prahasta, [Arka, ...] and others in Daśānana’s army advanced. [...] Then the soldiers of Rāma and Rāvaṇa returned, purifying their own men, killed and unkilled”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Arka (अर्क) refers to the “sun”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fool, you must understand, in reality, substance is not acknowledged in a mass of foam, the trunk of a plantain tree or in the body of human beings. The planets, moon, sun, stars (arkagrahacandrārkatārakāḥ) and seasons go and come [but] certainly for embodied souls bodies do not [go and come] even in a dream”.

Synonyms: Sūrya, Aryaman.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Arka is the name of a herb (oshadhi) mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D). Arka and Shani plants are also mentioned as being auspicious plants.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees, creepers medicinal and flowering plants (e.g., Arka) and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Gardens of herbs were specially maintained in big cities. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Arka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Arka (“sun”) or Surya is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Komatis (a trading caste of the Madras Presidency). The Komatis are said to have originally lived, and still live in large numbers on the banks of the Godavari river. One of the local names thereof is Gomati or Gomti, and the Sanskrit Gomati would, in Telugu, become corrupted into Komati. The sub-divisions are split up into septs (viz., Arka), which are of a strictly exogamous character.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Arka.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘twelve’. (EI 7), explained as ‘metal’ in relation to Arkaśālika. Note: arka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Arka in India is the name of a plant defined with Calotropis gigantea in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Madorius giganteus Kuntze (among others).

2) Arka is also identified with Calotropis procera It has the synonym Apocynum syriacum Garsault (etc.).

3) Arka is also identified with Pterocarpus santalinus It has the synonym Lingoum santalinum (L.f.) Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Fitoterapia (2007)
· Les Figures des Plantes et Animaux d'Usage en Medecine (1764)
· Hortus Kewensis (1811)
· Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society (1810)
· Journal of Natural Products
· Science and Culture (1980)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Arka, for example health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

arka (अर्क).—m (S) Spirit or essence; extract, essential oil, spirituous liquor. 2 The sun. 3 Gigantic swallowwort, Asclepias or Calotropis gigantea. 4 Quintessence or sublimation. In a bad sense. As hā labāḍācā a0 cōrācā-sōdyācā a0. Also arka-cōra-sōdā-labāḍa &c. 5 n (Portuguese.) An arch.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

arka (अर्क).—m Essence, spirit. The sun, Quint- essence, sublimation. arka kā़ḍhaṇēṃ Distil

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Arka (अर्क).—a. [arc-ghañ-kutvam Uṇādi-sūtra 3.4.]. Fit to be worshipped (arcanīya).

-rkaḥ 1 A ray of light, a flash of lightning (Ved.).

2) The sun; आविष्कृतारुणपुरःसर एकतोऽर्कः (āviṣkṛtāruṇapuraḥsara ekato'rkaḥ) Ś.4.2.

3) Fire. य एवमेतदर्कस्यार्कत्वं वेद (ya evametadarkasyārkatvaṃ veda) Bṛ. Up. 1.2.1.

4) A crystal; पुष्पार्ककेतकाभाश्च (puṣpārkaketakābhāśca) Rām.2.94.6.

5) Copper.

6) Sunday.

7) Membrum virile. एवा ते शेपः सहसायमर्कोऽङ्गेनाङ्गं संसमकं कृणोतु (evā te śepaḥ sahasāyamarko'ṅgenāṅgaṃ saṃsamakaṃ kṛṇotu) Av.6.72.1.

8) Name of the sun-plant, Calatropis Gigantea (Mar. ruī), a small tree with medicinal sap and rind; अर्कस्योपरि शिथिलं च्युतमिव नवमल्लिकाकुसुमम् (arkasyopari śithilaṃ cyutamiva navamallikākusumam) Ś.2.9; यमाश्रित्य न विश्रामं क्षुधार्ता यान्ति सेवकाः । सोऽर्कवन्नृपतिस्त्याज्यः सदापुष्पफलोऽपि सन् (yamāśritya na viśrāmaṃ kṣudhārtā yānti sevakāḥ | so'rkavannṛpatistyājyaḥ sadāpuṣpaphalo'pi san) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.51. अर्के चेन्मधु विन्देत (arke cenmadhu vindeta) ŚB. on MS.

9) Name of Indra.

1) A sort of religious ceremony.

11) Praise, hymn; praising, extolling, song of praise.

12) A singer (Ved. in these two senses).

13) A learned man.

14) An elder brother.

15) Food (arkam also).

16) Name of Viṣṇu.

17) A kind of decoction.

18) The seventh day of a month.

19) The उत्तरा- फल्गुनी (uttarā- phalgunī) asterism.

2) The number 12.

21) The sunstone (sūryakānta); मसारगल्वर्कमयैर्विभङ्गैर्विभूषितं हेमनिबद्धचक्रम् (masāragalvarkamayairvibhaṅgairvibhūṣitaṃ hemanibaddhacakram) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.46.33. cf. अर्कोऽर्कपर्णे स्फटिके ताम्रे सूर्ये दिवस्पतौ । ज्येष्ठभ्रातरि शुक्लेऽर्कपादपे च पुमान् भवेत् (arko'rkaparṇe sphaṭike tāmre sūrye divaspatau | jyeṣṭhabhrātari śukle'rkapādape ca pumān bhavet) || Nm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Arka (अर्क).—name of a king (previous incarnation of Śākya-muni): Mahāvastu i.54.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arka (अर्क).—m.

(-rkaḥ) 1. The sun. 2. Crystal. 3. Swallow wort, (Calotropis gigantea) 4. Copper. 5. A name of Indra. 6. A Pandit or learned man. 7. An elder brother. 8. Sunday. E. arca to worship or respect, ka Unadi affix, and the ca is dropped; what is worshipped or respected: or arka to heat, affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arka (अर्क).—i. e. arc + a, m. 1. A ray of light, Chr. 291, 2 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 2. 2. The sun, Chr. 36, 22. 3. Swallowwort, Asclepias gigantea, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 41.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arka (अर्क).—[masculine] beam, ray; the sun, fire; praise, song, sound, roar; singer; [Name] of a plant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Arka (अर्क):—1. arka m. (√arc), [Vedic or Veda] a ray, flash of lightning, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

2) the sun, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

3) (hence) the number, ‘twelve’, [Sūryasiddhānta]

4) Sunday

5) fire, [Ṛg-veda ix, 50, 4; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Bṛhad-āraṇyaka-upaniṣad]

6) crystal, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 94, 6]

7) membrum virile, [Atharva-veda vi, 72, 1]

8) copper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) the plant Calotropis Gigantea (the larger leaves are used for sacrificial ceremonies; cf. arka-kośī, -parṇa, palaśa, etc. below), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc., a religious ceremony, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Bṛhad-āraṇyaka-upaniṣad] (cf. arkāśvamedha below)

10) praise, hymn, song (also said of the roaring of the Maruts and of Indra’s thunder), [Ṛg-veda] and, [Atharva-veda]

11) one who praises, a singer, [Ṛg-veda]

12) Name of Indra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) a learned man (cf. [Ṛg-veda viii, 63, 6]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) an elder brother, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) Name of a physician, [Brahma-purāṇa] (cf. arka-cikitsā below)

16) mn. (with agneḥ, indrasya, gautamasaḥ, etc.) Name of different Sāmans

17) food, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska] and, [Nirukta, by Yāska] (cf. [Ṛg-veda vii, 9, 2]).

18) 2. arka [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] °kati, to become a sun, [Subhāṣitāvali]

19) Ārka (आर्क):—mfn. ([from] arka), belonging or relating to the sun, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

20) coming from the plant Calotropis Gigantea, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

21) m. an amulet made of the Arka plant, [Kauśika-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arka (अर्क):—(kaḥ) 1. m. The sun; crystal; swallow-wort; copper; Indra.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Arka (अर्क) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Akka.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Arka (अर्क) [Also spelled ark]:—(nm) the sun; swallow wart (Ascelpias gigantia).

2) Arka (अर्क) [Also spelled ark]:—(nm) essence; extract.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Arka (ಅರ್ಕ):—

1) [noun] the process of first heating a mixture to separate the more volatile from the less volatile parts, and then cooling and condensing the resulting vapour so as to produce a more nearly pure or refined substance; distillation.

2) [noun] a product of distillation; liquid obtained by distilling; esp. strong alcoholic drink, esp. that distilled from rice, molasses or coconut milk.

3) [noun] the essence of anything.

--- OR ---

Arka (ಅರ್ಕ):—

1) [noun] the sun.

2) [noun] copper.

3) [noun] (in gen.) any metal.

4) [noun] the splendour; light.

5) [noun] a crystal.

6) [noun] Indra, Lord of gods.

7) [noun] a celestial wish-yielding tree.

8) [noun] the plant Calotropis gigantica ( = C. procera) of Asclepiadaceae family.

9) [noun] the fact or quality of being wonderful or causing astonishment; a wonder.

10) [noun] (pros.) a metrical foot having two short and one long syllables (υ-υ).

11) [noun] a symbol for the number twelve.

12) [noun] a small water vessel; jug.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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