Vishala, aka: Viśālā, Visāla, Visala, Viśāla, Visālā, Viṣala; 20 Definition(s)

Introduction

Vishala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Viśālā and Viśāla and Viṣala can be transliterated into English as Visala or Vishala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

[Vishala in Purana glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल):—One of the three sons of Tṛṇabindu (son of Budha). He created a dynasty and constructed a palace called Vaiśālī. He had a son named Hemacandra (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2.33-34)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Viśālā (विशाला).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.

2) Viśālā (विशाला).—Name of a river originating from Ṛkṣa, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers. Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu.

Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Viśāla (विशाल).—A son of Ikṣvāku. Mention is made in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 47, that a son named Viśāla was born to Ikṣvāku, by the celestial maid Alambuṣā and that Viśāla built a city named Viśālā. This Viśāla had a son named Hemacandra. It was near the city Viśālā, that Ahalyā, the wife of Gautama, stood as stone, because of a curse. (See under Viśālapurī).

2) Viśālā (विशाला).—The queen of Ajamīḍha, a King of the Lunar dynasty. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanza 37).

3) Viśālā (विशाला).—The King Gaya once performed a sacrifice in the country called Gaya. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Śalya Parva, Chapter 38, Stanza 20, that Sarasvatī attended this sacrifice assuming the name Viśālā.

4) Viśālā (विशाला).—Wife of King Bhīma the son of Mahāvīrya. Three sons, Trayyāruṇi, Puṣkarī and Kapi were born to Bhīma by his wife Viśālā. (Vāyu: 37: 158). In Matsya Purāṇa, Viśālā is mentioned as the wife of King Utakṣaya.

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Viśāla (विशाल).—A son of Tṛṇabiṅdu and father of Hemacandra. Founder of Vaiśāli.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 33-34; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 61. 12.

1b) A playmate of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 22. 31.

1c) A tīrtha visited by Balarāma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 78. 19.

1d) A Kulaparvata of Ketumālā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 4.

1e) A nāga of the Vitalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 29.

1f) A very righteous king, a son of Viśravas (Tṛṇabiṅdu, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and Ālambuṣa, the Apsaras; father of Hemacandra; built the city of Viśālā;1 having no sons, consulted the Brahmans who advised him to give Piṇḍa in Gayā; he did so and got a son; once he saw three men white, red and black in colour in the clouds and asked them who they were; the white man said that he was his father coming from Indraloka, the red was his father who had slain Brahmans and the black was his grand-father who had slain a number of sages; the latter two were in Avīcinaraka and now got released by the Gayāpiṇḍa of Viśāla; then blessed him with a long life of prosperous reign, sacrifices and attainment of Viṣṇuloka2 in the end.

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 16-7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 49-50.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 112. 7-14.

2a) Viśālā (विशाला).—(Badarikāśrama). To this Dhruva went for meditation in the evening of his life. Similarly Nābhi and Merudevī spent their last years here.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 12. 16; V. 4. 5; XI. 29. 47.

2b) A R. from the Ṛkṣa hill.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 31.

2c) (Viśālayā) city founded by Viśāla, son of Tṛṇabindu;1 no shaving or Upavāsa, at.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 61. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 17; 112. 7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 49.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 105. 25.

2d) The wife of Urukṣava (ya): had three sons.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 162.

2e) A R. issuing from the Himālayas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 21.

2f) A R. of the Ketumālā country.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 21.

2g) A daughter of Suyaśā: the most beautiful.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 14.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

[Vishala in Rasashastra glossaries]

1) Viśāla (विशाल):—One of the sixty-four Divyauṣadhi, which are powerful drugs for solidifying mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).

2) Viśālā (विशाला):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Katha (narrative stories)

[Vishala in Katha glossaries]

1) Viśālā (विशाला) is the name of a city described in the Kathāsaritsāgara, which accordingly states it is like “a second city of Indra, made by the Creator on earth, for the sake of virtuous people who have fallen from heaven”.

2) Viśālā (विशाला) is the name of a king who fought on Sūryaprabha’s side but was slain by Nirghāta, who participated in the war on Śrutaśarman’s side, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly: “... when King Nirghāta saw that [the slaying of Harṣa, Pramātha, Kaṅkaṭa, and Viśāla, Pracaṇḍa and Aṅkurin], he was wroth, and attacked Cakravāla, and those two, Cakravāla and Nirghāta, fought for a long time, and at last they broke one another’s chariots to pieces and so became infantry soldiers, and the two, rushing furiously together, armed with sword and discus, cleft with sword-strokes one another’s heads and fell dead on the earth”.

The story of Viśāla was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Viśāla, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Vishala in Ayurveda glossaries]

1) Viśālā (विशाला) is another name for Indravāruṇī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to the Citrullus colocynthis (wild gourd), from the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 3.69-71), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus. The Sanskrit word Viśālā is derived from Viśāla, meaning “spacious”, or “large”. In a different context, Viśāla can mean “important” or “abundant”.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th-century Āyurvedic work), this plant (Viśālā) is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter.

2) Viśālā (विशाला):—Possibly identified with Paṭoli (Trichosanthes palmata), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[Vishala in Vastushastra glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Puṣpaka, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Puṣpaka group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (eg. Viśāla) that are to be square and rectangular or oblong in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Viśāla is mentioned in another list of 40 temples, in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 57, where it is mentioned as one of the five temples being a favorite of Brahmā.

Viśāla is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Puṣpaka, featuring rectangular-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Vishala in Natyashastra glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Viśāla) various roles suitable to them.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Vishala in Shilpashastra glossaries]

1) Viśālā (विशाला) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds pung with both hands. She wears a bodice of light-green colour and a scarf of rosy colour with a crimson-coloured design. Her lower garment is of dark-green colour bearing a black design in centre of it.

2) Viśāla (विशाल) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Viśāla (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a peacock. A viṇā is held with both hands.

The illustrations (of, for example Viśālā and Viśāla) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

[Vishala in Kavya glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is the city of Ujjain and the capital of Avantī.

(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Vishala in Itihasa glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल) refers to the name of a River or Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.82.100). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Viśāla) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Vishala in Shaivism glossaries]

Viśālā (विशाला) is the name of one of the thirty-two Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra, as well as one of the thirty-six Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Uḍḍāmareśvaratantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (eg., Viśālā) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.

(Source): academia.edu: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[Vishala in Theravada glossaries]

See Vesali.

-- or --

. The capital of Ceylon (then known as Mandadipa) in the time of Kassapa Buddha. It was to the west of Mahasagara uyyana, and its king at the time was Jayanta. Mhv.xv.127; Dpv.xv.60; xvii.6; Sp.i.87.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

[Vishala in India history glossaries]

Vīsala, son of Devapāla, is the name of a person mentioned in a Jain inscription found at Shergarh.  The next stanza (verse 5) mentions Devapāla’s son Ilhuka, as well as Goṣṭhin, Vīsala, Lalluka, Māuka and Hariścandra, and also Allaka, son of Gāgā, all of whom may have been associated with the installation of the Jinas.

The inscription (mentioning Vīsala) was found found on the pedestal below the central figure of a group of three images of Jain Tīrthaṅkaras in a small temple outside the fort at Shergarh (ancient Kośavardhana). The three Tīrthaṅkaras represented are Śānti (Śāntinātha), Kunthu or Kunthanātha and Ara (Aranātha).

(Source): What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Vishala in Pali glossaries]

visāla : (adj.) large, broad; extensive; bulky.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Visāla, (adj.) (cp. Sk. viśāla) wide, broad, extensive Sn. 38; J. V, 49, 215 (°pakhuma); Miln. 102, 311.

—akkhī (f.) having large eyes J. V, 40; Vv 371 (+vipulalocanā; or a petī). (Page 640)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Vishala in Marathi glossaries]

viśāla (विशाल).—a (S) pop. viśāḷa a Great, large, huge, vast, immense.

--- OR ---

visāḷa (विसाळ) [or ळा, ḷā].—m Envy.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viśāla (विशाल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—a Great, large, huge, vast.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Vishala in Sanskrit glossaries]

Viśāla (विशाल).—a.

1) Large, great, extensive, spacious, broad, wide; गृहैर्विशालैरपि भूरिशालैः (gṛhairviśālairapi bhūriśālaiḥ) Śi.3.5; रथचरण- विशालश्रोणिलोलेक्षणेन (rathacaraṇa- viśālaśroṇilolekṣaṇena) 11.23;17.47; R.2.21;6.32; ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकं विशालम् (te taṃ bhuktvā svargalokaṃ viśālam) Bg.9.21.

2) Rich or abounding in; श्रीविशालां विशालाम् (śrīviśālāṃ viśālām) Me.3.

3) Eminent, illustrious, great, noble, celebrated.

-laḥ 1 A kind of deer.

2) A kind of bird.

-lā 1 Name of the town Ujjayini; पूर्वोद्दिष्टामनु- सर पुरीं श्रीविशालां विशालाम् (pūrvoddiṣṭāmanu- sara purīṃ śrīviśālāṃ viśālām) Me.3.

2) Name of a river.

3) Colocynth (Mar. moṭhī kaṃvaḍaḷa).

--- OR ---

Viṣala (विषल).—Poison, venom.

Derivable forms: viṣalaḥ (विषलः).

--- OR ---

Visala (विसल).—See बिसल (bisala).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Bhadraviśāla (भद्रविशाल) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according ...
Visalagamika
Visalagamika is the name of a locality that existed in the ancient kingdom of Anurādhapura, Cey...
Vaishali
Vaiśalī is an archaeologically important site dating to the Ganges civilization (1000 BCE).—Nea...
Vijaya
Vijaya (विजय) is the name of a sacred mountain range in Kaśmīra, according to in the Kathāsarit...
Jaya
Jayā (जया) or Jayātantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāg...

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