Karkasha, Karkaśa: 22 definitions


Karkasha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Karkaśa can be transliterated into English as Karkasa or Karkasha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Karkash.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Karkaśa (कर्कश) is a Sanskrit word referring to Momordica dioica (spiny gourd), from the Cucurbitaceae family. Certain plant parts of Karkaśa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

2) Karkaśa (कर्कश) is another name for Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. It can also be spelled as Kampilla (कम्पिल्ल).

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Karkaśa (कर्कश):—Rough

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Karkasha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Karkaśa (कर्कश) refers to “harsh (musical instruments)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.7 (“Commencement of the War”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “Battle drums were sounded as loud as the rumbling sound of the clouds at the dissolution of the world. The harsh (karkaśa) musical instruments were also played when he came. The Asuras in the company of Tāraka roared and shook the ground with their thudding footsteps, leapings and bouncings. Undaunted by that terrible noise, the gods simultaneously rose up to fight Tāraka. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Karkaśa (कर्कश).—A commander of Bhaṇḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 79.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Karkasha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Karkaśa (कर्कश) refers to “insensitive (intellect)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Some have intellects which have become insensitive (karkaśa-dhī) through reasoning and [philosophical] speculations, [and some] are elevated by [their] conceit and ego. Some are self-satisfied with pride, [rendered] stupid by [their obsession with] caste, and [some] are confounded by activities such as meditation. Generally speaking, the multitudes of people have deluded minds and various [mental] disturbances, for, those who experience nothing but the bliss of the undisturbed, natural [no-mind] state, are not seen in the world. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Karkasha in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Karkaśā (कर्कशा) refers to “abusive utterances”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] It has been said that there are eighteen addictions. These are the outcome of the desire for earthly enjovments. [...] Rudeness of speech means indecent and abusive utterances (karkaśā). It is good when inflicting punishment and dispensing justice. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Karkaśa (कर्कश) refers to “unpleasant (speech)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus he becomes one who subjugates the works of Māra (mārakarman). What then is the subjugation of the works of Māra? That by means of which none of Māra can find a weak point in the Bodhisattva. [...] (28) living in pride with no respect, slanderous speech, having falsehood and fraud, taking pleasure in fabrications, dishonesty, harsh and unpleasant (karkaśa) [speech], not criticizing sins, pulling out the root of dharmas, being satisfied with little learning-dharma, desire for the non-dharma, not blocking obstructions, interruptions, the uprising [of depravities] are the works of Māra; [...]”.

2) Karkaśā (कर्कशा) refers to “roughness” (as opposed to Akarkaśā—‘that which is not hard’), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, “[...] Ratnapāṇi said: ‘Son of good family, what are those sixteen dharmas included in?’ Gaganagañja said: ‘Son of good family, the sixteen dharmas are included in thirty-two dharmas. What are those thirty-two? [...] (3) the absence of pride is included in the absence of contemptuousness and humility; (4) the absence of guile is included in the undefiled and no roughness (akarkaśā); [...]’”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Karkaśa (कर्कश) refers to “hardness (of the body)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after the Bhagavān taught the great heart-dhāraṇī], “[...] If it is otherwise and you neglect the Tathāgata’s authorization and his dignity of speech, then all Nāga residences are ignited and burnt. [...] Let them be deprived of power, and their valour be destroyed. Let them be without water. Let there be the drying up of the residence. Let them have hard bodies (karkaśa-gātra). Let them always have the danger of fire-sand and be hungry and thirsty. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Karkasha in India is the name of a plant defined with Senna occidentalis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cassia foetida Pers. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Denkschriften der Koeniglich-Baierischen Botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg (1822)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1995)
· FBI (1878)
· Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands (1924)
· Flora Caroliniana (1788)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2003)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karkasha, for example health benefits, side effects, diet and recipes, extract dosage, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karkaśa (कर्कश).—a (S) Harsh, grating, thrilling, piercing, sharp or shrill-sounding. 2 Cross, crabbed, savage, ill-tempered.

--- OR ---

karkaśā (कर्कशा).—f (S) A vixen, virago, scold. 2 A female of a shrill voice.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karkaśa (कर्कश).—a Grating, harsh, cross.

--- OR ---

karkaśā (कर्कशा).—f A scold, a vilago, vixen. A female or a shrill voice.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karkaśa (कर्कश).—a. [karka-śa]

1) Hard, rough (opp. komala or mṛdu); सुरद्विपास्फालनकर्कशाङ्गुलौ (suradvipāsphālanakarkaśāṅgulau) R.3.55,12.41,13.73; ऐरावतास्फालनकर्कशेन हस्तेन पस्पर्श तदङ्गमिन्द्रः (airāvatāsphālanakarkaśena hastena pasparśa tadaṅgamindraḥ) Kumārasambhava 3.22,1.36; Śiśupālavadha 15.1,16.18,63.

2) Harsh, cruel, merciless (words, conduct &c.); तस्य तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा राक्षसाः कोपकर्कशाः (tasya tadvacanaṃ śrutvā rākṣasāḥ kopakarkaśāḥ) Rām.3.53.6.

3) Violent, strong, excessive; तस्य कर्कशविहारसंभवम् (tasya karkaśavihārasaṃbhavam) R.9.68.

4) Hardy, strong, muscular, robust.

5) Strict, imperative, peremptory; प्रभुरिव पुनः कार्ये कार्ये भवत्यतिकर्कशः (prabhuriva punaḥ kārye kārye bhavatyatikarkaśaḥ) Mv.2.11.

6) Desperate.

7) Illconducted, unchaste, unfaithful (as a woman).

8) Incomprehensible, difficult to comprehend; तर्के वा भृशकर्कशे मम समं लीलायते भारती (tarke vā bhṛśakarkaśe mama samaṃ līlāyate bhāratī) P. R.

9) Niggardly.

1) Greatly addicted to (atyāsakta); नानागन्धर्वमिथुनैः पानसंसर्गकर्कशैः (nānāgandharvamithunaiḥ pānasaṃsargakarkaśaiḥ) Rām. 4.67.45.

-śaḥ 1 A sword.

2) A substance in आयुर्वेद (āyurveda).

3) A black sugarcane; cf. Nm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaśa (कर्कश).—mfn.

(-śaḥ-śā-śaṃ) 1. Violent. 2. Hard. 3. Intangible. 4. Cruel. 5. Unfeeling, unmerciful. 6. Harsh, unkind. 7. Miserly. m.

(-śaḥ) 1. A plant, commonly Sunda rochani, (Crinum?) 2. A kind of cassia, (Cassia esculenta.) 3. Sugar-cane. 4. A sword, a scymitar. f. (-śī) Wild jujube; also karkaśikā. E. kṝ to injure, vic affix, kaśa with the same meaning, and ac, highly injurious: or karka a Sautra root, and śa aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaśa (कर्कश).—adj., f. śā. 1. Hard, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 740. 2. Firm, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 56. 3. Cruel, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 36, 23.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaśa (कर्कश).—[adjective] rough, hard.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karkaśa (कर्कश):—mf(ā)n. (perhaps connected with karka and karkara) hard, firm, rough, harsh ([literally] and metaph.), [Suśruta; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Bhartṛhari] etc.

2) m. a sword, scymitar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Cassia or Sennia Esculenta

4) a species of sugar-cane

5) = guṇḍorocanī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Karkaśā (कर्कशा):—[from karkaśa] f. Tragia Involucrata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

8) Kārkaṣa (कार्कष):—[varia lectio] for kārkaṭya q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaśa (कर्कश):—[(śaḥ-śā-śaṃ) a.] Violent, cruel; hard; intangible, miserly. 1. m. A plant, sugar-cane; a sword. (śī) 3. f. Wild jujube.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karkaśa (कर्कश) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kakkasa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karkasha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karkasha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Karkaśa (कर्कश) [Also spelled karkash]:—(a) hard, harsh, screechy; hoarse; hence ~[] (nf).

2) Karkaśā (कर्कशा):—(a) termagant, shrew; quarrelsome; (nf) quarrelsome/shrewish woman.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karkaśa (ಕರ್ಕಶ):—[adjective] unpleasantly rough or sharp, esp. to the senses as grating to the ear, to hard to touch.

--- OR ---

Karkaśa (ಕರ್ಕಶ):—

1) [noun] Yama, the God of Death and the dispenser of divine justice.

2) [noun] the tree Cassia (or Senna) esculanta.

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Karkasa (ಕರ್ಕಸ):—

1) [noun] difficulty a) the condition or fact of being difficult; b) something that is difficult, as a hard problem or an obstacle or objection.

2) [noun] the quality or condition of being severe, strict, harsh, trying etc.; severity.

3) [noun] the quality of being unduly proud in oneself and being disdainful, contemptuous or scornful toward others; haughtiness.

4) [noun] the quality of acting or moving with great force, violence; vehemence; impetuosity.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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