Varaha, aka: Vārāha, Varāha, Varāhā; 28 Definition(s)
Varaha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Varāha stone resembles a Sakti in shape and has two rugged and uneven circular marks.Source: archive.org: The Garuda puranam
1) Varāha (वराह).—An ancient hermit. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 17, that this hermit stayed in the palace of Yudhiṣṭhira. (See full article at Story of Varāha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Vārāha (वाराह).—A holy place in the middle of Kurukṣetra. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 88, that Mahāviṣṇu stayed in this place for a while in the shape of Varāha (Boar) and that those who bathe in this holy bath would obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice Agniṣṭoma.
3) Varāha (वराह).—(Boar). One of the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Need for this incarnation. Jaya and Vijaya, two doorkeepers of Mahāviṣṇu showed disrespect towards the famous hermits Sanaka and others who went to visit Mahāviṣṇu. The angry hermits cursed them to take birth as asuras. Accordingly Jaya and Vijaya took birth as the two asuras Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu and were born from Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Diti.
4) Varāha (वराह).—A mountain near Girivraja, the capital city of Magadha. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 2).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Varāha (वराह, “board”).—According to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, Viṣṇu assumed the form of a boar (varāha) to lift up the earth while according to the Agni Purāṇa, Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa and Matsya Purāṇa the cause was the slaying of the demon Hiraṇyākṣa.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1a) Varāha (वराह).—(also vārāha)—an incarnation of Hari; born out of Brahmā's nostrils; roaring, he entered the waters and rescued the earth above, after vanquishing the Asura who attacked him. Prayer to, by the sages.1 Slew Hiraṇyākṣa in the Sumana hill of Plakṣadvīpa.2 The third avatār.3 Killed Hiraṇyākṣa by cutting the ocean into two by his teeth;4 mother-earth taken to rasātalam, appealed to Viṣṇu for protection; he took up the Varāha avatār and released the earth above the waters by raising her with his teeth;5 his next avatār was Vāmana;6 Icon of.7
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 13. 18-45; X. 2. 40; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 5. 15.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 13; III. 36. 11; 72. 73-8.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 47. 43.
- 4) Ib. 47. 47.
- 5) Ib. Chh. 247 and 248; 102. 11.
- 6) Ib. 122. 16; 244. 6.
- 7) Ib. 259. 2; 260. 28-9; 285. 6.
1d) The boar's flesh for śrāddha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 17. 33.
1e) A Dānava in the Tārakāmaya.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 173. 16; 177. 6.
2a) Vārāha (वाराह).—(Viṣṇu). An avatār of Hari who raised the earth from the waters, see Varāha, the form which Viṣṇu takes in the Śvetakalpa with four feet, four hands, etc., becomes Samvatsara and assumes the form of yajña; the four yugas are four feet, the kratus are aṅgas or limbs, the four Vedas are the hands ṛtu, sandhimukhas, two ayanas are the faces and eyes, three parvas are the heads, etc.,1 appropriate to water sports; description of;2 helped by Māyā, wife (Chāyā, Vāyu-purāṇa) out of the recovered earth came mountains and seven worlds; creation of human beings;3 where Brahmā is said to assume this form.4
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 4. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 103-7; 48. 40; 49. 11; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 4. 8, 26.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 5. 11, ff.
- 3) Ib. I. 5. 19.
- 4) Ib. II. 7. 7-9.
2b) A mountain afraid of Hiraṇyakaśipu's arms.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 163. 81.
2c) The 26th kalpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 290. 9.
2d) The present kalpa; fourteen Manus beginning with Svāyambhuva; name and features explained.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 12, 23, 26 f. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 28; II. 1. 43.
2e) A Janapada of the Bhadrā continent.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 22.
2f) A mahāpurāṇa, comprising 24,000 ślokas;1 narrated by Viṣṇu to Kṣoṇi containing the māhātmya of Mahāvārāha; he who gives it with a golden eagle on the Full Moon day of Madhu reaches oneness with Viṣṇu.2Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Varāha (वराह).—The story of the third incarnation of Viṣṇu appearing in the form of a boar is well known but there are many versions. Almost each purāṇic text gives its own version. The Bhāgavata, the Matsya elaborate the episodes of Viṣṇu saving the earth, whereas the Liṇga and the Śivapurāṇa speak of Viṣṇu in the form of a black boar digging the earth to find the lower end of the luminous column in which appears Śiva (see Liṅgodbhavamūrti).Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Varāha (boar): Mṛga-śīrṣa hands one upon the other (back to back), the thumbs and little fingers linked. Usage: boar.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Varāha (वराह) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “hog”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Varāha is part of the sub-group named Ānupamṛga, refering to animals “who live in marshy land”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.
The meat of the hog (varāha) is uncting, bulk-promoting, aphrodisiac, alleviates fatigue and vāta, promots strength, relish in food and weating, and is heavy.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Varāha (वराह)—Sanskrit word for the animal “boar” (Sus scrofa). This animal is from the group called Kūlacara (‘shore-dwellers’). Kūlacara itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).
The flesh of the boar (Barāha/Varāha) or common pig is constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic and diaphoretic, and imparts a greater strength to the system. It is heavy (as regards digestion), demulcent, cooling, refrigerant, and pleasant, and destroys the deranged Vāyu.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Varāha (वराह) is the Sanskrit name of a deity presiding over Vindhyāparvata, one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, which is one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas and presiding deities (eg., Varāha) is found in the commentary on the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Varāha (वराह) or Varāhāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Prodgītāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Varāha Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Prodgīta-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Katha (narrative stories)
Varāha (वराह) is the name of a king allied to Devamāya who marched in war against Naravāhanadatta, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 109. Accordingly, “... and Devamāya too, when he heard it, marched out towards him to give battle, accompanied by numerous kings, Varāha, Vajramuṣṭi, and others, and followed by his army. Then there took place on Kailāsa a battle between those two armies, and while it was going on the sky was obscured by the chariots of the gods, who came to look on”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Varāha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Varāha (वराह).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In his Varāha incarnation, he rescued the earth from the Daityas.Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Varaha is one of the five large hills protecting the city of Girivraja. Mentioned in the Mahabharata, Second book, Section XXI; The other hills being: Vaihara, Vrishava, Rishigiri, Chaitya;Source: Wisdom Library: Mahābhārata
Varāhā (वराहा) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VIII.30.32, IX.44.74, VIII.30.73) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Varāhā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Varāha (वराह) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Varāha is large-sized; colour of blue beetle (indranīla); without any lines (virekhā). Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (eg., Varāha stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.Source: archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
Varāha (वराह) is found as a sculpture at the temple of Lokeśvara, north wall, north façade.—Between the images of Aṣṭabhuja Viṣṇu and Śūlaparaśudhāri Śiva is represented a scene of Bhū Varāha-mūrti. With regard to the representation of Bhūvarāha the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa gives the following explanations for representing it: “Hari as Aniruddha is Varāha, the embodiment of might and by the power of his might he lifts up the earth on the tip of his tusk (śloka 1). Further the text also mentions that Varāha may be represented in another way too. Like Narasiṃha Varāha can also be represented with a human body having the face of a Boar. On the span (aratni) of his left hand should be placed Vasundharā in the form of a woman”.
On the back of Śeṣa the god should be shown in the ālīḍha pose. Śaṅkha should be depicted in the hand which holds the earth Goddess. His other hands should carry padma, cakra and gadā. For the illustration of the image in the Lokeśvara temple, we do not know the source but we see the goddess sitting on his right arm folded.Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
1) Varāha (वराह, “boar”) refers to a type of animal form, representing one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The animals and birds found as vehicles for the deities or held as attributes or weapons in the hands of the deities are, for example, Varāha.
2) Varāha (वराह, “boar”) or Varāhāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. In dancing, after showing varāha-hasta at the level of the shoulder, the hands assume añjali-hasta and are placed at the mouth and the legs are shortened. This posture denotes a wild boar. In iconography, Varāha is represented with a boar’s head holding Bhūmidevī (the goddess of the earth, consort of Viṣṇu) seated on his left knee in āliṅgana-hasta. Here also there is no similarity between the position of the hands used in dancing and images for Viṣṇu in varāha-avatāra.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Varāha (वराह, “boar”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the satyayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
During the reign of the Swayambhuva_Manu, the earth had sunk to the bottom of the ocean (some say by the action of Hiranyaksha), and life could not exist there. Heeding the prayers of the Devas, Lord Vishnu changed himself into a boar and raised the earth from the bottom of the ocean, supported on his teeth (tusks?). This is the Varaha-avatar.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
1. Varaha (Sanskrit: वराह, "boar") is the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu in the form of a boar. Varaha is listed as third in the Dashavatara, the ten principal avatars of Vishnu. When the demon Hiranyaksha stole the earth (personified as the goddess Bhudevi) and hid her in the primordial waters, Vishnu appeared as Varaha to rescue her. Varaha slew the demon and retrieved the Earth from the ocean, lifting it on his tusks, and restored Bhudevi to her place in the universe.
2. Avatar of Viṣnu. Varaha, the boar, from the Satya Yuga. He appeared to defeat Hiranyaksha, a demon who had taken the Earth, or Prithvi, and carried it to the bottom of what is described as the cosmic ocean in the story. The battle between Varaha and Hiranyaksha is believed to have lasted for a thousand years, which the former finally won. Varaha carried the Earth out of the ocean between his tusks and restored it to its place in the universe.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
India history and geogprahy
Varaha refers to one of the thirty-six Rajput clans, according to various inscriptions and literature. They are possible part Padmanabha list, who compiled the 15th-century Kanhadadeprabandha, a work describing the Muslim invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD. The kingdom or dynasty of the Varahas had their own princes and nobles and were further separated into sub-clans and families. Their name can also be spelled as Varāhā.
The Rajputs are a Hindu race claiming to be descendants of the ancient Kṣatriya-varṇa (warrior caste). Originally, the Rajputs consisted of two principal branches: the Sūryavaṃśa (solar race) and the Candravaṃśa (lunar race), to which later was added the Agnivaṃśa (fire-born race).Source: Wisdom Library: India History
Varāha (वराह) is another name for Girivraja or Giribbaja: an ancient capital of Magadha, one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, according to the Mahābhārata.—Early Pāli literature abounds in information about the Magadha country, its people, and its ancient capital Giribbaja. Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern Patna and Gayā districts of Bihar. The Mahābhārata seems to record that Girivraja was also called Bārhadrathapura as well as Māgadhapura and that Māgadhapura was a well-fortified city being protected by five hills. Other names recorded in the Mahābhārata are Varāha, Vrishabha, Rishigiri, and Caityaka. The statement of the Mahābhārata that Girivraja was protected by five hills is strikingly confirmed by the Vimānavatthu Commentary in which we read that the city of Giribbaja was encircled by the mountains Isigili, Vepulla, Vebhara, Paṇḍava and Gijjhakūṭa.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
varāha : (m.) a hog; a boar.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Varāha, (Vedic varāha & varāhu, freq. in Rigveda) a boar, wild hog Dh. 325=Th. 1, 17; J. V, 406=VI, 277; Miln. 364; Sdhp. 378. (Page 602)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
varāha (वराह).—m (S) A boar. 2 The boar-avatar of Vishn̤u.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
varāha (वराह).—m A boar.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Varāha (वराह).—[varāya abhīṣṭāya mustādilābhāya āhanti bhūmim ā-han-ḍa Tv.]
1) A boar, hog; विस्रब्धं क्रियतां वराहततिभिर्मुस्ताक्षतिः पल्वले (visrabdhaṃ kriyatāṃ varāhatatibhirmustākṣatiḥ palvale) Ś.2.6.
2) A ram.
3) A bull.
4) A cloud.
5) A crocodile.
6) An array of troops in the form of a boar.
7) Name of Viṣṇu in the third or boar incarnation; cf. वसति दशनशिखरे धरणी तव लग्ना शशिनि कलङ्ककलेव निमग्ना । केशव धृतशूकररूप जय जगदीश हरे (vasati daśanaśikhare dharaṇī tava lagnā śaśini kalaṅkakaleva nimagnā | keśava dhṛtaśūkararūpa jaya jagadīśa hare) Gīt.1.
8) A particular measure.
9) Name of Varāhamihira
1) Name of one of the 18 Purāṇas.
11) A mountain; L. D. B.
12) A coin; L. D. B.
13) A kind of grass; L. D. B.
Derivable forms: varāhaḥ (वराहः).
--- OR ---
Vārāha (वाराह).—a. (-hī f.) [वराहस्येदं प्रियत्वात् अण् (varāhasyedaṃ priyatvāt aṇ)] Relating to a boar; वाराहीमात्मयोनेस्तनुमवनविधावास्थितस्यानुरूपाम् (vārāhīmātmayonestanumavanavidhāvāsthitasyānurūpām) Mu.7. 19; Y.1.259; शक्तिः साप्याययौ तत्र वाराहीं विभ्रती तनुम् (śaktiḥ sāpyāyayau tatra vārāhīṃ vibhratī tanum) Devīmāhātmya.
-haḥ 1 A boar.
2) A kind of tree.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 164 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Varāhāvatāra (वराहावतार) is another name for Varāha, one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”, ...
Mahāvarāha (महावराह) is the name of a king from Śūrapura, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara,...
Varāhamihira (वराहमिहिर) (C. 550 C.E.), son of Ādityadāsa alias Rudrapaśu and resident of Avant...
Varāhakalpa (वराहकल्प).—the period of the boar incarnation, the period during which Viṣṇu assum...
Vārāhatīrtha (वाराहतीर्थ) refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in ...
Varāhapurāṇa (वराहपुराण).—See under Purāṇa.
Nṛvarāha (नृवराह) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasa...
Yajñavarāha (यज्ञवराह).—Viṣṇu in his boar incarnation. Derivable forms: yajñavarāhaḥ (यज्ञवराहः...
Vārāhakṣetra (वाराहक्षेत्र) is the name of a sacred field located at Kāśmīra (Kashmir), accordi...
Varāha-viṃśopaka.—(1/20) of a varāha; see varāha and viṃśopaka. Note: varāha-viṃśopaka is defin...
Varāha-paṇam.—probably ‘money calculated in varāha (q. v.).’ Note: varāha-paṇam is defined in t...
Vārāha-muhūrta (वाराह-मुहूर्त):—Name for a specific portion or phase of the day, used ...
Varāhakarṇa (वराहकर्ण).—a kind o arrow; वराह- कर्णैर्नालोकैविकर्णैश्चाभ्यवीवृषत् (varāha- karṇa...
Varāhaśṛṅga (वराहशृङ्ग).—Name of Śiva.Derivable forms: varāhaśṛṅgaḥ (वराहशृङ्गः).Varāhaśṛṅga is...
Varāhanāman (वराहनामन्).—n. an esculent root. Varāhanāman is a Sanskrit compound consisting of ...
Search found 55 books and stories containing Varaha, Vārāha, Varāha or Varāhā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
12. The Varāha Purāṇa < [Preface]
Classification of the Purāṇas < [Preface]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 5 - On the Gāyatrī Stotra < [Book 12]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.143 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 2.4.155-157 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 1.1.6 < [Chapter 1 - Bhauma: On the Earth]
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)