Shardula, Śārdūla: 23 definitions
Shardula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śārdūla can be transliterated into English as Sardula or Shardula, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Shardul.
Images (photo gallery)
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—A spy of Rāvaṇa. It was he, who informed Rāvaṇa about the arrival of Rāma. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, Canto 30).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to a “tigers”, acting as Vīrabhadra’s body-guards”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Receiving his command, with his head bowed down in reverence, Vīrabhadra set off immediately to the place of sacrifice. [...] Many strong lions, tigers (śārdūla), crocodiles, huge fishes and thousands of elephants constituted his body-guard”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—The lord of animals.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 35. 6; 70. 10.
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to “tigers” (living in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh Rāma! Antelopes, lions, elephants, tigers (śārdūla), Śarabhas (legendary animal with eight legs), birds, yaks and all others which roam in the forest, run away after seeing your form, since they have never seen your figure before. When there is cause for fear, who would not have fear?’”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) (lit. “one who is fabulous”) is a synonym (another name) for either the Lion (Siṃha) or the Tiger (Vyāghra), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to “tigers”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Hear now the effects of the heliacal rising of Canopus (Agastya), a star sacred to Agastya who suppressed the Vindhya mountains whose soaring heights obstructed the course of the Sun; [...] whose summits appeared to score the starry vault; whose rocks were full of buzzing bees scared by the violent pulling of flower trees by wild elephants and were also the abodes of hyenas, of bears, of tigers and of monkeys [i.e., tarakṣa-ṛkṣa-śārdūla-śākhāmṛga-adhyāsita]; through which lay the secret course of the Ravi which appeared to embrace its bosom with the affection of a mistress; and in whose forests dwelt the Devas and also Brāhmaṇa recluses, some subsisting on water, some on roots, some on the air and some altogether without food”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Śārdūla (शार्दूल, ‘tiger’) is mentioned in the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. Cf. Vyāghra.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Śārdūlī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Śārdūla] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śārdūla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m S pop. śārdūḷa m A tiger. 2 A tree, Pentaptera tomentosa vel Urjuna.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m A tiger. A particular tree.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—[śṝ-ūlal duk ca Uṇādi-sūtra 4.97]
1) A tiger.
2) A leopard or panther.
3) A demon, Rākṣasa.
4) A kind of bird.
5) A kind of animal called शरभ (śarabha).
6) A lion.
7) (at the end of comp.) An eminent or distinguished person, foremost; as in नरशार्दूलः (naraśārdūlaḥ); cf. कुञ्जर (kuñjara).
Derivable forms: śārdūlaḥ (शार्दूलः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śardūla (शर्दूल).—[, Lalitavistara 207.17; read with some mss. gar- dūla, q.v.]
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Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—name of a Bodhisattva: Gaṇḍavyūha 442.16.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-laḥ) 1. A tiger. 2. Another animal. 3. A Rakshasa. 4. A sort of bird. 5. (In composition,) Pre-eminent, excellent. 6. A form of metre, a variety of the class Dhriti, or stanza of four lines of 18 syllables each; also of the class Atidhriti, in which there are 19 syllables in the line. E. śṝ to injure, dūlac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m. 1. A tiger, [Nala] 12, 129. 2. A Rākṣasa. 3. A sort of bird. 4. (as latter part of comp. words), Best, pre-eminent; e. g. muni-, m. A pre-eminent sage, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 49, 15; rājaśardūla, i. e. rājan-, m. A pre-eminent king, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 28.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—[masculine] tiger ([feminine] ī); best among (—°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śārdūla (शार्दूल):—m. (of unknown derivation) a tiger, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.
2) a lion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) a panther, leopard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) the fabulous animal Śarabha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) a kind of bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) any eminent person, best, excellent, pre-eminent (ifc.; cf. vyāghra), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
7) Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) Name of two metres (cf. below), [Colebrooke]
9) of a Rākṣasa, [Rāmāyaṇa]
10) [plural] Name of a Śākhā or school of the Yajur-vedaSource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śārdūla (शार्दूल):—(laḥ) 1. m. A tiger; a rākshasa; sort of bird; name of a metre; (in compounds) preeminent.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saddūla.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Śārdūla (शार्दूल) [Also spelled shardul]:—(nm) a tiger.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a very fabulous mythological animal having eight legs, believed to overpower lions and elephants.
2) [noun] a tiger.
3) [noun] a lion.
4) [noun] a panther or leopard.
5) [noun] (in comp.) an excellent man.
6) [noun] name of a daemon.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Shardulacarman, Shardulacharman, Shardulajyeshtha, Shardulakarna, Shardulakarnavadana, Shardulalalita, Shardulaloman, Shardulamrigasevita, Shardulasamavikrama, Shardulashataka, Shardulavahana, Shardulavaktra, Shardulavarman, Shardulavikridita.
Ends with: Bharatashardula, Bhrigushardula, Grahanishardula, Gramashardula, Gulmashardula, Kshudrashardula, Munishardula, Narashardula, Pakshishardula, Plihashardula, Purushashardula, Rajashardula, Rasashardula, Yadavashardula.
Full-text (+34): Shardulavahana, Shardulavikridita, Shardulalalita, Shardulacarman, Saddula, Narashardula, Kshudrashardula, Pakshishardula, Bhrigushardula, Bharatashardula, Purushashardula, Sharduli, Shardulashataka, Shardulaloman, Shardulavarman, Shardulamrigasevita, Shardulakarna, Shardulajyeshtha, Shardulasamavikrama, Rajashardula.
Search found 22 books and stories containing Shardula, Śārdūla, Sardula, Śardūla; (plurals include: Shardulas, Śārdūlas, Sardulas, Śardūlas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 39 - Treatment for chronic diarrhea (11): Grahani-shardula rasa < [Chapter III - Jvaratisara fever with diarrhoea]
Part 4 - Treatment for enlargement of spleen and liver (3): Pliha-shardula rasa < [Chapter VII - Enlargement of spleen (plihodara) and liver (yakridudara)]
Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 29 - Ravana sends out fresh Spies < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
Chapter 30 - Shardula gives an Account of his Mission to Ravana < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
Chapter 20 - Ravana sends Shuka to Sugriva < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
The Religion and Philosophy of Tevaram (Thevaram) (by M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy)
Nayanar 35: Sirappuli (Cirappuli) < [Volume 4.1.1 - A comparative study of the Shaivite saints the Thiruthondathogai]
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
Jnaneshwari (Bhavartha Dipika) (by Ramchandra Keshav Bhagwat)
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)