Shardula, Śārdūla: 16 definitions

Introduction

Shardula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śārdūla can be transliterated into English as Sardula or Shardula, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shardula in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—A spy of Rāvaṇa. It was he, who informed Rāvaṇa about the arrival of Rāma. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, Canto 30).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to a “tigers”, acting as Vīrabhadra’s body-guards”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Receiving his command, with his head bowed down in reverence, Vīrabhadra set off immediately to the place of sacrifice. [...] Many strong lions, tigers (śārdūla), crocodiles, huge fishes and thousands of elephants constituted his body-guard”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—The lord of animals.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 35. 6; 70. 10.
Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Śārdūla (शार्दूल) refers to “tigers” (living in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh Rāma! Antelopes, lions, elephants, tigers (śārdūla), Śarabhas (legendary animal with eight legs), birds, yaks and all others which roam in the forest, run away after seeing your form, since they have never seen your figure before. When there is cause for fear, who would not have fear?’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śārdūla (शार्दूल, ‘tiger’) is mentioned in the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. Cf. Vyāghra.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śārdūla (शार्दूल) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Śārdūlī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Śārdūla] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śārdūla (शार्दूल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śārdūla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m S pop. śārdūḷa m A tiger. 2 A tree, Pentaptera tomentosa vel Urjuna.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m A tiger. A particular tree.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—[śṝ-ūlal duk ca Uṇ.4.97]

1) A tiger.

2) A leopard or panther.

3) A demon, Rākṣasa.

4) A kind of bird.

5) A kind of animal called शरभ (śarabha).

6) A lion.

7) (at the end of comp.) An eminent or distinguished person, foremost; as in नरशार्दूलः (naraśārdūlaḥ); cf. कुञ्जर (kuñjara).

Derivable forms: śārdūlaḥ (शार्दूलः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śardūla (शर्दूल).—[, Lalitavistara 207.17; read with some mss. gar- dūla, q.v.]

--- OR ---

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—name of a Bodhisattva: Gaṇḍavyūha 442.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. A tiger. 2. Another animal. 3. A Rakshasa. 4. A sort of bird. 5. (In composition,) Pre-eminent, excellent. 6. A form of metre, a variety of the class Dhriti, or stanza of four lines of 18 syllables each; also of the class Atidhriti, in which there are 19 syllables in the line. E. śṝ to injure, dūlac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—m. 1. A tiger, [Nala] 12, 129. 2. A Rākṣasa. 3. A sort of bird. 4. (as latter part of comp. words), Best, pre-eminent; e. g. muni-, m. A pre-eminent sage, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 49, 15; rājaśardūla, i. e. rājan-, m. A pre-eminent king, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārdūla (शार्दूल).—[masculine] tiger ([feminine] ī); best among (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śārdūla (शार्दूल):—m. (of unknown derivation) a tiger, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

2) a lion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) a panther, leopard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) the fabulous animal Śarabha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) a kind of bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) any eminent person, best, excellent, pre-eminent (ifc.; cf. vyāghra), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Name of two metres (cf. below), [Colebrooke]

9) of a Rākṣasa, [Rāmāyaṇa]

10) [plural] Name of a Śākhā or school of the Yajur-veda

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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