Tunga, Tuṅgā, Tuṅga, Tumga: 24 definitions


Tunga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Maṇika, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Maṇika group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Tuṅga) that are to be globular and oblong in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Tuṅgā (तुङ्गा).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) refers to “big trees”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. [...] O Goddess of Devas, there are many beautiful blue lotuses emitting sweet fragrance. On the banks there are many grass lands, small and big (tuṅga) trees and the saffron flowers increasing the fragrance of the waters with which the lakes are full”.

2) Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) refers to the “summit” (viz., of the Himālayas), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On hearing her words, Śiva was fascinated and he went to the summit (tuṅga) of the Himālayas along with her. He reached the beautiful summit where the Siddha ladies resided, which could not be reached by birds and which shone with lakes and forests. The top was of variegated colours as of various gems, embellished by lotuses of diverse forms, shapes and lustre. Śiva in the company of Satī reached that top which shone like the rising sun”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Tuṅgā (तुङ्गा) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., tuṅgā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) refers to a “horn (of the moon)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the two horns of the moon should appear but slightly raised and far from each other presenting the appearance of a boat, she brings trouble on the sailors but prosperity on mankind at large. [...] If the horns should together appear like a circle then the provincial rulers will have to quit their places. If the northern horn should be higher than the southern one otherwise than as stated already, the crops will flourish and there will be good rain. If the southern horn [i.e., dakṣiṇa-tuṅga] should be similarly higher there will be famine and fear in the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) refers to “high” (e.g., “one having a high nose”), according to  the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 36.—Accordingly, [while explaining how the physical qualities of the Buddha should be recollected]: “[...] (5) A tuft of white hair grows between his eyebrows the white brilliance of which surpasses that of crystal. (6) He has clear eyes, wide eyes, the color of which is deep blue. (7) His nose is high (tuṅga-nāsa), fine and pleasing. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Tunga [तुङ्ग] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Calophyllum inophyllum L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family. For the possible medicinal usage of tunga, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Tunga in India is the name of a plant defined with Calophyllum inophyllum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Balsamaria inophyllum (L.) Loureiro (among others).

2) Tunga is also identified with Cocos nucifera It has the synonym Cocos nucifera var. synphyllica Becc. (etc.).

3) Tunga is also identified with Prosopis cineraria It has the synonym Adenanthera aculeata (Roxb.) W. Hunter (etc.).

4) Tunga is also identified with Rhus parviflora.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Botanica Acta (1997)
· Systema Naturae, ed. 10
· Species Plantarum
· Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1976)
· Australian Journal of Botany (1997)
· Agric. Colon. (1916)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Tunga, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, extract dosage, side effects, diet and recipes, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tuṅga : (adj.) high; prominent.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tuṅga, (adj.) (Sk. tunga, tum to stand out, cp. Gr. tu/mbos hillock, Lat. tumeo & tumulus, Mir. tomm hill) high, prominent, long J. I, 89; III, 433 (pabbata, explained however by tikhiṇa, sharp, rough); Dāvs. IV. 30.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṭuṅga (टुंग).—n A bump or rising upon the body; an excrescence or a knob upon a tree or plant; a mound, tump, hummock, or little protuberance upon the ground.

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tuṅga (तुंग).—m A body, band, troop, company. 2 An embankment or a dam (over a river). 3 A cistern or receptacle of an aqueduct. 4 A vessel (glass, metal, earthen) of a particular shape and description. Holy water, rose-water &c. are conveyed or contained in it. 5 A case of a pakhavāja.

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tuṅga (तुंग).—a S High, lofty, tall.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tuṅga (तुंग).—m A body. A dam. A vessel or cistern a High, tall.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग).—a.

1) High, elevated, tall, lofty, prominent; जलनिधिमिव विधुमण्डलदर्शनतरलिततुङ्गतरङ्गम् (jalanidhimiva vidhumaṇḍaladarśanataralitatuṅgataraṅgam) Gītagovinda 11; तुङ्गं नगोत्सङ्ग- मिवारुरोह (tuṅgaṃ nagotsaṅga- mivāruroha) R.6.3,4.7; Śiśupālavadha 2.48; Meghadūta 12,66.

2) Long.

3) Vaulted.

4) Chief, principal.

5) Strong, passionate.

-gaḥ 1 A height, elevation.

2) A mountain.

3) Top, summit.

4) The planet Mercury.

5) A rhinoceros.

6) The coco-nut tree; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.262.7.

7) The aphelion of a planet.

8) (fig.) A throne; निपात्य तुङ्गाद्रिपुयूथनाथम् (nipātya tuṅgādripuyūthanātham) Bhāgavata 3.3.1.

9) A wise man.

1) An epithet of Śiva.

11) The Punnāga tree; तुङ्गस्तु शैलपुन्नागयोस्त्रिषु (tuṅgastu śailapunnāgayostriṣu) Nm.

-gam The stamina of the lotusblossoms.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग).—mfn.

(-ṅgaḥ-ṅgā-ṅgaṃ) 1. High, elevated, lofty. 2. Chief, principal. 3. Passionate, hot. m.

(-ṅgaḥ) 1. A tree, (Rottleria tinctoria.) 2. A mountain. 3. The planet Mercury. 4. The superior apsis or aphelion of a planet. 5. Top, vertex, altitude. 6. The cocoanut tree. f. (-ṅgī) 1. A kind of basil, (Ocymum gratissimum.) 2. Turmeric. 3. Night. f.

(-ṅgā) Bamboo manna. E. tuji to guard, to dwell, to hurt, &c. affix ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग).—i. e. tuñj + a. I. adj., f. , Prominent, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 19, 27; high, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 77. Ii. m. 1. a mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 44, 20. 2. Culmination, [Varāhamihira's Bṛhajjātaka.] 1, 13. 3. Height, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 3, 1. 4. A tree, Bottleria tinctoria Roxb., [Suśruta] 2, 78, 19. 5. A proper name, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 6, 318.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग).—[adjective] high, lofty, sublime ([abstract] tva [neuter]); [masculine] height, eminence, mountain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tuṅga (तुङ्ग):—mf(ā)n. prominent, erect, lofty, high, [Mahābhārata] etc.

2) chief, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) strong, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) m. an elevation, height, mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa iv, 44, 20] (cf. bhṛgu-), [Hitopadeśa ii] ([varia lectio])

5) top, peak, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) ([figuratively]) a throne, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 3, 1]

7) a planet’s apsis, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka i, vii, x f.; xxi, 1; Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira ix, 20]

8) Rottleria tinctoria, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

9) the cocoa-nut, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) = -mukha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Mercury, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi f.]

13) n. the lotus stamina, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Tuṅgā (तुङ्गा):—[from tuṅga] f. Mimosa Suma, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] Tabāṣīr, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a metre of 4 x 8 syllables

17) [v.s. ...] Name of a river in Mysore

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग):—[(ṅgaḥ-ṅgā-ṅgaṃ) a.] High; chief; hot. m. A cocoanut tree; Rottleria tinctoria; planet Mercury. (ṅgī) Kind of basil; night; turmeric. (ṅgā) Bambu manna.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tuṅga (तुङ्ग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Tuṃga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tunga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Tuṃga (तुंग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Tuṅga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tuṃga (ತುಂಗ):—[noun] = ತುಂಗಮುಸ್ತೆ [tumgamuste].

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Tuṃga (ತುಂಗ):—

1) [adjective] of more than normal height or stature; tall.

2) [adjective] of exceptional merit, virtue, etc.; prominent; distinguished; outstanding.

3) [adjective] fat; corpulent; stout.

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Tuṃga (ತುಂಗ):—[noun] the tree Mallotus philippensis (= Rottlera tinctoria) of Euphorbiaceae family.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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