Giri: 27 definitions


Giri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Giri (गिरि) is synonymous with Mountain (śaila) and is mentioned in a list of 24 such synonyms according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Giri], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Giri (गिरि).—A son of Śvaphalka.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 16.

1b) A son of Balarāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 167.

1c) Worship of: Instituted by Kṛṣṇa as a substitute for Indra worship among the Gopas.1 ety. of; precious stones and herbs in.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 24. 25-32.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 11; 19. 137; Matsya-purāṇa 10. 25-6.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Giri (गिरि) refers to “mountain” according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā, an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Giri (गिरि) represents the number 7 (seven) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 7—giri] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Giri (गिरि, ‘mountain’ or ‘height’), is a word that occurs repeatedly in the Ṛgveda. Thus reference is made to the trees on the hills, hence called ‘tree-haired ’ (vṛkṣa-keśāḥ), and to the streams proceeding from the hills to the sea (samudra). The term is frequently coupled with the adjectival parvata. The Ṛgveda mentions the waters from the hills, and the Atharvaveda refers to the snowy mountains.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Giri - A Nigantha who occupied the Nigantharama, later destroyed by Vattagamani to make room for the construction of Abhayagiri Vihara, The Niganthas name was included in that of the new Vihara. Mhv.xxxiii.43f, 83; Dpv.xix.14.

2. Giri - See Giridipa.

3. Giri - One of the palaces occupied by Sikhi Buddha in his last lay life (Bu.xxi.16). The Commentary (BuA., p.201) calls it Giriyasa.

4. Giri - A district in South Ceylon. Its capital was Mahagama. It included the villages of Nitthulavitthika, birthplace of Gothaimbara (Mhv.xxiii.49), and Kutumbiyangama, birthplace of Velusumana (Mhv.xxiii.68). The district was also evidently called Girimandala. The chieftain of Giri was Giribhojaka (Mhv.xxiii.69, 70, 75; MT.454), sometimes called Girimandalika (MT.452).

5. Giri - A Nigantha who lived at Anuradhapura during the time of Pandukabhaya. See also Giri (1). Mhv.x.98.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Giri (गिरि) is the name of a Nāga-king (nāgarāja) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “there were two Nāga-kings (nāgarāja) at Mo k’ie t’o (Magadha): the first was called Ki li (Giri) and the second A k’ie lo (Agra). They brought the rain at the proper time and the country did not experience the years of famine. The people were grateful to them and regularly, in the second month of spring (caitra), they went in a crowd to the nāgas to hold a great festival (mahāsamāja): they played music (vādya) and palavered the whole day. From early times up until today, this assembly was never missed and to this reunion was given the same name as that of the Nāgas [namely, giryagrasamāja]”.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Giri (गिरि) (in Chinese: Ki-li) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Anurādhā or Anurādhānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Anurādhā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Giri] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Giri (गिरि) is the son of Vasugiri and born in the ancestral family of Hari (later incarnation of Sumukha) and Hariṇī (later incarnation of Vanamālā), according to chapter 6.7 [śrī-munisuvratanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“ [...] After guarding the kingdom for a long time, [Hari] put his son Mahāgiri on the throne, practiced severe penance, and went to heaven. [...] Vasugiri put his son Giri in his place, adopted mendicancy, and went to emancipation, his karma destroyed. Giri put his son Mitragiri on the throne, became a mendicant, and went to heaven. So in succession there were numberless kings in the Harivaṃśa. Some reached emancipation and some heaven as a result of penance”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Giri.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘seven’. Note: giri is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Giri in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC. from the Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda) family having the following synonyms: Bignonia chelonoides, Bignonia suaveolens, Stereospermum suaveolens. For the possible medicinal usage of giri, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

giri : (m.) mountain.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Giri, (Vedic giri, Obulg. gora mountain) a mountain; as a rule only in cpds, by itself (poetical) only at Vism.206 (in enumeration of the 7 large mountains).

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

giri (गिरि).—m S A hill. 2 An order or an individual of it among Gosavis.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

girī (गिरी).—m A hill, a mountain.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Giri (गिरि).—a. [gṝ-i kicca Uṇādi-sūtra 4.142] Venerable, respectable, worshipful.

-riḥ 1 A hill, mountain, an elevation; पश्याधः खनने मूढ गिरयो न पतन्ति किम् (paśyādhaḥ khanane mūḍha girayo na patanti kim) Subhāṣ.; ननु प्रवातेऽपि निष्कम्पा गिरयः (nanu pravāte'pi niṣkampā girayaḥ) Ś.6.

2) a huge rock.

3) *** A disease of the eyes.

4) An honorific title given to Saṃnyāsins; e. g. आनन्दगिरिः (ānandagiriḥ)

5) (In math.) The number 'eight'.

6) A ball with which children play (genduka).

7) A cloud.

8) A peculiar defect in quicksilver.

-riḥ f.

1) Swallowing.

2) A rat; mouse (written also girī in this sense).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Giri (गिरि).—name of a nāga-king (compare next): Mahā-Māyūrī 246.32. In Lalitavistara 393.3 (verse) I am doubtful of -giri-, which seems to stand for a form of gir(ā), speech, words, and suggest em. to -gira-, m.c. for -girā, see prec. Text apagata-giri-vākpatho hy alipto, said of the Buddha: unstained, because beyond the range of speech in words; in Sanskrit (atīta-)vākpatha (not well defined in [Boehtlingk and Roth]) means (beyond) the range of words, inexpressi- ble, indescribable; some such meaning must be involved here. Mss. vākyatho, but Tibetan, otherwise not clear, confirms a form of -path(a): tshig bral dag gi lam (= way) gyis (inst.; does this point to a reading -pathā?) mi gos pa, which seems to mean not stained by the way of those deprived of speech. But Calcutta (see LV.) and Foucaux understand apagatagiri as a separate word (loc. absolute), which may be right.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Giri (गिरि).— (for original gara; cf. Slav. gora, probably from gur for gar), m. 1. A mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 2, 29. 2. A name of the numeral eight, Śrutab. 38.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Giri (गिरि).—[masculine] mountain, hill.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Giri (गिरि):—[from gir] 1. giri [locative case] of 1. gir.

2) [from gir] 2. giri f. idem [gana] kṛṣy-ādi.

3) [from gir] 3. giri m. (for gari, [Zend] gairi cf. guru, garīyas; ifc. [Pāṇini 6-2, 94]) a mountain, hill, rock, elevation, rising-ground (often connected with parvata, ‘a mountain having many parts’ cf. parvan [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]), [Ṛg-veda] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] the number ‘eight’ (there being 8 mountains which surround mount Meru), [Śrutabodha]

5) [v.s. ...] a cloud, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 10; Nirukta, by Yāska; Sāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a particular disease of the eyes, [Pāṇini 6-2, 2 [Scholiast or Commentator]] (kiri, [Kāśikā-vṛtti]), [Uṇādi-sūtra]

7) [v.s. ...] = -guḍa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a peculiar defect in mercury, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] = gairīyaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a honorific Name given to one of the ten orders of the Daś-nāmī Gosains (founded by ten pupils of Śaṃkarācārya; the word giri is added to the name of each member; cf. gairika)

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Śvaphalka, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] f. (= girikā) a mouse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

13) [v.s. ...] mfn. coming from the mountains, [Ṛg-veda vi, 66, 11]

14) [v.s. ...] f. venerable, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([Rāmāyaṇa iv, 37, 2 [Scholiast or Commentator]]);

15) [v.s. ...] cf. [Slavonic or Slavonian] gora; Afghan. ghur.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Giri (गिरि):—(riḥ) 2. m. A mountain. f. Swallowing; a rat. a. Venerable.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Giri (गिरि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Giri.

[Sanskrit to German]

Giri in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Giri (गिरि):—(nm) a mountain, hill; ~[rāja] the Himalayas.

2) Girī (गिरी):—(nf) kernel.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Giri (गिरि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Giri.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Giri (ಗಿರಿ):—

1) [noun] the act of swallowing (something) into the stomach.

2) [noun] a hill; a mountain.

3) [noun] a symbol for the number seven (eight, according to some).

4) [noun] the tree Aegle marmelos of Rutaceae family; the beal or stone apple tree.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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