Priyangu, Priyaṃgu, Priyamgu, Priyaṅgu: 20 definitions

Introduction

Priyangu means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Priyangu in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to Panicum italicum and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Priyaṅgu is mentioned as a cosmetic (verse 423). Suśruta also refers to it along with tagara, aguru etc. as arresting the eruption of pimples etc.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to “long pepper corns” and are used in the worship of Parātman (the great Ātman), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“if the great Ātman, the presiding deity of Dharma, is worshipped with Priyaṅgu (long pepper corns), the devotee will be blessed with happiness (sarvasukha). His virtue, wealth and love will flourish. A prastha of these corns constitutes a hundred thousand in number according to ancient authorities. Twelve Brahmins shall be fed”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) is a Sanskrit word referring to Setaria italica (Italian millet). It is a type of “awned grain” (śūkadhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant Priyaṅgu is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Priyaṅgu is similar to Śyāmāka in properties, which it is said to be astringent-sweet and light in character. It also aggravates vāta and alleviates kapha and pitta. It is cold, constipating and absorbent.

2) Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) is another name for Rājasarṣapa, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Brassica nigra (black mustard), from the Brassicaceae family. Certain plant parts of Rājasarṣapa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 16.121), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers an inferior variety of rice, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The discussions on rice can be seen only in post-Ṛgvedic literature. [...] According to Suśruta, among the vrīhi rice the black variety, which is called kṛṣṇavrīhi, was popular. Ṣaṣṭika rice was considered very nourishing and its daily use is also recommended in the text. Some inferior varieties of rice such as koradūṣaka, śyāmāka, nīvāra, varaka and priyaṅgu were used by the poor people and ascetics.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to the medicinal plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Priyaṅgu] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Callycarpa macrophylla Vahl” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning priyaṅgu] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to “panic seed” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Sanskrit Literature: The Priyangu Creeper

The Priyaṅgu is one of literature’s favourite creepers and is often associated with women, as several of its names – mahilā, aṅganā and kāntā, all of which refer to a lady – suggest. Although associated with śiśira, the Priyaṅgu appears too in vasanta and hemanta in the Ṛtusaṃhāra, so possibly straddles those seasons. Like the proverbial whiteness of the kunda, the Priyaṅgu flower is, according to Rājaśekhara, known for being yellow (pīta). The Priyaṅgu also appears as a type of honey, as in book 4 of the Rāmāyaṇa. One variant of the plant was known for its scent as another of its names, gandhaphalī (‘the fragrant fruited one’), attests.

The Priyaṅgu is often referred to as the śyāma or the phalinī in Sanskrit. The Amarakośa lists a total of 14 synonyms which gives a sense of how popular it was – most plants get three or four. In addition to the names above, these are: Mahilā, Latā, Govindinī, Gundrā, Phalī, Viśvaksenā, Gandhaphalī, Kārambhā and Priyaka. It can also be called Kāntā or Aṅganā. Its botanical name is, according to the Pandanus Indian Plants Database, callicarpa macrophylla. However, Monier Williams gives several alternative identifications – none of which associate the Priyaṅgu with callicarpa macrophylla panicum italium or panic seed; aglaia odorata and sinapis ramosa or Indian mustard.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Panicum italicum) under which the parents of Sumati are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Sumati is the fifth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Megha according to Śvetāmbara but Meghaprabha according to Digambara and his mother is Maṅgalā, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to the caityavṛkṣa (sacred-tree) associated with the Vidyut or Vidyutkumāra class of the bhavanavāsin species of Devas (gods), according to Jain cosmology. They are defined according to the cosmological texts, such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition, or the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Priyaṅgu tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु) refers to “Italian millet” (Panicum italicum) one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Priyaṃgu (प्रियंगु) refers to the tree associated with Sumatinātha: the fifth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Sumatinātha is known from the Jaina Literature to be associaledwith the symbol of a curlow (Krauñca) or a red goose. The Kevala tree, in his case, is Priyaṃgu. The Yakṣa and Yakṣī attending upon him in the image are named Tumbaru and Mahākālī. His chowribearer is called Mitravīrya.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Priyangu is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Priyangu is mentioned always for its black-colored flowers. A lady is always mentioned as dark as a priyangu flower.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Priyangu), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Priyangu, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

priyaṅgu (प्रियंगु).—m S Black mustard seed.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

priyaṅgu (प्रियंगु).—m Black mustard seed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु).—1 Name of a creeper (said to put forth blossoms at the touch of women); प्रियङ्गुश्यामाङ्गप्रकृतिरपि (priyaṅguśyāmāṅgaprakṛtirapi) Māl.3.9. (For some of the conventions of poets about the blossoming of trees, see the quotation under aśoka.)

2) Long pepper.

3) A plant and its perfume (Mar. gavhalā); Mb.13.14.87.

4) A kind of millet (rājikā; Mar. rāḷā); दश ग्राम्याणि धान्यानि भवन्ति व्रीहियवास्तिलमाषा अणुप्रियङ्गवो गोधूमाश्च खल्वाश्च खलकुलाश्च (daśa grāmyāṇi dhānyāni bhavanti vrīhiyavāstilamāṣā aṇupriyaṅgavo godhūmāśca khalvāśca khalakulāśca) Bṛ. Up.6.3.13.

-gu n.

1) Saffron.

2) mustard seed.

Derivable forms: priyaṅguḥ (प्रियङ्गुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु).—m.

(-ṅguḥ) 1. A medicinal plant, and perfume, commonly known by the name Priyangu, and described in some places as a fragrant seed. 2. Panick seed, (Panicum italicum.) 3. Black mustard seed. 4. Long pepper. 5. A peculiar tree: see kaṭukī. n.

(-naṃ) Saffron. E. priya desired, gam to go, aff. ḍun and mum aug.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु).—[masculine] [feminine] a medicinal plant and perfume.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Priyaṅgu (प्रियङ्गु):—[from prī] mf. panic seed, Panicum Italicum, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Kauśika-sūtra]

2) [v.s. ...] Aglaia Odorata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Sinapis Ramosa, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) [v.s. ...] long pepper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a medicinal plant and perfume (commonly called Priyaṅgu and described in some places as a fragrant seed), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a [particular] creeper (said to put forth blossoms at the touch of women), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] Italian millet, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

8) [v.s. ...] n. ([probably]) panic seed or mustard seed, [Suśruta; Bhāvaprakāśa]

9) [v.s. ...] saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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