Loka: 36 definitions



Loka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa, volume 2

Loka (लोक) is a generalised concept of space filled up primarily with activity of various kinds now and here, but secondarily of possible transformations at a higher or lower level. It can neither be equated with the world nor with common people, nor with the sphere of direct perceptions or the manifest, nor the folk or rustic as against the elite; nor the oral unformed tradition as against the codified written tradition nor the real as against the ideal. And yet it covers all these ranges of meaning interrelated to each other.

Loka, though a spatial concept to a certain degree, is not a particular space, concrete or idealised, but is the continuous flow of activity which fills not one but many analogous such spaces.

context information

Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Loka (लोक) refers to the “threefold means of right knowledge”, eg., perception, inference and truth conveyed verbally. It is one of the three means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 25.120-121, “Drama (nāṭya) composed of veda and adhyātma is couched in words and metres, is testified by loka (actual life)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Loka (लोक).—Origin of Loka. There are several views in the Purāṇas regarding the origin of Loka or the world (Universe). (See full article at Story of Loka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Loka (लोक).—Seven in number, one above the other like several umbrellas spread over. To the usual seven are added Vaikuṇṭha and Golokam;1 the fourteen sthalas or places of which seven are Kṛta and seven are Akṛta; Bhūḥ and other six are Kṛtas; the Akṛtas are Prākṛtas; pṛthvī, antarikṣa, divya and maharlokas are known as arṇavakas or which stand until ābhūtasamplava; jana, tapa and sabya are jñānalokas; vyaktalokas are bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, maha, jana, tapa and satya (Brahma); their residents are given, those attaining Brahmaloka (satya) do not have rebirth.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 155-6; 21. 19. 21; III. 41. 54-5.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 10-39; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 22. 80; V. 2. 16.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Loka (लोक).—A term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद (veda), signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक (loka) is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र (śāstra) or its technique; cf. यथा लोके (yathā loke) or लोकतः (lokataḥ) M. Bh. on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārt. 3; also cf. न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे (na yathā loke tathā vyākaraṇe) M. Bh. on P.I.1.1 Vārt. 7.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Loka (लोक) refers to:—Planet; world; region. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Loka (लोक):—World or domain or universe

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: South Indian Festivities (hinduism)

Loka (लोक).—With the ordinary physical eyes, men are able to see everything belonging to the physical world. But the Hindus believe in the existence of fourteen Lokas (worlds) called also Talas and each loka is a world full of conscious entities exactly like this physical world of ours full of minerals, vegetables and animals.

The fourteen Lokas are named:

  1. Bhur-loka,
  2. Bhuvar-loka,
  3. Suvar-loka,
  4. Mahar-loka,
  5. Janar-loka,
  6. Tapar-loka,
  7. Satya-loka,
  8. Brahma-loka,
  9. Pitri-loka,
  10. Soma-loka,
  11. Indra-loka,
  12. Gandharva-loka,
  13. Rakshasa-loka,
  14. Yaksha-loka.
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Loka is a Sanskrit word for "world". In Hindu mythology it takes a specific meaning related to cosmology.

In the Puranas, and already in the Atharvaveda, there are fourteen worlds, seven higher ones (vyahrtis) and seven lower ones (patalas), viz. bhu, bhuvas, svar, mahas, janas, tapas, and satya above and atala, vitala, sutala, rasaataala, talatala, mahaatala, patala and naraka below. The concept of a loka or lokas develops in the Vedic literature. Influenced by the special connotations that a word for space might have for a nomadic people, loka in the Veda did not simply mean place or world, but had a positive valuation: it was a place or position of religious or psychological interest with a special value of function of its own.

Planetary system name:

  1. Satya-loka
  2. Tapa-loka
  3. Jana-loka
  4. Mahar-loka
  5. Svar-loka
  6. Bhuvar-loka
  7. Bhu-loka
  8. Atala-loka
  9. Vitala-loka
  10. Sutala-loka
  11. Talatala-loka
  12. Mahatala-loka
  13. Rasatala-loka
  14. Patala-loka

Buddhism: Six Lokas refers to a Bönpo and Nyingmapa spiritual practice or discipline that works with chakras and the six dimensions or classes of beings in the Bhavachakra.

Theosophy: The concept of Lokas was adopted by Theosophy, and can be found in the writings of Blavatsky. There is also reference to kamaloka (world of desires) as a sort of astral plane or temporary after-life state, according to the teachings of Blavatsky, Leadbeater, and Steiner.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Loka. A general, inhabitant of Makkhakudrusa. He ruled for six years over Rohana, his seat of government being in Kajaragama. A chieftain named Buddharaja quarrelled with him and fled to Cunnasala, where he was joined by Kitti (afterwards Vijayabahu I.). Loka marched against their combined forces, was defeated in Remuna, and died soon after. Cv.lvii.1, 45 64.

2. Loka. Son of Kassapa (afterwards Vikkamabahu I.) and Lokita. His brother was Moggallana. Cv.lvii.29; Cv.Trs.i.195, n.3.

3. Loka Kesadhatu. An officer of Parakkamabahu I. (Cv.lxxii.57). He served under the generals Damiladhikari Rakkha (Cv.lxxv.75) and Lankapura (Cv.lxxvi. 253, 269) and took a prominent part in the campaign against Kulasekhara, particularly in the capture of Rajina. Cv.lxxvi.324, 327.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M (Universe). World, sphere.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Loka means worldly in connection with bhava.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'world', denotes the 3 spheres of existence comprising the whole universe, i.e.

  • (1) the sensuous world (kāma-loka), or the world of the 5 senses;
  • (2) the fine-material world (rūpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 fine-material absorptions (s. jhāna 1-4);
  • (3) the immaterial world (arūpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 immaterial absorptions (s. jhāna, 5-8).

The sensuous world comprises

  • the hells (niraya),
  • the animal kingdom (tiracchāna-yoni),
  • the ghost-realm (peta-loka),
  • the demon world (asura-nikāya),
  • the human world (manussa-loka) and
  • the 6 lower celestial worlds (s. deva I).

In the fine-material world (s. deva II) still exist the faculties of seeing and hearing, which, together with the other sense faculties, are temporarily suspended in the 4 absorptions. In the immaterial world (s. deva III) there is no corporeality whatsoever, only the four mental groups (s. khandha) exist there.

Though the term loka is not applied in the Suttas to those 3 worlds, but only the term bhava, 'existence' (e.g. M. 43), there is no doubt that the teaching about the 3 worlds belongs to the earliest, i.e. sutta-period, of the Buddhist scriptures, as many relevant passages show.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

The 3-fold: loka.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Loka (लोक, “world”).—That which is called world (loka) comes from an erroneous thought (viparyastamanasikāra) and a deceptive duality; it is like a magic show (māyā), a dream (svapna), the circle of fire drawn by a fire-brand. Worldly people arbitrarily take it to be the world, but this world is false; false today, it has been false from the beginning. In reality, it does not arise, it does not act; it comes only from causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) consisting of the coming together (saṃnipāta) between the six inner organs (adhyātmendriya) and the six outer objects (bahirdhāviṣaya). But in order to conform to the prejudices (abhiniveśa) of worldly folk, we speak of the world. The many wrong views (mithyādṛṣṭi) about the world are like tangled threads (jāla): whoever clings to them wanders in saṃsāra eternally. That is how to know the world.

By world (loka) we mean the five aggregates (skandha). But even if the Buddhas of the ten directions looked for the nature (lakṣaṇa), they would not find it, for the aggregates are without a starting point (āgamasthāna), without a resting point (stitisthāna) and without a point of departure (nirgamasthāna). The impossibility of finding the natures of coming, staying and departing in the five aggregates constitutes the supraworld (lokottara).

Source: City of 10,000 Buddhas: The Flower Adornment Sutra

World:—A world is a juncture of time and realm. “Time” refers to the three periods of time--the past, the present, and the future. “Realm” means an area, and it means a delineated area. Because it has a boundary, a demarcation, a differentiation, it is called a delineated area. 

How is there The Coming into Being of Worlds? Worlds have their creation and also their extinction. In general, worlds have a period of formation that lasts twenty small kalpas. They also go through periods of dwelling, of decay, and of extinction; each lasts for twenty small kalpas. Twenty small kalpas make a middle-sized kalpa, and four middle-sized kalpas together make a great kalpa. Each small kalpa is made up of a thousand common kalpas. These thousand kalpas are calculated thus: one increase and one decrease make one kalpa. At the point when the average human life span is eighty-four thousand years long, for every hundred years that pass, the life span is shortened by one year, and the average human height decreases by one inch. When this decreasing has reached the point that people’s life span is only ten years, then an increase will begin again. During that increase, every one hundred years their height will increase by one inch and their life spans by one year until the life span again reaches eighty-four thousand years. That one increase and one decrease make one common kalpa. A thousand of these kalpas make one small kalpa. Twenty small kalpas make one middle-sized kalpa, and four middle-sized kalpas make one great kalpa. It takes that long for a world to come into being, dwell, decay, and become empty again. This is Chapter Four of the sutra.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Loka (लोक) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Loka).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Pali for "Realm";

Also see "Vacara" (translation: 'Sphere')

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography

Loka (लोक, “cosmos”).—According to Jainism, the shape of the Cosmos is fixed and ucnhangable. Fourteen rajjus in height, it is not uniform in breadth—broadest at the bottom, narrowest at the centre, broader still above and at the top narrower once again.

The shape of the cosmos (loka) is best compared with a man standing in the vaiśākha position, with arms akimbo, at the bottom resembling a vetrāsana (cane-stand), in the middle a jhallarī (circular flat symbol or gong) and at the top a muraja (mṛdaṅga). It is filled withe three worlds—lower, middle and upper, the terms being used with reference to Rucaka. The centre of the cosmos comprises the madhya-loka—middle world—with the abodes of human and lower beings, and extending nine hundred yojanas above and below Rucaka.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Loka (लोक) refers to “universe”, according to chapter 4.4 [anantanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—(Note: Space is the only substance which extends beyond loka into aloka)

Accordingly, as Anantanātha said:—“[...] Space is all-pervading, self-supported, affording place, constantly penetrates the universe [i.e., loka] and non-universe [i.e., aloka], and has infinite units. The atoms of time, separated, occupying a unit of the world-space for modification of attributes, are called primary time (mūkhyakāla). An instant (samaya), etc, whose measure is given in books on astronomy, that is considered time from a practical point of view by those knowing time. It is the work of that these objects in the womb of the world are evolved with a form, new, old, etc. Present objects become in the past, and future objects become present, transformed by the sport of time. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Loka (लोक, “cosmos”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.11.—All the substances (dravya) exist in the cosmos (loka). If cosmos is the support of substances like medium of motion etc, then what is the support for universe itself? There is no support for the cosmos as it is self-supported.

What is cosmos (loka)? The continuous part of space where all the substance types like souls, matter etc are found is called the loka or the cosmos. Which substances cause the differentiation between cosmos (lokākāśa) and trans-cosmos (alokākāśa)? Medium of motion and medium of rest are the two substances which cause this distinction between cosmos and trans-cosmos as the absence of these two substances cause the existence or non existence of other substances like souls and matter.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Loka.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘fourteen’; sometimes also ‘three’; rarely used to indicate ‘seven’. Note: loka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

loka : (m.) the world; the population.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Loka, (cp. Vedic loka in its oldest meaning “space, open space. ” For etym. see rocati. To the etym. feeling of the Pāli hearer loka is closely related in quality to ruppati (as in pop. etym. of rūpa) and rujati. As regards the latter the etym. runs “lujjati kho loko ti vuccati” S. IV, 52, cp. Nd2 550, and loka=lujjana DhsA. 47, 308: see lujjana. The Dhtp 531 gives root lok (loc) in sense of dassana) world, primarily “visible world, ” then in general as “space or sphere of creation, ” with var. degrees of substantiality. Often (unspecified) in the comprehensive sense of “universe. ” Sometimes the term is applied collectively to the creatures inhabiting this or var. other worlds, thus, “man, mankind, people, beings. ” — Loka is not a fixed & def. term. It comprises immateriality as well as materiality and emphasizes either one or the other meaning according to the view applied to the object or category in question. Thus a translation of “sphere, plane, division, order” interchanges with “world. ” Whenever the spatial element prevails we speak of its “regional” meaning as contrasted with “applied” meaning. The fundamental notion however is that of substantiality, to which is closely related the specific Buddhist notion of impermanence (loka=lujjati).—1. Universe: the distinctions between the universe (cp. cakkavāḷa) as a larger whole and the world as a smaller unit are fluctuating & not definite. A somewhat wider sphere is perhaps indicated by sabba-loka (e.g. S. I, 12; IV, 127, 312; V, 132; It. 122; Mhvs 1, 44; cp. sabbāvanta loka D. I, 251; III, 224), otherwise even the smaller loka comprises var. realms of creation. Another larger division is that of loka as sadevaka, samāraka, sabrahmaka, or the world with its devas, its Māra and its Brahmā, e.g. S. I, 160, 168, 207; II, 170; III, 28, 59; IV, 158; V, 204; A. I, 259 sq.; II, 24 sq.; III, 341; IV, 56, 173; V, 50; It. 121; Nd1 447 (on Sn. 956), to which is usually added sassamaṇa-brāhmaṇī pajā (e.g. D. I, 250, see loci s. v. pajā). With this cp. Dh. 45, where the divisions are paṭhavī, Yamaloka, sadevaka (loka), which are explained at DhA. I, 334 by paṭhavī=attabhāva; Yamaloka=catubbidha apāyaloka; sadevaka=manussaloka devalokena saddhiṃ.—The universe has its evolutional periods: saṃvaṭṭati and vivaṭṭati D. II, 109 sq. The Buddha has mastered it by his enlightenment: loko Tathāgatena abhisambuddho It. 121. On loka, lokadhātu (=cosmos) and cakkavāḷa cp. Kirfel, Kosmographie p. 180, 181. ‹-› 2. Regional meaning.—(a) in general. Referring to this world, the character of evanescence is inherent in it; referring to the universe in a wider sense, it implies infinity, though not in definite terms. There is mention of the different metaphysical theories as regards cosmogony at many places of the Canon. The antânantikā (contending for the finitude or otherwise of the world) are mentioned as a sect at D. I, 22 sq. Discus‹-› sions as to whether loka is sassata or antavā are found e.g. at M. I, 426, 484; II, 233; S. III, 182, 204; IV, 286 sq.; A. II, 41; V, 31, 186 sq.; Ps. I, 123, 151 sq.; Vbh. 340; Dhs. 1117. Views on consistency of the world (eternal or finite; created or evolved etc.) at D. III, 137; cp. S. II, 19 sq. Cp. also the long and interesting discussion of loka as suñña at S. IV, 54 sq.; Ps. II, 177 sq.; Nd2 680;— as well as M. II, 68 (upanīyati loko addhuvo, and “attāṇo loko, assakoloko” etc.); “lokassa anto” is lit. unattainable: A. II, 50=S. I, 62; IV, 93; but the Arahant is “lok’antagū, ” cp. A. IV, 430.—As regards their order in space (or “plane”) there are var. groupings of var. worlds, the evidently popular one being that the world of the devas is above and the nirayas below the world of man (which is “tiriyaṃ vâpi majjhe”): Nd2 550. The world of men is as ayaṃ loko contrasted with the beyond, or paro loko: D. III, 181; S. IV, 348 sq.; A. I, 269; IV, 226; Sn. 779 (n’āsiṃsati lokaṃ imaṃ parañ ca); or as idhaloka D. III, 105. The definition of ayaṃ loko at Nd1 60 is given as: sak’attabhāva, saka-rūpa-vedanā etc., ajjhatt’āyatanāni, manussa-loka, kāmadhātu; with which is contrasted paro loko as: parattabhāva, para-rūpavedanā, bāhir’āyatanāni, devaloka, rūpa- & arūpadhātu.—The rise and decay of this world is referred to as samudaya and atthaṅgama at S. II, 73; III, 135; IV, 86; A. V, 107.—Cp. D. III, 33 (attā ca loko ca); Mhvs 1, 5 (lokaṃ dukkhā pamocetuṃ); 28, 4 (loko ‘yaṃ pīḷito); PvA. 1 (vijjā-caraṇa-sampannaṃ yena nīyanti lokato).—Other divisions of var. kinds of “planes” are e.g. deva° A. I, 115, 153; III, 414 sq.; Brahma° Vbh. 421; Mhvs 19, 45; Yama° Dh. 44; S. I, 34; nara° Mhvs 5, 282. See also each sep. head-word, also peta° & manussa°. ‹-› The division at Nd1 550 is as follows: niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°, manussa°, deva° (=material); upon which follow khandha°, dhātu°, āyatana° (=immaterial). Similarly at Nd1 29, where apāya° takes the place of niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°.—Another threefold division is saṅkhāra°, satta°, okāsa° at Vism. 204, with explanations: “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā” ti= saṅkhāraloka; “sassato loko ti vā asassato loko” ti= sattaloka; “yāvatā candima-suriyā pariharanti disā ‘bhanti virocamānā” etc. (=M. I, 328; A. I, 227; cp. J. I, 132) =okāsaloka. The same explanation in detail at SnA 442.—Another as kāma°, rūpa°, arūpa°: see under rūpa; another as kilesa°, bhava°, indriya° at Nett 11, 19. Cp. saṅkhāra-loka VbhA. 456; dasa lokadhātuyo (see below) S. I, 26.—3. Ordinary & applied meaning.—(a) division of the world, worldly things S. I, 1, 24 (loke visattikā attachment to this world; opp. sabba-loke anabhirati S. V, 132).—loke in this world, among men, here D. III, 196 (ye nibbutā loke); It. 78 (loke uppajjati); DA. I, 173 (id.); Vbh. 101 (yaṃ loke piya-rūpaṃ etc.); Pv. II, 113 (=idaṃ C.); KhA 15, 215. See also the diff. definitions of loke at Nd2 552.—loka collectively “one, man”: kicchaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca, etc. D. II, 30. Also “people”: Laṅka-loka people of Ceylon Mhvs 19, 85; cp. jana in similar meaning. Derived from this meaning is the use in cpds. (°-) as “usual, every day, popular, common”: see e.g. °āyata, °vajja, °vohāra.—(b) “thing of the world, ” material element, physical or worldly quality, sphere or category (of “materiality”). This category of loka is referred to at Vbh. 193, which is explained at VbhA. 220 as follows: “ettha yo ayaṃ ajjhatt’ādi bhedo kāyo pariggahīto, so eva idha-loko nāma. ” In this sense 13 groups are classified according to the number of constituents in each group (1—12 and No. 18); they are given at Nd2 551 (under lokantagū Sn. 1133) as follows: (1) bhavaloka; (2) sampatti bhavaloka, vipatti bhavaloka; (3) vedanā; (4) āhārā; (5) upādāna-kkhandhā; (6) ajjhattikāni āyatanāni (their rise & decay as “lokassa samudaya & atthaṅgama” at S. IV, 87); (7) viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo; (8) loka-dhammā; (9) satt’āvāsā; (10) upakkilesā; (11) kāmabhavā; (12) āyatanāni; (18) dhātuyo. They are repeated at Ps. I, 122=174, with (1) as “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā; (2) nāmañ ca rūpañ ca; and the remainder the same. Also at Vism. 205 and at SnA 442 as at Ps. I, 122. Cp. the similar view at S. IV, 95: one perceives the world (“materiality”: loka-saññin and loka-mānin, proud of the world) with the six senses. This is called the “loka” in the logic (vinaya) of the ariyā.—A few similes with loka see J. P. T. S. 1907, 131.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

lōka (लोक).—m (S) People, mankind, folks, the community or public. In this sense usually plural. 2 (In comp. with the designating noun prefixed.) A people; a class; an order; any particular body. Ex. brāhmaṇalōka, śūdralōka, gavaīlōka, śipāī- lōka, dēvalōka, piśācalōka, lōka is used also simply, A people, a nation, a division of men. 3 pl Domestics, retainers, guards, laborers &c.; men or persons as entertained or embodied under a head. 4 The world; the mass or multitude; the huge human family; as disting. from self or other person particularized: also a strange person; one of the people. 5 A world; a region; a division of the universe. In general three worlds are enumerated,--heaven, earth, and the infernal regions, or svargalōka, martya or mṛtyulōka & pātālalōka. Another classification enumerates seven exclusive of the infernal regions. These are bhū -bhuvar -svar -mahar -jana -tapō -satya -lōka, which see in full under saptalōka. Besides these some scores of the Hindu divinities have each his particular lōka or heaven. Pr. lōka āṇi ōka Intolerably disgusting is the multitude, the people (their ways, notions &c.) "Odi profanum vulgus, et arceo." A saying used by the daring few who can disregard public opinion. lōkācīṃ gharēṃ or dārēṃ pujaṇēṃ To dance attendance from door to door.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

lōka (लोक).—m People. In comp. A class, an order, a body. Ex. gavaīlōka, śipāīlōka. The world; the mass or multitude. lōkāñcīṃ gharēṃ or dārēṃ pujaṇēṃ To dance atten- dance from door to door.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Loka (लोक).—[lokyate'sau lok-ghañ]

1) The world, a division of the universe; (roughly speaking there are three lokas svarga, pṛthvī and pātāla, but according to fuller classification the lokas are fourteen, seven higher regions rising from the earth one above the other, i. e. bhūrloka, bhuvarloka, svarloka, maharloka, janarloka, taparloka, and satyaloka or brahmaloka; and seven lower regions, descending from the earth one below the other; i. e. atala, vitala, sutala, rasātala, talātala, mahātala, and pātāla).

2) The earth, terrestrial world (bhūloka); इह- लोके (iha- loke) in this world (opp. paratra).

3) The human race, mankind, men, as in लोकातिग, लोकोत्तर (lokātiga, lokottara) &c. q. v.

4) The people or subjects (opp. the king); स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः (svasukhanirabhilāṣaḥ khidyase lokahetoḥ) Ś.5.7; R.4.8.

5) A collection, group, class, company; आकृष्टलीलान् नरलोकपालान् (ākṛṣṭalīlān naralokapālān) R.6.1; or शशाम तेन क्षितिपाल- लोकः (śaśāma tena kṣitipāla- lokaḥ) 7.3.

6) A region, tract, district, province.

7) Common life, ordinary practice (of the world); लोकवत्तु लीलाकैवल्यम् (lokavattu līlākaivalyam) Br. Sūt.II.1.33; यथा लोके कस्यचिदाप्तैषणस्य राज्ञः (yathā loke kasyacidāptaiṣaṇasya rājñaḥ) &c. S. B. (and diverse other places of the same work).

8) Common or worldly usage (opp. Vedic usage or idiom); वेदोक्ता वैदिकाः शब्दाः सिद्धा लोकाच्च लौकिकाः, प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्या यथा लोके वेदे चेति प्रयोक्तव्ये यथा लौकिक- वैदिकेष्विति प्रयुञ्जते (vedoktā vaidikāḥ śabdāḥ siddhā lokācca laukikāḥ, priyataddhitā dākṣiṇātyā yathā loke vede ceti prayoktavye yathā laukika- vaidikeṣviti prayuñjate) Mahābhārata (and in diverse other places); अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः (ato'smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ) Bg.15.18.

9) Sight, looking.

1) The number 'seven', or 'fourteen'.

11) Ved. Open space; space, room.

12) One's own nature (nijasvarūpa); नष्टस्मृतिः पुनरयं प्रवृणीत लोकम् (naṣṭasmṛtiḥ punarayaṃ pravṛṇīta lokam) Bhāg.3. 31.15.

13) Enlightenment (prakāśa); इच्छामि कालेन न यस्य विप्लवस्तस्यात्मलोकावरणस्य मोक्षम् (icchāmi kālena na yasya viplavastasyātmalokāvaraṇasya mokṣam) Bhāg.8.3.25.

14) Recompense (phala); अग्नावेव देवेषु लोकमिच्छन्ते (agnāveva deveṣu lokamicchante) Bṛ. Up.1.4.15.

15) An object of enjoyment (bhogyavastu); अथो अयं वा आत्मा सर्वेषां भूतानां लोकः (atho ayaṃ vā ātmā sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ lokaḥ) Bṛ. Up 1.4.16.

16) Sight, the faculty of seeing (cakṣurindriya); अग्निर्लोकः (agnirlokaḥ) Bṛ. Up.3.9. 1.

17) An object of sense (viṣaya); उपपत्त्योपलब्धेषु लोकेषु च समो भव (upapattyopalabdheṣu lokeṣu ca samo bhava) Mb.12.288.11. (In compounds loka is often translated by 'universally', 'generally', 'popularly'; as lokavijñāta so °vidviṣṭa).

Derivable forms: lokaḥ (लोकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Loka (लोक).—[, see aloka.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Loka (लोक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Man, mankind. 2. A world, a division of the universe; in general three Lokas are enumerated; viz:—heaven, hell, and earth: another classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions; viz:—Bhur-loka the earth, Bhuvar-loka the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the Munis, Sidd'has, &c.; Swar-loka the heaven of Indra, between the sun and the polar star; Mahar-loka the usual abode of Bhrigu, and others saints, who are supposed to be co-existent with Brahma: during the conflagration of these lower worlds, the saints ascend to the next, or Jana-loka, which is described as the abode of Brah- Ma'S sons, Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana, and Sanatkumara; above this, is the fifth world or the Tapo-loka, where the deities called Vairagis reside; the seventh world, Satya-loka or Brahma-loka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world exempts beings from further birth: the three first worlds are destroyed at the end of each Kalpa or day of Brahma; the three last at the end of his life, or of 100 of his years; the fourth Loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from heat, at the time the three first are burning: another enumeration calls these seven worlds, earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place of births, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth, placing the sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth or Jana-loka to be that, where animals destroyed in the general conflagration are born again. The seven lower regions descending from the earth one below the other are:—Atala, Bitala, Sutala, Rasatala, Talatala, Mahatala, Patala, respectively. 3. The human race. 4. The earth. 5. The subjects. 6. A class, a community. 7. A region. 8. The number “seven.” 9. Common life, or usage, (opporite to Shastra and Veda respectively.) 10. Sight, seeing. 11. An element, a primary or radical part of being. E. lok to see, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Loka (लोक).—i. e. loc, or ruc, + a (with l for r, cf. ruc), m. 1. Seeing, sight. 2. The world, the universe, Chr. 34, 8. 3. A world, a division of the universe, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 86, 8 (madhyama, The middle world, i. e. the earth). 4. Man, mankind. 5. Men. people, sing. and pl., [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 183, 13; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 19; 256, 24; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 52.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Loka (लोक).—[masculine] open splace, free room, place, region, world or one of the (imaginary 2, 3, or 7) worlds, [especially] the earth; people, men or mankind (sgl. or [plural]); company, community, troop or band of (—°); worldy life, ordinary practice or common usage ([opposed] to higher things, [especially] knowledge).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Loka (लोक):—[from lok] m. (connected with roka; in the oldest texts loka is generally preceded by u, which [according to] to the [Padapāṭha] = the particle 3. u; but u may be a prefixed vowel and uloka, a collateral dialectic form of loka; [according to] to others u-loka is abridged from uruor ava-loka), free or open space, room, place, scope, free motion, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra] ([accusative] with √kṛ or √ or anu- √, ‘to make room grant freedom’; loke with [genitive case] ‘instead of’)

2) [v.s. ...] intermediate space, [Kauśika-sūtra]

3) [v.s. ...] a tract, region, district, country, province, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] the wide space or world (either ‘the universe’ or, ‘any division of it’, [especially] ‘the sky or heaven’; 3 Lokas are commonly enumerated, viz. heaven, earth, and the atmosphere or lower regions; sometimes only the first two; but a fuller classification gives 7 worlds, viz. Bhūr-l°, the earth; Bhuvar-l°, the space between the earth and sun inhabited by Munis, Siddhas etc.; Svarloka, Indra’s heaven above the sun or between it and the polar star; Maharloka, a region above the polar star and inhabited by Bhṛgu and other saints who survive the destruction of the 3 lower worlds; Janarloka, inhabited by Brahmā’s son Sanat-kumāra etc.; Tapar-loka, inh° by deified Vairāgins; Satya-loka or Brahma-l°, abode of Brahmā, translation to which exempts from rebirth ; elsewhere these 7 worlds are described as earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place of re-births, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth; sometimes 14 worlds are mentioned, viz. the 7 above, and 7 lower regions called in the order of their descent below the earth — A-tala, Vi-tala, Su-tala, Rasā-tala, Talā-tala, Mahā-tala, and Pātāla; cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 102 n. 1; Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 420, 1; 435, 1]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the number ‘seven’ (cf. above), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

6) [v.s. ...] the earth or world of human beings etc., [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (ayaṃ lokaḥ, ‘this world’; asau or paro lokaḥ, ‘that or the other world’; loke or iha loke, ‘here on earth’, opp. to para-tra, para-loke etc.; kṛtsne loke, ‘on the whole earth’)

7) [v.s. ...] (also [plural]) the inhabitants of the world, mankind, folk, people (sometimes opp. to ‘king’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) men (as opp. to ‘women’), [Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā; Hitopadeśa]

9) [v.s. ...] a company, community (of ten ifc. to form collectives), [Kāvya literature; Vasiṣṭha; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] ordinary life, worldly affairs, common practice or usage, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Nirukta, by Yāska; Manu-smṛti] etc. (loke either ‘in ordinary life’, ‘in worldly matters’; or, ‘in common language, in popular speech’, as opp. to vede, chandasi)

11) [v.s. ...] the faculty of seeing, sight (only in cakṣur-l q.v.)

12) [v.s. ...] lokānāṃ sāmanī [dual number] and lokānāṃ vratāni [plural] Name of Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] cf. [Latin] lūsus, originally, ‘a clearing of a forest’; [Lithuanian] laúkas, a field.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Loka (लोक):—(ursprünglich wohl uloka) m. (adj. Comp. f. ā) —

1) freier Platz , das Freie ; Raum überh. , Platz , Stelle ; freies Gebiet , freie Bewegung. lokaṃ uruṃ lokaṃ mit kar oder anu-nī Raum — , Luft — , Freiheit schaffen , — gewähren. loke mit Gen. statt.

2) Zwischenraum.

3) Strecke , Gebiet , Land.

4) der grosse Raum , die Welt , Weltraum , jede imaginäre Welt ; inbes. Himmel , Stelle im Himmel. ayaṃ lokaḥ diese Welt. iha loke hier auf Erden. asau oder paro loka jene Welt. Unter zwei Welten versteht man Himmel und Erde , unter drei Welten — diese und den Luftraum oder die Unterwelt. Es werden Welten von verschiedener Art und Zahl angenommen ; insbes. sieben.

5) Bez. der Zahl sieben.

6) die Erde. loke hier auf Erden , kṛtsne loke auf der ganzen Erde.

7) Sg. und Pl. die Leute , die Menschen , das Volk (auch im Gegensatz zum Fürsten) —

8) Pl. die Männer (im Gegensatz zu den Frauen.) —

9) Gemeinschaft , Gesellschaft ; insbes. am Ende eines Comp. zur Bildung von Collectiven. —

10) das gemeine Leben (oft im Gegensatz zur Wissenschaft , insbes. der heiligen , dem Veda) ; weltliche Angelegenheiten. loke im gemeinen Leben , in der Sprache des Volkes.

11) Sehkraft in cakṣurloka. —

12) lokānāṃ sāmanī und lokānāṃ vratāni Namen von Sāman [Ārṣeyabrāhmaṇa] —

13) [Taittirīyāraṇyaka 6,7,.] fehlerhaft für loga.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Loka (लोक) [Also spelled lok]:—(nm) the world; one of the three worlds —[svarga, pṛthvī, pātāla;] one of the fourteen worlds (of which seven are above and seven below); people, folk; public; (a) popular, public; -[ākhyāna] a folk myth; -[kathā] a folk tale, folk lore; -[kalyāṇa] public welfare; -[kahānī] folk tale; -[gāthā] a ballad; -[gīta] a folk song; -[citra] folk mind, popular mind; -[jīvana] public life; ~[taṃtra] democracy; ~[taṃtrīya] democratic; ~[tāṃtrika] democratic; a democrat; ~[traya/trayī] the three worlds —[ākāśa, pātāla] and [mṛtyuloka; ~vdaya] the two worlds—earth and heaven; -[niṃdā] public slander; -[nīti] folk ethics, folk morals; -[nṛtya] folk dance; -[paddhati] popular method/way; -[pāla] the protector of the world; ~[paraka] secular; •[] secularism; -[pravāda] hearsay; rumour; ~[prasiddha] renowned, worldfamous; ~[priya] popular; •[] popularity; ~[bāhya] ousted from the society; -[buddhi] popular wisdom; -[bhāṣā] popular language; ~[mata] public opinion/view; -[mana] popular mind; -[maryādā] popular observance, bounds of decency, established usage or custom; -[mānasa] the popular mind; ~[raṃjaka] that entertains/satisfies people at large, he who or that which serves popular interest or results in public welfare; -[raṃjana] popular entertainment/satisfaction/welfare; serving popular interest; -[rāja] popular rule; -[rivāja] a folk custom; -[rīti] popular custom/ method/ways; -[lāja] loss of shame amongst people, safeguarding of honour, avoidance of public slander; -[līka] popular course, popular tradition; -[vāda] rumour; -[vārtā] folk lore; ~[vikhyāta] world famous/renowned; -[vijñāna] popular science; -[viruddha] anti-public, anti-social; opposed to the people; ~[viśruta] see ~[vikhyāta; -viśvāsa] popular belief; -[vyavahāra] popular dealings, dealings with others; -[śāsana] popular government; -[saṃgīta] folk music; -[saṃgraha] public welfare; experience gained through intercourse with men; -[saṃskṛti] folk culture; -[sattā] public authority/power; ~[sabhā] House of the People (the lower house of the Indian Parliament); -[samāja] community at large; ~[sammata] enjoying popular support, having the backing of the people; ~[siddha] established or current among the people; ~[sevaka] public servant; ~[sevā] public service; •[āyoga] public service commission; -[svāsthya] public health; ~[hita] public welfare; philanthropy; •[bhāvanā] public spirit; ~[hitaiṣī] a philanthropist; public-spirited.

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