Loka, 15 Definition(s)
Loka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Loka (लोक) refers to the “threefold means of right knowledge”, eg., perception, inference and truth conveyed verbally. It is one of the three means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 25.120-121, “Drama (nāṭya) composed of veda and adhyātma is couched in words and metres, is testified by loka (actual life)”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).
Kośa (encyclopedic lexicons)
Loka (लोक) is a generalised concept of space filled up primarily with activity of various kinds now and here, but secondarily of possible transformations at a higher or lower level. It can neither be equated with the world nor with common people, nor with the sphere of direct perceptions or the manifest, nor the folk or rustic as against the elite; nor the oral unformed tradition as against the codified written tradition nor the real as against the ideal. And yet it covers all these ranges of meaning interrelated to each other.
Loka, though a spatial concept to a certain degree, is not a particular space, concrete or idealised, but is the continuous flow of activity which fills not one but many analogous such spaces.Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa, volume 2
Kośas (कोश, kosha) are Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (śāstra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kośa) dates to the 4th century AD.
Loka (लोक).—Seven in number, one above the other like several umbrellas spread over. To the usual seven are added Vaikuṇṭha and Golokam;1 the fourteen sthalas or places of which seven are Kṛta and seven are Akṛta; Bhūḥ and other six are Kṛtas; the Akṛtas are Prākṛtas; pṛthvī, antarikṣa, divya and maharlokas are known as arṇavakas or which stand until ābhūtasamplava; jana, tapa and sabya are jñānalokas; vyaktalokas are bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, maha, jana, tapa and satya (Brahma); their residents are given, those attaining Brahmaloka (satya) do not have rebirth.2
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 155-6; 21. 19. 21; III. 41. 54-5.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 10-39; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 22. 80; V. 2. 16.
The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Loka is a Sanskrit word for "world". In Hindu mythology it takes a specific meaning related to cosmology.
In the Puranas, and already in the Atharvaveda, there are fourteen worlds, seven higher ones (vyahrtis) and seven lower ones (patalas), viz. bhu, bhuvas, svar, mahas, janas, tapas, and satya above and atala, vitala, sutala, rasaataala, talatala, mahaatala, patala and naraka below. The concept of a loka or lokas develops in the Vedic literature. Influenced by the special connotations that a word for space might have for a nomadic people, loka in the Veda did not simply mean place or world, but had a positive valuation: it was a place or position of religious or psychological interest with a special value of function of its own.
Planetary system name:
Buddhism: Six Lokas refers to a Bönpo and Nyingmapa spiritual practice or discipline that works with chakras and the six dimensions or classes of beings in the Bhavachakra.
Theosophy: The concept of Lokas was adopted by Theosophy, and can be found in the writings of Blavatsky. There is also reference to kamaloka (world of desires) as a sort of astral plane or temporary after-life state, according to the teachings of Blavatsky, Leadbeater, and Steiner.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Loka. A general, inhabitant of Makkhakudrusa. He ruled for six years over Rohana, his seat of government being in Kajaragama. A chieftain named Buddharaja quarrelled with him and fled to Cunnasala, where he was joined by Kitti (afterwards Vijayabahu I.). Loka marched against their combined forces, was defeated in Remuna, and died soon after. Cv.lvii.1, 45 64.
2. Loka. Son of Kassapa (afterwards Vikkamabahu I.) and Lokita. His brother was Moggallana. Cv.lvii.29; Cv.Trs.i.195, n.3.
3. Loka Kesadhatu. An officer of Parakkamabahu I. (Cv.lxxii.57). He served under the generals Damiladhikari Rakkha (Cv.lxxv.75) and Lankapura (Cv.lxxvi. 253, 269) and took a prominent part in the campaign against Kulasekhara, particularly in the capture of Rajina. Cv.lxxvi.324, 327.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
M (Universe). World, sphere.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
'world', denotes the 3 spheres of existence comprising the whole universe, i.e.
- (1) the sensuous world (kāma-loka), or the world of the 5 senses;
- (2) the fine-material world (rūpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 fine-material absorptions (s. jhāna 1-4);
- (3) the immaterial world (arūpa-loka), corresponding to the 4 immaterial absorptions (s. jhāna, 5-8).
The sensuous world comprises
- the hells (niraya),
- the animal kingdom (tiracchāna-yoni),
- the ghost-realm (peta-loka),
- the demon world (asura-nikāya),
- the human world (manussa-loka) and
- the 6 lower celestial worlds (s. deva I).
In the fine-material world (s. deva II) still exist the faculties of seeing and hearing, which, together with the other sense faculties, are temporarily suspended in the 4 absorptions. In the immaterial world (s. deva III) there is no corporeality whatsoever, only the four mental groups (s. khandha) exist there.
Though the term loka is not applied in the Suttas to those 3 worlds, but only the term bhava, 'existence' (e.g. M. 43), there is no doubt that the teaching about the 3 worlds belongs to the earliest, i.e. sutta-period, of the Buddhist scriptures, as many relevant passages show.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
The 3-fold: loka.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Loka means worldly in connection with bhava.Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Abhidhamma (अभिधम्म) usually refers to the last section (piṭaka) of the Pali canon and includes schematic classifications of scholastic literature dealing with Theravāda Buddhism. Primary topics include psychology, philosophy, methodology and metaphysics which are rendered into exhaustive enumerations and commentaries.
loka : (m.) the world; the population.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Loka, (cp. Vedic loka in its oldest meaning “space, open space. ” For etym. see rocati. To the etym. feeling of the Pāli hearer loka is closely related in quality to ruppati (as in pop. etym. of rūpa) and rujati. As regards the latter the etym. runs “lujjati kho loko ti vuccati” S. IV, 52, cp. Nd2 550, and loka=lujjana DhsA. 47, 308: see lujjana. The Dhtp 531 gives root lok (loc) in sense of dassana) world, primarily “visible world, ” then in general as “space or sphere of creation, ” with var. degrees of substantiality. Often (unspecified) in the comprehensive sense of “universe. ” Sometimes the term is applied collectively to the creatures inhabiting this or var. other worlds, thus, “man, mankind, people, beings. ” — Loka is not a fixed & def. term. It comprises immateriality as well as materiality and emphasizes either one or the other meaning according to the view applied to the object or category in question. Thus a trsln of “sphere, plane, division, order” interchanges with “world. ” Whenever the spatial element prevails we speak of its “regional” meaning as contrasted with “applied” meaning. The fundamental notion however is that of substantiality, to which is closely related the specific Buddhist notion of impermanence (loka=lujjati).—1. Universe: the distinctions between the universe (cp. cakkavāḷa) as a larger whole and the world as a smaller unit are fluctuating & not definite. A somewhat wider sphere is perhaps indicated by sabba-loka (e.g. S. I, 12; IV, 127, 312; V, 132; It. 122; Mhvs 1, 44; cp. sabbāvanta loka D. I, 251; III, 224), otherwise even the smaller loka comprises var. realms of creation. Another larger division is that of loka as sadevaka, samāraka, sabrahmaka, or the world with its devas, its Māra and its Brahmā, e.g. S. I, 160, 168, 207; II, 170; III, 28, 59; IV, 158; V, 204; A. I, 259 sq.; II, 24 sq.; III, 341; IV, 56, 173; V, 50; It. 121; Nd1 447 (on Sn. 956), to which is usually added sassamaṇa-brāhmaṇī pajā (e.g. D. I, 250, see loci s. v. pajā). With this cp. Dh. 45, where the divisions are paṭhavī, Yamaloka, sadevaka (loka), which are expld at DhA. I, 334 by paṭhavī=attabhāva; Yamaloka=catubbidha apāyaloka; sadevaka=manussaloka devalokena saddhiṃ.—The universe has its evolutional periods: saṃvaṭṭati and vivaṭṭati D. II, 109 sq. The Buddha has mastered it by his enlightenment: loko Tathāgatena abhisambuddho It. 121. On loka, lokadhātu (=cosmos) and cakkavāḷa cp. Kirfel, Kosmographie p. 180, 181. ‹-› 2. Regional meaning.—(a) in general. Referring to this world, the character of evanescence is inherent in it; referring to the universe in a wider sense, it implies infinity, though not in definite terms. There is mention of the different metaphysical theories as regards cosmogony at many places of the Canon. The antânantikā (contending for the finitude or otherwise of the world) are mentioned as a sect at D. I, 22 sq. Discus‹-› sions as to whether loka is sassata or antavā are found e.g. at M. I, 426, 484; II, 233; S. III, 182, 204; IV, 286 sq.; A. II, 41; V, 31, 186 sq.; Ps. I, 123, 151 sq.; Vbh. 340; Dhs. 1117. Views on consistency of the world (eternal or finite; created or evolved etc.) at D. III, 137; cp. S. II, 19 sq. Cp. also the long and interesting discussion of loka as suñña at S. IV, 54 sq.; Ps. II, 177 sq.; Nd2 680;— as well as M. II, 68 (upanīyati loko addhuvo, and “attāṇo loko, assakoloko” etc.); “lokassa anto” is lit. unattainable: A. II, 50=S. I, 62; IV, 93; but the Arahant is “lok’antagū, ” cp. A. IV, 430.—As regards their order in space (or “plane”) there are var. groupings of var. worlds, the evidently popular one being that the world of the devas is above and the nirayas below the world of man (which is “tiriyaṃ vâpi majjhe”): Nd2 550. The world of men is as ayaṃ loko contrasted with the beyond, or paro loko: D. III, 181; S. IV, 348 sq.; A. I, 269; IV, 226; Sn. 779 (n’āsiṃsati lokaṃ imaṃ parañ ca); or as idhaloka D. III, 105. The defn of ayaṃ loko at Nd1 60 is given as: sak’attabhāva, saka-rūpa-vedanā etc., ajjhatt’āyatanāni, manussa-loka, kāmadhātu; with which is contrasted paro loko as: parattabhāva, para-rūpavedanā, bāhir’āyatanāni, devaloka, rūpa- & arūpadhātu.—The rise and decay of this world is referred to as samudaya and atthaṅgama at S. II, 73; III, 135; IV, 86; A. V, 107.—Cp. D. III, 33 (attā ca loko ca); Mhvs 1, 5 (lokaṃ dukkhā pamocetuṃ); 28, 4 (loko ‘yaṃ pīḷito); PvA. 1 (vijjā-caraṇa-sampannaṃ yena nīyanti lokato).—Other divisions of var. kinds of “planes” are e.g. deva° A. I, 115, 153; III, 414 sq.; Brahma° Vbh. 421; Mhvs 19, 45; Yama° Dh. 44; S. I, 34; nara° Mhvs 5, 282. See also each sep. head-word, also peta° & manussa°. ‹-› The division at Nd1 550 is as follows: niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°, manussa°, deva° (=material); upon which follow khandha°, dhātu°, āyatana° (=immaterial). Similarly at Nd1 29, where apāya° takes the place of niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°.—Another threefold division is saṅkhāra°, satta°, okāsa° at Vism. 204, with explns: “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā” ti= saṅkhāraloka; “sassato loko ti vā asassato loko” ti= sattaloka; “yāvatā candima-suriyā pariharanti disā ‘bhanti virocamānā” etc. (=M. I, 328; A. I, 227; cp. J. I, 132) =okāsaloka. The same expln in detail at SnA 442.—Another as kāma°, rūpa°, arūpa°: see under rūpa; another as kilesa°, bhava°, indriya° at Nett 11, 19. Cp. saṅkhāra-loka VbhA. 456; dasa lokadhātuyo (see below) S. I, 26.—3. Ordinary & applied meaning.—(a) division of the world, worldly things S. I, 1, 24 (loke visattikā attachment to this world; opp. sabba-loke anabhirati S. V, 132).—loke in this world, among men, here D. III, 196 (ye nibbutā loke); It. 78 (loke uppajjati); DA. I, 173 (id.); Vbh. 101 (yaṃ loke piya-rūpaṃ etc.); Pv. II, 113 (=idaṃ C.); KhA 15, 215. See also the diff. defns of loke at Nd2 552.—loka collectively “one, man”: kicchaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca, etc. D. II, 30. Also “people”: Laṅka-loka people of Ceylon Mhvs 19, 85; cp. jana in similar meaning. Derived from this meaning is the use in cpds. (°-) as “usual, every day, popular, common”: see e.g. °āyata, °vajja, °vohāra.—(b) “thing of the world, ” material element, physical or worldly quality, sphere or category (of “materiality”). This category of loka is referred to at Vbh. 193, which is expld at VbhA. 220 as follows: “ettha yo ayaṃ ajjhatt’ādi bhedo kāyo pariggahīto, so eva idha-loko nāma. ” In this sense 13 groups are classified according to the number of constituents in each group (1—12 and No. 18); they are given at Nd2 551 (under lokantagū Sn. 1133) as follows: (1) bhavaloka; (2) sampatti bhavaloka, vipatti bhavaloka; (3) vedanā; (4) āhārā; (5) upādāna-kkhandhā; (6) ajjhattikāni āyatanāni (their rise & decay as “lokassa samudaya & atthaṅgama” at S. IV, 87); (7) viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo; (8) loka-dhammā; (9) satt’āvāsā; (10) upakkilesā; (11) kāmabhavā; (12) āyatanāni; (18) dhātuyo. They are repeated at Ps. I, 122=174, with (1) as “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā; (2) nāmañ ca rūpañ ca; and the remainder the same. Also at Vism. 205 and at SnA 442 as at Ps. I, 122. Cp. the similar view at S. IV, 95: one perceives the world (“materiality”: loka-saññin and loka-mānin, proud of the world) with the six senses. This is called the “loka” in the logic (vinaya) of the ariyā.—A few similes with loka see J. P. T. S. 1907, 131.
—akkhāyikā (f. , scil. kathā) talk or speculation about (origin etc. of) the world, popular philosophy (see lokāyata and cp. Dialogues I. 14) Vin. I, 188; D. I, 8; M. I, 513; Miln. 316; DA. I, 90. —agga chief of the world. Ep. of the Buddha ThA. 69 (Ap. V, 11). —anta the end (spatial) of the world A. II, 49 (na ca appatvā lokantaṃ dukkhā atthi pamocanaṃ). —antagū one who has reached the end of the world (and of all things worldly), Ep. of an Arahant A. II, 6, 49 sq.; It. 115, Sn. 1133; Nd2 551. —antara the space between the single worlds J. I, 44 (V. 253: Avīcimhi na uppajjanti, tathā lokantaresu ca). —antarika (scil. Niraya) a group of Nirayas or Purgatories situated in the lokantara (i.e. cakkavāl, antaresu J. I, 76), 8, 000 yojanas in extent, pitch dark, which were filled with light when Gotama became the Buddha J. I, 76; VbhA. 4; Vism. 207 (lokantariya°); SnA 59 (°vāsa life in the l. niraya); cp. BSk. lokântarikā Divy 204 (andhās tamaso ‘ndhakāra-tamisrā). —âdhipa lord or ruler of the world A. I, 150. —âdhipateyya “rule of the world, ” dependence on public opinion, influence of material things on man, one of the 3 ādhipateyyas (atta°, loka°, dhamma°) D. III, 220; Vism. 14. —ânukampā sympathy with the world of men (cp. BSk. lokânugraha Divy 124 sq. ) D. III, 211; It. 79. —āmisa worldly gain, bait of the flesh M. I, 156; II, 253; Th. 2, 356. —āyata what pertains to the ordinary view (of the world), common or popular philosophy, or as Rhys Davids (Dial. I. 171) puts it: “name of a branch of Brahman learning, probably Nature-lore”; later worked into a quâsi system of “casuistry, sophistry. ” Franke, Dīgha trsln 19, trsls as “logisch beweisende Naturerklärung” (see the long note on this page, and cp. Dial. I. 166—172 for detail of lokāyata). It is much the same as lok-akkhāy(ika) or popular philosophy. ‹-› D. I, 11, 88; Vin. II, 139; Sn. p. 105 (=vitaṇḍa-vādasattha SnA 447, as at DA. I, 247); Miln. 4, 10, 178; A. I, 163, 166; III, 223. Cp. BSk. lokāyata Divy 630, 633, and lokāyatika ibid. 619. See also Kern’s remarks at Toev. s. v. —āyatika (brāhmaṇa) one who holds the view of lokāyata or popular philosophy S. II, 77 (trsln K. S. 53: a Brahmin “wise in world-lore”); Miln. 178; J. VI, 486 (na seve lokāyatikaṃ; expld as “anatthanissitaṃ ... vitaṇḍa-sallāpaṃ lokāyatika-vādaṃ na seveyya, ” thus more like “sophistry” or casuistry). —issara lord of the world Sdhp. 348. —uttara see under lokiya. —cintā thinking about the world, worldphilosophy or speculation S. V, 447; A. II, 80 (as one of the 4 acinteyyāni or thoughts not to be thought out: buddha-visaya, jhāna-visaya, kamma-vipāka, l-c.). Cp. BSk. laukika citta Divy 63, 77 etc. —dhammā (pl.) common practice, things of the world, worldly conditions S. III, 139 sq.; Sn. 268 (expln loke dhammā; yāva lokappavatti tāva-anivattikā dhammā ti vuttaṃ hoti KhA 153, cp. J. III, 468); Miln. 146. Usually comprising a set of eight, viz. lābha, alābha, yaso, ayaso, nindā, pasaṃsā, sukhaṃ, dukkhaṃ D. III, 260; A. IV, 156 sq.; V, 53; Nd2 55; Ps. I, 22, 122; Vbh. 387; Nett 162; DhA. II, 157. —dhātu constituent or unit of the Universe, “world-element”; a world, sphere; another name for cakkavāla. Dasa-sahassi-lokadhātu the system of the 10, 000 worlds Vin. I, 12; A. I, 227.—D. III, 114; Pv. II, 961; Kvu 476; Vism. 206 sq.; Vbh. 336; Nd1 356 (with the stages from one to fifty lokadhātu’s, upon which follow: sahassī cūḷanikā l-dh.; dvisahassī majjhimikā; tisahassī; mahāsahassī); J. I, 63, 212; Miln. 237; VbhA. 430, 436. See also cūḷanikā. —nātha saviour of the world, Ep. of the Buddha Sn. 995; Vism. 201, 234; VvA. 165; PvA. 42, 287. —nāyaka guide or leader of the world (said of the Buddha) Sn. 991; Ap 20; Mhvs 7, 1; Miln. 222. —nirodha destruction of the world It. 121 (opp. °samudaya). —pāla (°devatā) guardian (governor) of the world, which are usually sepcified as four, viz. Kuvera (=Vessavaṇa), Dhataraṭṭha, Virūpakkha, Virūḷhaka, alias the 4 mahārājāno Pv. I, 42; J. I, 48 (announce the future birth of a Buddha). —byūha “world-array, ” pl. byūhā (devā) N. of a class of devas J. I, 47; Vism. 415 (kāmâvacara-deva’s). —mariyādā the boundary of the world VvA. 72. —vajja common sins Miln. 266; KhA 190. —vaṭṭa “world-round, ” i.e. saṃsāra (opp. vivaṭṭa =nibbāna) Nett 113, 119. See also vaṭṭa. —vidu knowing the universe, Lp. of the Buddha D. III, 76; S. I, 62; V, 197, 343; A. II, 48; Sn. p. 103; Vv 3426; Pug. 57; expld in full at SnA 442 and Vism. 204 sq. —vivaraṇa unveiling of the universe, apocalypse, revelation Vism. 392 (when humans see the devas etc.). —vohāra common or general distinction, popular logic, ordinary way of speaking SnA 383, 466; VbhA. 164. (Page 586)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Mahāyāna (major branch of Buddhism)
That which is called world (loka) comes from an erroneous thought (viparyastamanasikāra) and a deceptive duality; it is like a magic show (māyā), a dream (svapna), the circle of fire drawn by a fire-brand. Worldly people arbitrarily take it to be the world, but this world is false; false today, it has been false from the beginning. In reality, it does not arise, it does not act; it comes only from causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) consisting of the coming together (saṃnipāta) between the six inner organs (adhyātmendriya) and the six outer objects (bahirdhāviṣaya). But in order to conform to the prejudices (abhiniveśa) of worldly folk, we speak of the world. The many wrong views (mithyādṛṣṭi) about the world are like tangled threads (jāla): whoever clings to them wanders in saṃsāra eternally. That is how to know the world.
By world (loka) we mean the five aggregates (skandha). But even if the Buddhas of the ten directions looked for the nature (lakṣaṇa), they would not find it, for the aggregates are without a starting point (āgamasthāna), without a resting point (stitisthāna) and without a point of departure (nirgamasthāna). The impossibility of finding the natures of coming, staying and departing in the five aggregates constitutes the supraworld (lokottara).Source: Wisdom Library: The Treatise on the Great Virtue of Wisdom, Volume IV
World:—A world is a juncture of time and realm. “Time” refers to the three periods of time--the past, the present, and the future. “Realm” means an area, and it means a delineated area. Because it has a boundary, a demarcation, a differentiation, it is called a delineated area.
How is there The Coming into Being of Worlds? Worlds have their creation and also their extinction. In general, worlds have a period of formation that lasts twenty small kalpas. They also go through periods of dwelling, of decay, and of extinction; each lasts for twenty small kalpas. Twenty small kalpas make a middle-sized kalpa, and four middle-sized kalpas together make a great kalpa. Each small kalpa is made up of a thousand common kalpas. These thousand kalpas are calculated thus: one increase and one decrease make one kalpa. At the point when the average human life span is eighty-four thousand years long, for every hundred years that pass, the life span is shortened by one year, and the average human height decreases by one inch. When this decreasing has reached the point that people’s life span is only ten years, then an increase will begin again. During that increase, every one hundred years their height will increase by one inch and their life spans by one year until the life span again reaches eighty-four thousand years. That one increase and one decrease make one common kalpa. A thousand of these kalpas make one small kalpa. Twenty small kalpas make one middle-sized kalpa, and four middle-sized kalpas make one great kalpa. It takes that long for a world to come into being, dwell, decay, and become empty again. This is Chapter Four of the sutra.Source: City of 10,000 Buddhas: The Flower Adornment Sutra
Mahāyāna (महायान, mahayana) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Pali for "Realm";
Also see "Vacara" (translation: 'Sphere')
General definition (in Jainism)
Loka (लोक, “cosmos”).—According to Jainism, the shape of the Cosmos is fixed and ucnhangable. Fourteen rajjus in height, it is not uniform in breadth—broadest at the bottom, narrowest at the centre, broader still above and at the top narrower once again.
The shape of the cosmos (loka) is best compared with a man standing in the vaiśākha position, with arms akimbo, at the bottom resembling a vetrāsana (cane-stand), in the middle a jhallarī (circular flat symbol or gong) and at the top a muraja (mṛdaṅga). It is filled withe three worlds—lower, middle and upper, the terms being used with reference to Rucaka. The centre of the cosmos comprises the madhya-loka—middle world—with the abodes of human and lower beings, and extending nine hundred yojanas above and below Rucaka.Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography
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Triloka (त्रिलोक).—Progress of, depends on the sun without which there would be no reckon...
Pitṛloka (पितृलोक) refers to the world of Paitra and represents a division of the divine creati...
Madhyaloka (मध्यलोक).—The middle world (madhya-loka), a rather circular body, consists of numer...
Manuṣyaloka (मनुष्यलोक).—The world of men (manuṣya-loka) consists of two and a half continents’...
Siddhaloka (सिद्धलोक).—At the very apex of the universal space is the abode of the liberated pe...
Lokāpura.—Chanda in the Central Provinces. It containend the temples of Mahākāli and her son Ac...
1a) Lokāloka (लोकालोक).—The mountain forming the boundary of the earth.** Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇ...
Adhaloka (अधलोक, “nether universe”).—The seven hellish grounds are suspended in the nether univ...
Lokapuruṣa (लोकपुरुष).—The loka-puruṣa is frequently illustrated with a total height of fourtee...
arūpaloka : (m.) the world of the formless.
Lokeṣa (लोकेष):—In Vedic hinduism, this represents one of the three legs of Kubera. Th...
Lokadharmī (लोकधर्मी, “realistic practice”) is a Sanskrit word referring to the ...
Lokaprakāśa (लोकप्रकाश, “light of common usages”):—A valuable manual compi...
Search found books containing Loka. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Chapter VI - Origin of the four castes < [Book I]
10. The Brahma-vaivartta Purāṇa < [Preface]
Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 5 - On the Gāyatrī Stotra < [Book 12]
Verse 2.1.5 < [Mundaka II, Khanda I]
Verse 2.1.4 < [Mundaka II, Khanda I]
Verse 1.2.1 < [Mundaka I, Khanda II]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.83 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 2.5.73 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 2.2.144 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
The Vipassana Dipani (by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw)
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)
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