Shalmali, Śālmali, Śālmalī, Śalmali, Śalmalī: 25 definitions


Shalmali means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śālmali and Śālmalī and Śalmali and Śalmalī can be transliterated into English as Salmali or Shalmali, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Śālmalī (शाल्मली):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śālmali (शाल्मलि) is a Sanskrit word referring to Bombax ceiba (cotton tree), from the Malvaceae family. Certain plant parts of Śālmali are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. The plant is found in dense population throughout Northeast India.

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Shalmali [शाल्मली] in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Bombax ceiba L. from the Malvaceae (Mallow) family having the following synonyms: Salmalia malabarica. For the possible medicinal usage of shalmali, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—The root of Śālmali is aphrodisiac, flower is haemostatic and is useful in menorrhagia, the exudation known as mocarasa checks diarrhoea.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Śālmalī (शाल्मली) or Moca refers to the medicinal plant Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Śālmalī] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl. (Śālmalī) is known as Mocarasa (gummy extract) according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śalmalī (शल्मली) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Bombax ceiba Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śalmalī] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śālmali (शाल्मलि) is a Sanskrit word, possibly identified with Bombax malabaricum (Indian bombax) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat. Note that Bombax malabaricum is a synonym of Bombax ceiba.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as śālmali).”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Shalmali in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—A King of the lunar dynasty. He was the grandson of Kuru and son of Avikṣit. He had seven brothers. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 52).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—One of the seven continents; Vapuṣmān the first king. Twice Plakṣa in size, surrounded by suroda (sea of sura): distinguished for its tree Śālmali: the abode of Garuḍa: Soma is worshipped here. Its king was Yajñabāhu, son of Priyavrata who divided the kingdom among his seven sons;1 after their names—Śvetam, Haritam, Vaidyutam, Mānasam, Jimūtam, Rohitam, Suprabham, and Śobhanam; the four varṇas are Kapila, Aruṇa, Pīta and Kṛṣṇa; famous for seven hills and seven rivers: frequented by Garuḍa birds.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 32; 20. 7-12; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 12, 31-4; 19. 33-48, 138; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 13; 2. 5; 4. 21-33.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 452.

1b) The tree in the Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 49; III. 11. 113; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 32.

1c) A svara śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 55.

1d) The hill after which the dvīpa is named.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 123. 38.

1e) The kingdom where Vapuṣmān, a grandson of Svāyambhuva, was consecrated king.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 12; 40. 4.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Śālmali (शाल्मलि) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Śālma or Śālmalidvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.

According to the Parākhya-tantra, “beyond that is the continent Śālmalī, where the silk-cotton tree grows in which tree the gods, together with the god of Love, resided when frightened by the demons. Beyond that is the ocean called Sugar-cane juice, where the creator put a great deal of juice from the sugar cane to give pleasure to sages”.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Śālmalī (शाल्मली) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Śālmalī), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

1) Śālmalī (शाल्मली) is classified as a “usable tree” which should be saved from being cut (for the purpose of gathering wood materials for Temple construction), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] Here, the eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The text gives importance in saving the usable trees and that is why the trees [viz., Śālmalī, etc.] are advised not to be cut as these trees and their fruits are very essential for livelihood.

2) Śālmalī (शाल्मली) (flowers) are used as an ingredient of a mixture of Vajralepa (“a special kind of hard cement”) which was used in the construction of a Temple and as a binding agent for joining bricks.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śālmali (शाल्मलि) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Kāyacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the kāyacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Śālmali is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Dagdha and with the hell-guardian (narakapāla) named Śālmali.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Shalmali is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Shalmali refers to the “silk-cotton tree” in the Himalaya region.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Shalmali), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Shalmali, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Salmali in India is the name of a plant defined with Bombax ceiba in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Gossampinus malabarica Merr. (among others).

2) Salmali is also identified with Ceiba pentandra It has the synonym Eriodendron pentandrum (Linn.) Kurz (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· The Tiv Tribe. (1933)
· Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information Kew (1935)
· Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) (1824)
· Lingnan Science Journal (1928)
· A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants (1831)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Salmali, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śālmalī (शाल्मली).—f S Silk cotton tree, Bombax heptaphyllum.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śalmali (शल्मलि) or Śalmalī (शल्मली).—f. The silk-cotton tree.

Derivable forms: śalmaliḥ (शल्मलिः).

--- OR ---

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—

1) The silk-cotton tree; आपातरम्यपुष्पश्रीशोभितः शाल्मलिर्यथा (āpātaramyapuṣpaśrīśobhitaḥ śālmaliryathā) Bv.1.115; Manusmṛti 8.246.

2) One of the seven great divisions of the earth.

3) Name of a kind of hell.

Derivable forms: śālmaliḥ (शाल्मलिः).

--- OR ---

Śālmalī (शाल्मली).—

1) The silk-cotton tree; शाल्मली शीतला स्वच्छा रसे पाके रसायनी । श्लेष्मला स्निग्धबीजा च बृंहणी रक्तपित्तजित् (śālmalī śītalā svacchā rase pāke rasāyanī | śleṣmalā snigdhabījā ca bṛṃhaṇī raktapittajit) || Bhāva P.

2) Name of a river in Pātāla; लोहशङ्कुमृजीषं च पन्थानं शाल्मली नदीम् (lohaśaṅkumṛjīṣaṃ ca panthānaṃ śālmalī nadīm) Manusmṛti 4.9.

3) A kind of hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śalmali (शल्मलि).—mf. (-liḥ-lī) The silk-cotton tree: see śālmali .

--- OR ---

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—mf. (-liḥ-lī) 1. The silk-cotton tree, (Bombax heptaphyllum.) 2. One of the seven Dwipas, or islands or great divisions of the known eontinent; denominated from the tree first mentioned, said to grow there: it is surrounded by the sea of Ghee or clarified butter. E. śal to go, causal form, kvip aff., śāl exuding, emitting, mal to hold, aff. in and ṅīṣ optionally added; also with ac aff. śālmala, and with the first vowel short, śalmali, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—śālmalī, f. 1. The silk cotton tree, Bombax heptaphyllum, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 246. 2. One of the seven Dvīpas. 3. , A hell, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 90.

Śālmali can also be spelled as Śālmalī (शाल्मली).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—1. (adj. —°) = seq.

--- OR ---

Śālmali (शाल्मलि).—2. [masculine] [feminine], [feminine] the silk-cotton tree; the latter also [Name] of a river & a hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śalmali (शल्मलि):—m. (cf. śālmali) the silk-cotton tree, Salmalia Malabarica, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa]

2) Śalmalī (शल्मली):—[from śalmali] f. idem, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ([varia lectio]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Śālmali (शाल्मलि):—[from śālmala] mf. (or f(). ; cf. śalmali) the Seemul or silk-cotton tree, Bombax Heptaphyllum or Salmalia Malabarica (a lofty and thorny tree with red flowers; its thorns are supposed to be used for torture in one of the hells cf. kūta-ś, or it may stand for the Name of that hell), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] one of the 7 Dvīpas or great divisions of the known continent (so called from the above tree said to grow there; it is surrounded by the sea of ghee or clarified butter), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] [patronymic] of a man (f. lyā) [gana] krauḍyādi

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Avikṣit, [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] of another man descended from Agasti, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

8) Śālmalī (शाल्मली):—[from śālmali > śālmala] a f. See below.

9) [from śālmala] b f. = śālmali (above)

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a river in the infernal regions, [Manu-smṛti iv, 90]

11) [v.s. ...] of another river, [Rāmāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of one of the Śaktis of Viṣṇu, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śalmali (शल्मलि):—[(liḥ-lī)] 2. m. 3 f. The silkcotton tree.

2) Śālmali (शाल्मलि):—[(liḥ-lī)] 2. m. 3. f. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śālmali (शाल्मलि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃbali, Sāmari, Sāmali.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shalmali in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śalmali (ಶಲ್ಮಲಿ):—

1) [noun] a large, deciduous tree Bombax ceiba ( = B. malabaricum, = Salmalia malbaricum) of Bombacaceae family; Indian silk cotton tree.

2) [noun] another tree Salmalia malabarica of the same family.

--- OR ---

Śālmali (ಶಾಲ್ಮಲಿ):—

1) [noun] a large, deciduous tree Bombax ceiba ( = B. malabaricum, = Salmalia malbaricum) of Bombacaceae family; Indian silk cotton tree.

2) [noun] another tree Salmalia malabarica of the same family.

3) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

--- OR ---

Śāḷmaḷi (ಶಾಳ್ಮಳಿ):—

1) [noun] a large, deciduous tree Bombax ceiba ( = B. malabaricum, = Salmalia malbaricum) of Bombacaceae family; Indian silk cotton tree.

2) [noun] another tree Salmalia malabarica of the same family.

3) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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