The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Words having many meanings (nanartha-varga) which is chapter 362 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 362 - Words having many meanings (nānārtha-varga)

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Fire-god said:

1. (The word) nāka (is used to denote) the sky and heaven. (The word) loka (means) the world and people. Śloka (is used to mean) a verse and fame. Sāyaka (has the meaning) an arrow and sword.

2. Ānaka (denotes) a bherī as well as paṭaha (two kinds of drums). Kalaṅka is a mark as well as a scandal. (The letter) ka in the masculine (is used to denote) wind, Brahmā and the Sun and kaṃ in the neuter (is used to denote) head and water.

3. (The word) pulāka (denotes) empty or bad grain, abridgement and rice-water. (The word) kauśika (is used in the sense of) Mahendra, guggulu (resin got from cow), owl, serpent and alligator.

4. A monkey and a dog (are denoted by the word) śālāvṛka. Mānaṃ [Māna] is a means of measure. Sarga (is used in the sense of) one’s nature, natural state, relinquishment, decision, chapter and creation.

5. (The word) yoga (is used in the sense of) an armour, means (expedience), contemplation and union. (The word) bhoga (has the meaning of) happiness and enjoying the company of a harlot. The word abja (is used to denote) conch and moon.

6. Karaṭa (denotes) a crow and the cheek of an elephant. Śipiviṣṭa (denotes) a leprous person. (The word) riṣṭa (is used in the sense of) prosperity, good and bad luck and ariṣṭa, good and bad luck.

7. (The word) vyuṣṭi (is used in the sense of) a fruit and plenty. (The word) dṛṣṭi (is used to denote) knowledge, eye and perception. (The word) niṣṭah (has the sense of) accomplishing, non-existence and destruction. (The word) kāṣṭhā (is used to denote) excellence, state and direction.

8. (The words) iḍā and ilā (convey the sense of) a cow, earth and speech. Pragāḍham [Pragāḍha] (denotes) much and difficult. The word dṛḍha (means) capable of and stout.

9. Vyūḍha (has the meaning) placed in order and firmness. (The word) Kṛṣṇa (denotes) Vyāsa, Arjuna and Hari[1]. Paṇa (is used to denote) the stake in gambling etc., wages, price and a particular coin.

I 0. (The word) guṇa (is used in the sense of) the bow-string, quality of a substance, (qualities like) sattva (goodness), bravery[2] and treaty etc. (The word) grāmaṇī (is used to denote) excellent (person) and leader (in a village).

I1. Tṛṣṇā (is used to convey) desire and desire to drink. (The word) vipaṇi (is used to denote) a merchant’s shop. Tīkṣṇam [Tīkṣṇa] (is used to mean) poison, battle and iron in the neuter, but in all the three (genders) when (denoting) sharp-edged.[3]

12. (The word) pramāṇa (is used to mean) cause, limit in the śāsira, extent and the knower. Karaṇa is the excellent means. It is also (used to denote) the sense-organs. (The word) īriṇam [īriṇa] (is used to convey) a barren land and a desert.

13. (The word) yantṛ (is used in the sense of) a mahout and a charioteer. (The word) heti (denotes) flame[4]. (The word) śrutam [śruta] (is used to convey) scriptures and accurate knowledge. Kṛtam [Kṛta] (is used to mean) the (first) yuga and enough.

14. Pratīta (is used to mean) well-known and delight. Abhijāta (is used to denote) born in a good family and wise. (The word) vivikta (means) pure and devoid of men. Mūrchita (means) stupefied and elevated (prosperous).

15. Artha (conveys the sense) ‘to be expressed’, riches, an object, use and end. tīrtham [tīrtha] (expresses the sense of) water tank, scriptures, water courses honoured by sages and preceptor.

16. Kakudaḥ [Kakuda] (is used in the sense of) importance, the insignia of a king and a limb of a bull (hump on the shoulder) in the masculine and neuter. The feminine (word) saṃvit (conveys the sense of) knowledge, conversation, a disciplined action, battle and name.

17. (The word) upaniṣat (is used in the sense of) dharma and secret doctrine (such as) philosophy. (The word) śarat (has the meaning of) a season and a year. (The word) padam [pada] (is used in the sense of) endeavour, protection, position, mark, foot and object.

18. (These are used) in all the three (genders): (The word) svādū (denotes) favourite and sweet, Mṛdū (denotes) not sharp and soft. Sat (is used to convey) truth, good people, existence, praiseworthy and respectable.

19. (The word) vidhi (is used to denote) an injunction and Brahmā. Praṇidhi (conveys the meaning of) request and a spy. Vadhūḥ [Vadhū] (means) wife, son’s wife and woman in general. Sudhā. (denotes) plaster (used in temples etc.), nectar and the milkhedge plant.

20. (The word) śraddhā (denotes) respect and desire. Paṇḍitammanyaḥ [Paṇḍitammanya] is one who thinks himself as learned and proud as well. Brahmabandhu (is used in the sense of) censure. Bhānu means ray as well as Sun.

21. Grāvan (is used to denote) a hill and a stone. (The word) pṛthakjana (denotes) a fool and also a low class man. (The word) śikharin (denotes) a tree as well as a mountain. Tanu (denotes) the skin and the body.

22. (The word) yatna (denotes) soul, firmness, intellect, nature and path of Brahman. Utthānaṃ [Utthāna] (denotes) effort and remedial act for family. Vyutthānaṃ [Vyutthāna] (denotes) rejection.

23. (The word) niryātana (is used to denote) revenge, gift and restitution of a deposit. Vyasanam [Vyasana] (has the sense of) grief, fall and crime due to passion or wrath.

24. Hunting, dice-play, dreaming during the day, accusation, women, intoxication, the triple symphony (dance, music and instrumental music) and strolling about idly are the group of crime arising from passion.

25. Slandering, bravery, offence, hatred, jealousy, extravagance, reprimand and harshness are the eight crimes arising from wrath.

26. Kaupinam [Kaupina] (is used to denote) a wrong deed, secret and organ of generation. Maithunam [Maithuna] (is employed in the sense of) relating to union with wife and sexual union. Pradhānam [Pradhāna] (denotes) the supreme spirit and intellect. Prajñānam [Prajñāna] (is used to mean) intellect and mark.

27. Krandanam [Krandana] (means) crying and calling. Varṣma (denotes) body and extent. Ārādhanam [Ārādhana] (means) accomplishing, attainment and satisfaction.

28. Ratnam [Ratna] (is used to mean) that which is excellent among its own class. Lakṣma (is used to denote) a mark and chief. Kalāpa (denotes) an ornament, peacock’s plumes, quiver and a collection.

29. (The word) talpam [talpa] (is used to denote) bed, an apartment on the roof and woman. Ḍimba (is used the mean) a child and a fool. (The word) stambha (is used to denote) a pillar of a building and dull. (The word) sabhā (is used to convey the meaning of) an assembly and member of a house.

30. Raśmī (is) a ray (of light) as well as rein (of horses etc.). (The word) dharma (is used to denote) merit and self-control etc. (The word) lalāma (conveys the meaning of) tail, mark (on the forehead of horses etc.), horse, ornament, prominence and banner.

31. (The word) pratyaya (is employed in the sense of) subject to control, oath, knowledge, faith and cause. (The word) samaya (is used to convey) an agreement, practice, time, a dogma and knowledge.

32. (The word) atyaya (is used to mean) transgression and crime. Satyam [Satya] (means) an oath and truth. (The word) vīryam (is used in the sense of) strength, and greatness. Rūpyam [Rūpya] (is used to mean) praiseworthy form.

33. Durodara (is employed to denote) a gambler and durodaram [durodara] (to denote) the stake in gambling. (The word) kāntāra (is used to mean) a great forest or a difficult path, in the masculine and neuter.

34. (The word) hari (is used to denote) Yama (god of death), Anila (wind), Indra (ruler of the celestials), Candra (Moon), Arka (Sun), Viṣṇu and a lion etc. (The word) dara (is employed to mean) a hole and fear, in the masculine and neuter. (The word) jaṭhara (means) hard (besides stomach).

35. Udāra (is used to denote) giver and great. Itara (means) different as well as low. Cūḍā (denotes) crown and hair. The lock of hair (is called) mauli.

36. (The word) bali (is used to mean) tax, offering etc. The word balam [bala] (is used to denote) an army and firmness. (The word) nīvī (is employed to mean) the knot on the waist garment of a women and ransom (against the prince etc. held as captive).

37-38a. (The word) vṛṣa (is used in the following senses): the scrotum (that discharges semen), rat, excellence, good deed and a bull. (The word): ākarṣa (is used to denote) dice-play, the die and the board for dice-play. (The word) akṣam [akṣa] (means) an organ, and in the masculine, the dice, difference in the measure, dispute and the vibhītaka (one of the three myrobalans).

38b. (The word) uṣṇīṣa (is used to mean) crown etc.[5] Karṣū conveys the sense of a small river.

39. (The word) adhyakṣa (means) visible and one who presides over. (The word) vibhāvasu denotes the Sun and Fire. (The word) rasa (is employed to denote) (the sentiments) such as erotic and others, poison, splendour, qualities (such as sweet, sour etc.), passion and juice.

40. (The word) varcas (denotes) feces as well as splendour. (The word) āga (denotes) sin and crime. (The word) chandas (means) poetry and desire. Sādhīyān (is used to denote) good as well as strong. Vyūha (means) a collection as well as (strength). (The word) ahiḥ (denotes) Vṛtra as well as a serpent[6]. Fire, Moon and Sun (are referred to as) tamonudāḥ [tamonudā/tamonuda?] (destroyers of darkness).

Footnotes and references:


This line is not in the Amara.


The text wrongly reads śukla instead of śaurya.


The printed text wrongly reads svara instead of khara.


Vide Amara paṅkti 2476. The Purāṇa has omitted the other senses: ray of the Sun and weapon.


The crown and the turban. Cf. Amara Paṅkti 2776.


The Purāṇa omits this word. Cf. Amara paṅkti 2812.

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