Draksha, Drākṣā: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Draksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Drākṣā can be transliterated into English as Draksa or Draksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) is a Sanskrit word referring to Vitis vinifera, a species of vine from the Vitaceae (or, Vitidaceae) family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. In English, it is known as “common grape vine”. The plant is identified as a liana growing up to 32 meters in height, and has a flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm in length and breadth. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape. The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides.

This plant (Drākṣā) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the synonym Mṛdvīkā.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) refers to “grapes”, mentioned in verse 3.34 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] In groves in which the hot-rayed one is darkened by cloud-grazing huge Sal trees and Palmyra palms, (and which are) profuse in bunches of grapes [viz., drākṣā-stabaka] clinging to spring-flowers in a rest-house in which (are found) plenty of cloths besprinkled with fragrant cold water, [...]”.

Note: mādhavīśliṣṭa (“clinging to spring-flowers”) has been separated from, and interchanged with, drākṣā-stabaka-śālin (“profuse in bunches of grapes”), and has been rendered more freely by ’khri-śiṅ daṅ ldan (“endowed with creepers”). The term mādhavī (from mādhava) (“spring-flower”) denotes a species of creepers alternatively called atimuktaka and generally identified as Hiptage madablota Gabbtn.—For daṅ ldan CD read ldan daṅ, which does not make sense here.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) refers to “grape” and is mentioned as being beneficial (hita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The dravyaguṇāguṇa section contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here In the  phala (fruits) group drākṣā (grape) is mentioned as beneficial to the body (hita).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) refers to the medicinal plant known as Vitis vinifera, Fr., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Drākṣā. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Vitis vinifera Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning drākṣā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा) refers to “grapes”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Grapes are referred to as a relishable food and as gift for the gods and the Brāhmaṇas. A festival in honour of Śyāmā—personified vine-creeper—is also mentioned (verse 797 ff). The term Mṛdvīkā denotes partially dried grapes (verse 416). The abundance of grapes in Kaśmīra is proved by the statements of Bilhaṇa, Kalhaṇa and Varāhamihira.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Sanskrit for 'grapes', 'raisins' or 'vines'.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Drākṣa (द्राक्ष) refers to the “grapes”: a type of fruit (phala), according to Jain canonical texts (e.g., the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra from the 3rd century B.C.). It can also be spelled Drākṣā and is also known as Kākati. Various kinds of fruits were grown and consumed by the people in ancient India. Fruits were also dried up for preservation. Koṭṭaka was a place for this operation. Besides being grown in orchards, fruits were gathered from jungles and were carried to cities for sales.

The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits (e.g., Drākṣa fruit), vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjāṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm and quiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

drākṣa (द्राक्ष) [or द्रांक्ष, drāṅkṣa].—and vulgar drākha f (drākṣā S) The vine, Vitis vinifera. 2 n The fruit, grapes or a grape.

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drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—f (S) The vine, Vitis vinifera. 2 Grapes or a grape.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

drākṣa (द्राक्ष).—f The vine. n A grape.

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drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—f The vine.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—Vine, grape (the creeper or the fruit); द्राक्षे द्रक्ष्यन्ति के त्वाम् (drākṣe drakṣyanti ke tvām) Gīt. 12; R.4.65; Bv.1.14;4.39. मधुक्षीरद्राक्षामधुमधुरिमा कैरपि पदेर्विशिष्यावाख्येयो भवति रसनामात्र- विषयः (madhukṣīradrākṣāmadhumadhurimā kairapi paderviśiṣyāvākhyeyo bhavati rasanāmātra- viṣayaḥ) Ānandalaharī

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) A grape. E. drākṣi to desire, affix a .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—f. 1. A vine, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 6407. 2. A grape, [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 12, 29.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Drākṣā (द्राक्षा).—[feminine] vine, grape.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Drākṣā (द्राक्षा):—f. vine, grape, [Harivaṃśa] : [Suśruta; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) Drākṣa (द्राक्ष):—[from drākṣā] mf(ī)n. (as, ī, am) made of grapes, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti xi, 95.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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