Nimba, Nīmbā: 26 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nimba means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Nimba (निम्ब) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Azadirachta indica (neem) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as nimba) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Nimba (निम्ब) is a Sanskrit word referring to Azadirachta indica (neem), from the Meliaceae family. Certain plant parts of Nimba are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. It is also known as Prabhadra. Other commonly used English names include “nimtree” and “Indian lilac”. It is native to India and grows in tropical and semi-tropical regions.

The plant Nimba is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant has the synonym Ariṣṭa. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Nimbayugma group of medicinal drugs.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Nimba (निम्ब) is the name of a tree (Neem tree) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Uttara-Bhādrapadā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Nimba], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Nimba (निम्ब).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—It is the best among bitters and pacifies kapha and pitta. It alleviates fever, kuṣṭha, prameha, worms, blood disorders and wounds.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to Azadirachta indica, and is dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need (viz., nimba) of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to a medicinal plant known as Azadirachta indica, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Nimba). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Source: Namah Journal: An overview of certain Āyurvedic herbs in the management of viral hepatitis

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to the medicinal plant known as Azadirachta indica, A.Juss., and is employed in the treatment of Kāmala.—Among the single and compound preparations described in Āyurveda for the treatment of kāmala, some of the drugs have been found to be effective. A scientific study of the drugs [viz., Nimba] was carried out and significant response observed.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Azadirachta indica A. Juss.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning nimba] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to “neem” and represents a type of vegetables fit for use in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.121b-125 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: A Metallurgical Study of Nāga Bhasma

Nimba (निम्ब) or Neem refers to the medicinal plant known as Zingiber officinale Linn., and is used is in the metallurgical process for creating nāgabhasma, (Jāraṇa step):—The Nirguṇḍī-svarasa-śodhita Nāga (580 g) was subjected to Jāraṇa (6 hours) by melting śodhita-nāga and stirring it with a Neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.) stick and adding the whole plant parts of Chichiri (Plectranthus coesta L.). The jarita-nāga (620 g) was obtained as a yellow–orange powder.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Nimba is a herb used in Ayurveda medicine commonly known as Azadirachta indica.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to “neem”, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “the fruit of the tāla (palmyra) tree, the fruit of the coconut, the fruit of the bilva, the fruit of the nimba (neem), and other malodorous fruits unpleasant to all should not be offered. [...] There are many more kinds of fruit such as the above varieties, but with different names: examine their taste and use them accordingly to make offerings”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., nimba], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., nimba]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Nimba (निम्ब) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (e.g., the Nimba tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Nimba (निम्ब) in both Sanskrit and Prakrit to margosa (Melia azadirachta Linn.), the shoots (aṅkura) of which are classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Those plants which are classified as ananta-kāyas (e.g., nimba) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Nīmbā (नीम्बा) is the name of a village mentioned as lying on the northern boundary of Ki-icchitā, according to the “Prince of wales museum plates of Mummuṇirāja”. Accordingly, “... the village Ki-icchitā comprised in the viṣaya of Mandaraja, together with all hamlets and together with orchards, areca-nut trees and minerals, and with examption from taxes,—the boundaries of which are as follows: On the east, the boundary of (the village) Pāṇīvāḍa of the Śrīnera hill ; on the north, the boundary of the village Nīmbā; on the west, the boundary of the village Mātara; on the south, the boundary of the Sāmbina river”.

These copper plates (mentioing Nīmbā) were handed over to the Curator (Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay) by one Hasan Razak. Its object is to record the grant, by Mammuṇirāja, of the village Ki-icchitā (Mandaraja-viṣaya) to twelve Brāhmaṇas residing in the agrahāra of Brahmapurī. The grant was made on the occasion of a lunar eclipse which occurred on the fifteenth tithi of the bright fortnight of Bhādrapada in the Śaka year 971, the cyclic year being Virodhin.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nimba : (m.) the margosa tree, Azadirachta Iindica.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nimba, (Sk. nimba, non-Aryan) the Nimb tree (Azadirachta Indica), bearing a bitter leaf, & noted for its hard wood Vin. I, 152 (°kosa), 284 (id.), 201 (°kasāva); A. I, 32; V, 212; Vv 3336 (°muṭṭhi, a handful of N. leaves); J. II, 105, 106; DhA. I, 52 (°kosa); DhsA. 320 (°paṇṇa, the leaf of the N. as example of tittaka, bitter taste); VvA. 142 (°palāsa); PvA. 220 (°rukkhassa daṇḍena katasūla). (Page 367)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nimba (निंब).—m (S) The Nimb or Neem-tree. There are three common species, kaḍhīnimba, kaḍūnimba or bāḷanta- nimba, & bakāṇanimba Azadirachta Indica, Grah., Melia &c. Rox. nimba nēsaṇēṃ To wear the Nimb. A practice of women. They cover their nudity with Nimbbranches and sprigs, and proceed to the idol to which some vow has been made, and there receive clothing from their friends. nimba lāvaṇēṃ-ṭhēvaṇēṃ-dēṇēṃ To attach a stigma or stain: also nimba lāgaṇēṃ-yēṇēṃ in. con. To get a stigma &c.

--- OR ---

nimbā (निंबा).—a P ( H) Unmarried;--used of an adult or person of attained puberty.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nimba (निंब).—m The Nimb or Neem-tree. nimba lāvaṇēṃ- ṭhēvaṇēṃ-dēṇēṃ To attach a stigma or stain. nimba lāgaṇēṃ-yēṇēṃ To get a stigma.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nimba (निम्ब).—

1) A tree with bitter fruits; आम्रं छित्वा कुठारेण निम्बं परिचरेत्तु यः यश्चैनं पयसा सिञ्चेन्नैवास्य मधुरो भवेत् (āmraṃ chitvā kuṭhāreṇa nimbaṃ paricarettu yaḥ yaścainaṃ payasā siñcennaivāsya madhuro bhavet) || Rām.

2) Name of a tree, Pāribhadra; निम्बस्तु पिचुमन्दे च पारिभद्र- तरावपि (nimbastu picumande ca pāribhadra- tarāvapi)

Derivable forms: nimbaḥ (निम्बः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nimba (निम्ब).—m.

(-mbaḥ) The Nimb or Neemb tree, (Melia azadiracta.) E. nibi to sprinkle, affix ac; also with kan added, nimbakaḥ these words are written with either va or ba, as nimba or nimba.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nimba (निम्ब).—m. A tree, Azadiracta indica Juss., [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 35, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nimba (निम्ब).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree, taila [neuter] the oil coming from it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nimba (निम्ब):—m. the Nimb or Neemb tree, Azadirachta Indica (its fruit is bitter and its leaves are chewed at funeral ceremonies), [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Varāha-mihira; Suśruta; Kāvya literature] (also -ka).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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