Shakuni, Sakuṇī, Sakuni, Śakuni, Śakunī, Śākuni, Śākunī: 25 definitions
Shakuni means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śakuni and Śakunī and Śākuni and Śākunī can be transliterated into English as Sakuni or Shakuni, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Śakunī (शकुनी) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Śakunī) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Śakuni (शकुनि).—A serpent born in the Dhṛtarāṣṭra dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajña conducted by Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16). (See full article at Story of Śakuni from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Śakuni (शकुनि).—An asura who was the son of Hiraṇyākṣa and brother of Śambara, Trimūrdhā, Śaṅku and Ārya. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).
3) Śakuni (शकुनि).—A king born in the dynasty of Bharata, son of Duṣyanta. Śakuni was Bhīmaratha’s son and father of Urudbhi. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).
4) Śakuni (शकुनि).—A son of Ikṣvāku. (For details see under Viśvakarmā, Para 2).
5) Śakuni (शकुनि).—A maharṣi to whom were born nine sons called Dhruva, Śāli, Budha, Tāra, Jyotiṣmān, Nirmoha, Jitakāma, Dhyānakāṣṭha, and Guṇādhika. The first five of them led householder’s life while the last four took to Sannyāsa even as children. (Padma Purāṇa Ādikhaṇḍa, Chapter 31).
6) Śakuni (शकुनि).—The notorious uncle of Duryodhana. Son of King Subala of Gāndhāra and brother of Gāndhārī. Śakuni, staying at Hastināpura, pulled the strings for all the evil actions of Duryodhana. It was Śakuni’s hands, which worked in the background in driving the Pāṇḍavas out of the kingdom and in denuding Pāñcālī of her clothes. It was also his evil tactics, which tore asunder all chances of conciliation with the Pāṇḍavas on their return from the forest and thus led to the great war that lasted for eighteen days. At last he was killed by Sahadeva during the war. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 61). A resume of the part played by Śakuni in the Bhārata story is given below:
It was with his help that Duryodhana defeated Dharmaputra in the foul game of dice. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 50).
7) Śākuni (शाकुनि).—A maharṣi, who lived in Madhu forest. Of the nine sons of Śākuni, Dhruva, Śīla, Budha and Tāra were house-holders and agnihotris (those who sacrificed offerings in fire). (Padma Purāṇa, Svarga Khaṇḍa 81).Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Śakunī (शकुनी) is the name of a Goddess that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—These Goddesses (e.g., Śakunī) form the shining galaxy of female deities worshipped by the people of Kaśmīra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Śakuni (शकुनि).—(saubala) a prince of Gāndhāra and an evil adviser to Duryodhana; joined him in insulting Vidura; attacked the northern gate of Mathurā, and the eastern gate of Gomanta when they were besieged by Jarāsandha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 14; 3. 13; VII. 2. 18; X. 50. 11 ; 52. 11. .
1b) Father of Asura Vṛka; took part in the Devāsura war between Bali and Indra.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 10. 20; X. 88. 14.
1c) A son of (Ekā) Daśaratha and father of Karambhi (aka).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 4-5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 70. 44; Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 43; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 12. 41.
1d) A son of Vikukṣi.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 9.
1e) A son of Sanadvāja; father of Svāgata.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 64. 20.
1f) A son of Danu*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 17.
1g) A son of Dṛḍharatha and father of Karambha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 44. 42.
1h) Had 500 brothers who were rulers of Uttarāpathadeśa; of these 48 had sovereignty over the south; all sons of Ikṣvāku.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 9.
1i) A son of Sutadvāja.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 89. 20.
2a) Śakunī (शकुनी).—A daughter of Bali.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 43; Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 84.
2b) The wife of Nāka.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 13.
2c) A mind-born mother.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 12.
Śakuni (शकुनि) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.14, I.61.72) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śakuni) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Śakuni is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.14, I.57, I.63.94, I.63) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Śakuni (शकुनि).—The evil brother of Gāndhārī and notorious friend of Duryodhana. He master-minded the great gambling match that sent the Pāṇḍavas into exile for 13 years. In the great Kurukṣetra war he was killed by Sahadeva.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha
Śakunī (शकुनी) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Śakunī] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala
Śākunī (शाकुनी) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Śākunī]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Brother of Gandhari (wife of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas). He won the kingdom of the Pandavas (for his nephew Duryodhana) by challenging Yudhisthira to a rigged game of dice.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Śakuni (शकुनि, ‘bird’) is used practically like Śakuna, but with a much clearer reference to divination. It was smaller than the Śyena or Suparṇa, gave signs, and foretold ill-luck. When it is mentioned4 in the list of sacrificial victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’), a special species must be meant: later the falcon is so called, but the ‘raven’ may be intended; the commentator on the Taittirīya-saṃhitā thinks that it is the ‘crow’.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. He was very fond of his nephew Duryodhana. He won the Pandava's half of the kingdom for his nephew, as a wager in a rigged game of dice. The dice that were used were made with Shakuni's father's thigh bones and would always do his bidding.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Shakuni (शकुनि): Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. He was very fond of his nephew Duryodhana. He won the Pandavas' half of the kingdom for his nephew, as a wager in a rigged game of dice.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Śakunī (शकुनी) refers to one of the various Mātṛs and Mahāmātṛs mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śakunī).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
sakuṇī : (f.) a she-bird.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śakuni (शकुनि).—m S The eighth of the periods called karaṇa. 2 The name of the maternal uncle of the kaurava princes. Hence śakunimāmā A term for an old treacherous or officious relative whose counsels tend to ruin.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śakuni (शकुनि).—m The name of the maternal uncle of the kaurava princes. Hence śakunimāmā
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A bird; तरुशकुनिकुरङ्गान् मैथिली यानपुष्यत् (taruśakunikuraṅgān maithilī yānapuṣyat) U.3.25; Ms.12.63.
2) A vulture, kite or eagle.
3) A cock.
4) Name of a son of Subala, king of Gāndhāra and brother of Gāndharī, wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; he was thus the maternal uncle of Duryodhana whom he assisted in many of his wicked schemes to exterminate the Pāṇḍavas. The name is now usually applied to an old wicked-minded relative whose counsels tend to ruin.
5) Name of a demon killed by Kṛṣṇa.
Derivable forms: śakuniḥ (शकुनिः).
--- OR ---
1) A hen-sparrow.
2) A kind of bird.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śakuni (शकुनि).—name of a cakravartin (of the race of Mahāsaṃ-mata): Mahāvyutpatti 3564.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-niḥ) 1. A bird. 2. The meternal uncle of the Kaurava princes, and counsellor or Duryodhana. 3. One of the astronomical periods called Karanas. 4. The Indian kite or eagle, (Falco cheela.) f. (-nī) A hen-sparrow. E. śak to be able, uni Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śakuni (शकुनि).—[śak + uni] (see the last), I. m. 1. A bird, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 140. 2. The Indian kite, Falco cheela. 3. A surname of the Aśvins, Mahābhārata 1, 723. 4. A proper name. [Indralokāgamana] 3, 9. Ii. f. nī, A hensparrow.
— Probably akin to [Old Norse.] haukr; Danish, hog; [Old High German.] habuh; A. S. hafoe.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śakuni (शकुनि).—[masculine] = śakuna, [Name] of a serpent-demon etc., [feminine] śakunī a female bird.
--- OR ---
Śākuni (शाकुनि).—[masculine] = [preceding] [masculine]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śakunī (शकुनी):—[from śakuna] a f. See [column]3
2) Śakuni (शकुनि):—[from śakuna] m. a bird ([especially] a large bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] = gridhra or cilla [according to] to some ‘a cock’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
3) [v.s. ...] (in astronomy) Name of the first fixed karaṇa (q.v.), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Naga, [Mahābhārata]
5) [v.s. ...] of an evil demon (son of Duḥ-saha), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
6) [v.s. ...] of an Asura (son of Hiraṇyākṣa and father of Vṛka), [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] of the brother of queen Gāndhārī (and therefore the brother-in-law of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra and the Mātula or maternal uncle of the Kuru princes; as son of Subala, king of Gāndhāra, he is called Saubala; he often acted as counsellor of Duryodhana, and hence his name is sometimes applied to an old officious relative whose counsels ten to misfortune), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 380])
8) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vikukṣi and grandson of Ikṣvāku, [Harivaṃśa]
9) [v.s. ...] of a son of Daśa-ratha, [ib.; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] of the great-grandfather of Aśoka, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
11) [v.s. ...] [dual number] Name of the Aśvins, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
12) [v.s. ...] f(i or ī). See below.
13) Śakunī (शकुनी):—[from śakuna] b f. (of śakuna or ni, [column] 2) a female bird, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
14) [v.s. ...] a hen-sparrow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] Turdus Macrourus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] Name of a female demon (sometimes identified with Durgā) causing a [particular] child’s disease (sometimes = pūtanā, and in this sense also śakuni), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
17) Śākuni (शाकुनि):—[from śākuna] m. ‘a bird-catcher’ or ‘an augur’ [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śakuni (शकुनि):—(niḥ) 2. m. A bird; astronomical period; uncle of the Kuru princes; kite or eagle. f. (nī) A hen-sparrow.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Śakuni (शकुनि):—[Uṇādisūtra 3, 49.]
1) m. a) = śakuna
1) a) [das 5, 3.] [Yāska’s Nirukta 3, 18.4, 16. 9, 3.] [Amarakoṣa 2, 5, 32.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 266.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1316.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 424.] [Medinīkoṣa Nalopākhyāna 136.] [Halāyudha 2, 82.] [Ṛgveda 2, 42, 1. 43, 3.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 2, 25, 2.] kṛṣṇa [7, 64, 1. 10, 3, 6. 11, 9, 9.] [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 4, 7.] vāda [2, 15.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 1, 1, 31.] [Kāṭhaka-Recension 25, 7.] hiraṇyavarṇānāṃ śakunīnām (mantrāḥ) [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 459.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 6, 8, 2.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 5, 11. 12, 63.] [Spr. (II) 968. 3288. (I) 2997. 4604.] [Mahābhārata 1, 723] (die Aśvin als Vögel). [?2, 356. 3, 10437. 5, 2452. 12, 1622. Rāmāyaṇa 1, 2, 19. 2, 34, 50. 96, 12 (105, 11 Gorresio). 3, 17, 18. Śāntanācārya’s Phiṭsūtrāṇi 2, 21. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 53, 106. 87, 1. Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 35, 22. SARVADARŚANAS. 69, 6.] lubdhaka [Pañcatantra III, 140.] — b) ein best. Vogel [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 24, 40.] Falco Cheela (cilla) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1334.] [Halāyudha 2, 95.] = gṛdhra [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 194.] — c) Name des 1ten festen Karaṇa (s. 2. karaṇa
3) m) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 99, 5. 8.] — d) Nomen proprium gaṇa śubhrādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 1, 123.] eines Schlangendämons [Mahābhārata 1, 2157.] eines Unholdes, Sohnes des Duḥsaha, [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 51, 3. 67.] eines Asura, Sohnes des Hiraṇyākṣa, [Harivaṃśa 194.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 147.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 10, 20. 10, 88, 14] (Vater des Vṛka). eines Fürsten der Gāndhāra, Sohnes des Subala, [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Mahābhārata 1, 2440. 2713. 5655. 3, 1797. 12276. 14772. fgg. 6, 2104. 7, 516. 14, 2485.] [Harivaṃśa 8020. 8070. 8098.] [Spr. (II) 341.] [Oxforder Handschriften 157], b, [No. 341.] eines Sohnes des Vikukṣi und Grosssohnes des Ikṣvāku [Harivaṃśa 662.] eines Sohnes des Daśaratha [1993.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9, 24, 5.] des Urgrossvaters Aśoka’s [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 101.] —
2) f. ī Vogelweibchen (Sperlingsweibchen [ŚABDĀRTHAK.] bei [WILSON], Turdus macrourus [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma]) [Mahābhārata 12, 5137. 5523.] [Harivaṃśa 3382] (die neuere Ausg. besser śakunibhyaḥ). veṣadhāriṇī [3423. 9088.] śakunī pūtanā Name einer Unholdin [Mahābhārata 5, 4409.] [Harivaṃśa 3290. 3424. 4149.] śakunī allein = pūtanā  (die neuere Ausg. śakunī, die ältere śakuni). [8391.] Später sind daraus zwei den Kindern gefährliche Unholdinnen gemacht worden [Suśruta 2, 382, 8. 387, 8.] śakuni [Śārṅgadhara SAṂH. 1, 7, 109.] [Oxforder Handschriften 307], b, [26. fg.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 147, Nalopākhyāna 2.] śakunī mit Durgā identificirt [Harivaṃśa 10241.] — Vgl. kṛṣṇa, mahā, śākunika, śākuneya .
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Śakunī (शकुनी):—(nm) an augur, a soothsayer.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Shakunigandha, Shakunigraha, Shakunika, Shakunikalubdhaka, Shakunikaprashna, Shakunikayini, Shakunilubdhaka, Shakunimitra, Shakunin, Shakuniprapa, Shakunisada, Shakunisavana, Shakunishvara, Shakunivada, Shakunividya, Shakuniya.
Full-text (+64): Saubala, Shakunishvara, Shakuniprapa, Karambhi, Subala, Mataksha, Krishnashakuni, Shakunigraha, Durdyutavedin, Mahashakuni, Shakunivada, Karambha, Uluka, Shakuneya, Kanika, Shakunimitra, Shakuniya, Shakunika, Duryodhana, Shakunisavana.
Search found 30 books and stories containing Shakuni, Sakuṇī, Sakuni, Śakuni, Śakunī, Śākuni, Śākunī; (plurals include: Shakunis, Sakuṇīs, Sakunis, Śakunis, Śakunīs, Śākunis, Śākunīs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Chapter 9 - The Gambling Match < [Sabha Parva]
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Chapter 11 - The Pandavas Lose Their Kingdom < [Sabha Parva]
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Chapter XXX - Treatment of an attack by Shakuni-graha < [Canto II - Kaumarabhritya-tantra (pediatrics, gynecology and pregnancy)]
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Section LXIV < [Sisupala-badha Parva]
Section LX < [Sisupala-badha Parva]
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List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)