Vardhamana, Vardhamāna: 31 definitions


Vardhamana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the ten practices performed after the removal of the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. It is also known by the name Vardhamānaka. Accordingly, vardhamāna refers to “a class of songs with dance”. This type of preliminary can be substituted with the Madraka class.

Performing the vardhamāna preliminary pleases Rudra. According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”

2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) also refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-six combined Hands).—Vardhamāna (increase): Hamṣa-pakṣa hands palms down, turned together face upwards. Patron deity Vāsuki. Usage: Narasiṃha, his glory, tearing the raksasa’s chest.

2) Vardhamāna is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).

Source: Natya Shastra

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with combined hands (saṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): Two Haṃsapakṣa hands turned down will be the known as the Vardhamāna .

(Uses): It is to be used to represent the opening of objects like latticed windows.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the thirteen Saṃyuktahastas or “combined hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—In the vardhamāna posture, both hands in haṃsapakṣa posture are in opposite direction. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, this posture shows lattice, window etc.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Lalita, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Lalita group contains twenty-five out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A character in the story of Pañcatantra. (See under Pañcatantra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A mountain of Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.

1b) A son of Upadevī and Vasudeva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 179.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of an ancient city, according to the “story of the golden city”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 24. Accordingly, “there lived long ago in a city called Vardhamāna, the ornament of the earth, a king, the terror of his foes, called Paropakārin...”. The story was told by Śaktivega to Udayana and Vāsavadatta in order to relate his incarnation as a Vidyādhara.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vardhamāna, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A long vowel;

2) Vardhamāna.—Name of a famous Jain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि (gaṇaratnamahodadhi), and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himself. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर (kātantravistara) and क्रियागुप्तक (kriyāguptaka) as also a few religious books.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Chandas glossary
Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of a commentator on Jayadeva’s Jayadevachandas mentioned in the “New Catalogus Catalogorum”. Jayadevachandas is the literary testimony of Jayadeva’s scholarly contribution. He follows the path of Piṅgala and includes both the Vedic and classical metres in his text, which is missing in the work of his predecessor Janāśraya.

2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the vardhamāna metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) wrote a commentary named Prakāśa on Udayana’s Tātparyapariśuddhi.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) or Vardhamānavrata refers to the “vow of growth”, according to the Brahmayāmala verse 21.1-4ab.—Accordingly, “Next I will explain the vows born from Ucchuṣma (Bhairava). The Vow of Nakedness is one. The second is (the vow of wearing) rags. The third one is the one of impurity. The fourth is (the Vow of) Madness. The sixth one is said to be the one of the skull. The sixth one is said to be (the Vow of) Bhairava. The seventh is called the (vow of behaving like a) child. The eighth is (the vow of) eating meat. The ninth is the (vow of) growth [i.e., vardhamāna-vrata], which gives all accomplishments. These are said to be the nine Vows that belong to the Vidyā division”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) [=Vardhamān? ] refers to a country belonging to “Pūrvā or Pūrvadeśa (eastern division)” classified under the constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya represent the eastern division consisting of [i.e., Vardhamāna] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to “growing” (in strength), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] As long as there is [even] a modicum of effort and the forming of conceptual thought, then, absorption of the mind is not attained, what to say of the highest reality? The tree of the mundane world will fall [because] its root, [which is] the mind, has been uprooted by the Yogin [who] is growing (vardhamāna) [in strength] as a result of the flood of the nectar of detachment. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Vardhamana (वर्धमान): The northern gate of the Kuru capital Hastinapura.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to the “powder-flask” and represents one of the “eight auspicious thins” in Jainism, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“[...] Then, after circumambulating it, he ascended his aerial car, like his own lofty pride, by the east steps. [...] Then Śakra’s Śāmānikas, like other forms of Śakra, ascended by the north steps and took their proper seats. [...] In front of the Lord of Paulomī (Śakra) seated on the lion-throne shone eight groups of the eight auspicious things, [viz., vardhamāna], etc. [...]”.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is another name for Mahāvīra: the last of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Vardhamāna was born of a royal family of Videha or North Bihār, his father Siddhārtha, being the ruling prince of Kuṇḍapura, the abode of the Nāta or Nāya clan, his mother is known by the name of Triśalā. [...] The child Vardhamāna had shewn early being destined to be a Prophet. Thirty years he lived as a house-holder, but after his parent’s death, he determined to take the ascetic life and obtained the permissionof his brother, who had, then, become king.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान, “increasing”) refers to “which increases over time” and represents one of the six types of guṇapratyaya: a category of knowledge (jñāna) obtained by clairvoyance (avadhi-jñāna), according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.21.

What is meant by increasing (vardhamāna) clairvoyance? It is the clairvoyant knowledge which keeps on increasing like the moon in the bright fortnight.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vardhamāna.—(LP), ‘when cut down.’ Note: vardhamāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Biology glossary
Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Vardhamana in India is the name of a plant defined with Ricinus communis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cataputia major Ludw. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Davidsonia (1981)
· Cytologia (1980)
· Catalogus Plantarum Madagascariensium (1906)
· Tropical Plant Science Research. New Delhi (1983)
· Species Plantarum
· Journal of Palynology (1980)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Vardhamana, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—p pr S Growing, increasing, advancing,prospering, thriving.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—a. [vṛdh-śānac] Growing, increasing.

-naḥ 1 The castor-oil plant.

2) A kind of riddle.

3) Name of Viṣṇu.

4) Name of a district (said to be the same as the modern Baradvāna).

5) Sweet citron.

6) A particular way of joining hands.

7) A particular attitude in dancing.

8) Name of the 24th Arhat of Jina.

9) Name of the elephant who supports the eastern quarter.

-naḥ, -nam 1 A pot or dish of a particular shape; स्वस्तिकान् वर्धमानांश्च नन्द्यावर्तांश्च काञ्चनान् (svastikān vardhamānāṃśca nandyāvartāṃśca kāñcanān) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.82.2; lid.

2) A kind of mystical diagram.

3) A palace or temple built in the form of the above diagram.

4) A house having no door on the south side.

-nā Name of a district (the modern Baradvāna).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) or Varddhamāna.—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Prosperous, thriving. 2. Increasing, growing. 3. A house having no entrance on the south-side. m.

(-naḥ) 1. The castor-oil tree. 2. A lid, a cover, especially a shallow earthen platter or saucer, used also as a top to water-jars, &c. 3. A name of Vishnu. 4. A sort of riddle or charade. 5. The last and most celebrated of the twenty-four Jinas or Jaina teachers of the present æra. 6. A mystical figure or diagram. 7. A district and city, Burdwan. E. vṛdh to increase, śānac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Murāri (Anargharāghava). Oxf. 137^a.

2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]

3) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—an astronomer. Quoted by Varāhamihira W. p. 249.

4) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Kātantravistara.

5) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—pupil of Govinda Sūri: Kriyāguptaka. Gaṇaratnamahodadhi and—[commentary], composed in 1140. Siddharājavarṇana.

6) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Nānāśāstrārthanirṇaya [dharma]

7) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Śrāddhapradīpa.

8) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Bhaveśa, client of Rāmabhadra, king of Mithilā: Gaṅgākṛtyaviveka, etc.

9) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Dattakojjvala.

10) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Prameyaprakāśa.

11) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Jñānapati. He was a client to Vīśala, minister to king Narendra: Yogamañjarī veterinary.

12) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Bhaveśa: Dvaitaviṣayaviveka [dharma] Nānāśāstrārthanirṇaya [dharma]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—[from vardha] mfn. increasing, growing, thriving, prosperous, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. Ricinus Communis (so called from its vigorous growth), [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] m. sweet citron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (also f(ā). )

4) [v.s. ...] m. a [particular] way of joining the hands, [Catalogue(s)]

5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] attitude in dancing, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of riddle or charade, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] of a mountain and district (also of its town, now called Bardwān or Burdwān), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] of a Grāma, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

10) [v.s. ...] of various authors and other men, [Catalogue(s)]

11) [v.s. ...] of the last of the 24 Arhats or Jinas, [Jaina literature]

12) [v.s. ...] of the elephant who supports the eastern quarter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) of a people, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] m. or n. a kind of mystical figure or diagram, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Lalita-vistara]

15) [v.s. ...] m. a dish or platter of a [particular] shape (sometimes used as a lid or cover for water-jars etc.), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

16) [v.s. ...] a house having no entrance on the south side, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Matsya-purāṇa]

17) Vardhamānā (वर्धमाना):—[from vardhamāna > vardha] f. a species of Gāyatrī metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of the town of Bardwaln, [Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā]

19) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—[from vardha] n. = vardhamānapura, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra]

20) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vaḍḍhamāṇa, Vaḍḍhamāṇaya, Vaddhamāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vardhamana in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vardhāmāna (वर्धामान):—(a) developing, growing, increasing.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vardhamana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vardhamāna (ವರ್ಧಮಾನ):—[adjective] growing; improving; developing.

--- OR ---

Vardhamāna (ವರ್ಧಮಾನ):—

1) [noun] the process of growing or developing; gradual development toward maturity; growth; development.

2) [noun] the castor plant (Ricinus communis of Euphorbiacae family).

3) [noun] a lid, cover of a container, tin, box, etc.

4) [noun] (archit.) a type of building that does not have a door on southern side.

5) [noun] a problem or puzzle in the form of a question, statement, etc. so formulated that some ingenuity is required to solve or answer it; a riddle; a conundrum.

6) [noun] (dance.) a posture in which the back portions of both the feet are are kept across bringing the heels together.

7) [noun] (dance.) a posing with both the hands crossing each other and the palms kept straight in line with the respective hands, little finger raised, the thumb pressed to the forefinger, while other three fingers are bent as to keep them parallel to the ground.

8) [noun] Mahāvīra, the twenty fourth spiritual jaina teacher wo revitalised jainism.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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