Vardhamana, Vardhamāna: 23 definitions
Vardhamana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the ten practices performed after the removal of the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. It is also known by the name Vardhamānaka. Accordingly, vardhamāna refers to “a class of songs with dance”. This type of preliminary can be substituted with the Madraka class.
Performing the vardhamāna preliminary pleases Rudra. According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”
2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) also refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-six combined Hands).—Vardhamāna (increase): Hamṣa-pakṣa hands palms down, turned together face upwards. Patron deity Vāsuki. Usage: Narasiṃha, his glory, tearing the raksasa’s chest.
2) Vardhamāna is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with combined hands (saṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): Two Haṃsapakṣa hands turned down will be the known as the Vardhamāna .
(Uses): It is to be used to represent the opening of objects like latticed windows.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Lalita, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Lalita group contains twenty-five out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A character in the story of Pañcatantra. (See under Pañcatantra).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A mountain of Krauñcadvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.
1b) A son of Upadevī and Vasudeva.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 179.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of an ancient city, according to the “story of the golden city”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 24. Accordingly, “there lived long ago in a city called Vardhamāna, the ornament of the earth, a king, the terror of his foes, called Paropakārin...”. The story was told by Śaktivega to Udayana and Vāsavadatta in order to relate his incarnation as a Vidyādhara.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vardhamāna, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A long vowel;
2) Vardhamāna.—Name of a famous Jain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि (gaṇaratnamahodadhi), and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himself. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर (kātantravistara) and क्रियागुप्तक (kriyāguptaka) as also a few religious books.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of a commentator on Jayadeva’s Jayadevachandas mentioned in the “New Catalogus Catalogorum”. Jayadevachandas is the literary testimony of Jayadeva’s scholarly contribution. He follows the path of Piṅgala and includes both the Vedic and classical metres in his text, which is missing in the work of his predecessor Janāśraya.
2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the vardhamāna metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) wrote a commentary named Prakāśa on Udayana’s Tātparyapariśuddhi.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Vardhamana (वर्धमान): The northern gate of the Kuru capital Hastinapura.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to the “powder-flask” and represents one of the “eight auspicious thins” in Jainism, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
“[...] Then, after circumambulating it, he ascended his aerial car, like his own lofty pride, by the east steps. [...] Then Śakra’s Śāmānikas, like other forms of Śakra, ascended by the north steps and took their proper seats. [...] In front of the Lord of Paulomī (Śakra) seated on the lion-throne shone eight groups of the eight auspicious things, [viz., vardhamāna], etc. [...]”.
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is another name for Mahāvīra: the last of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Vardhamāna was born of a royal family of Videha or North Bihār, his father Siddhārtha, being the ruling prince of Kuṇḍapura, the abode of the Nāta or Nāya clan, his mother is known by the name of Triśalā. [...] The child Vardhamāna had shewn early being destined to be a Prophet. Thirty years he lived as a house-holder, but after his parent’s death, he determined to take the ascetic life and obtained the permissionof his brother, who had, then, become king.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान, “increasing”) refers to “which increases over time” and represents one of the six types of guṇapratyaya: a category of knowledge (jñāna) obtained by clairvoyance (avadhi-jñāna), according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.21.
What is meant by increasing (vardhamāna) clairvoyance? It is the clairvoyant knowledge which keeps on increasing like the moon in the bright fortnight.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vardhamāna.—(LP), ‘when cut down.’ Note: vardhamāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—p pr S Growing, increasing, advancing,prospering, thriving.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—a. [vṛdh-śānac] Growing, increasing.
-naḥ 1 The castor-oil plant.
2) A kind of riddle.
3) Name of Viṣṇu.
4) Name of a district (said to be the same as the modern Baradvāna).
5) Sweet citron.
6) A particular way of joining hands.
7) A particular attitude in dancing.
8) Name of the 24th Arhat of Jina.
9) Name of the elephant who supports the eastern quarter.
-naḥ, -nam 1 A pot or dish of a particular shape; स्वस्तिकान् वर्धमानांश्च नन्द्यावर्तांश्च काञ्चनान् (svastikān vardhamānāṃśca nandyāvartāṃśca kāñcanān) Mb.7.82.2; lid.
2) A kind of mystical diagram.
3) A palace or temple built in the form of the above diagram.
4) A house having no door on the south side.
-nā Name of a district (the modern Baradvāna).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) or Varddhamāna.—mfn.
(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Prosperous, thriving. 2. Increasing, growing. 3. A house having no entrance on the south-side. m.
(-naḥ) 1. The castor-oil tree. 2. A lid, a cover, especially a shallow earthen platter or saucer, used also as a top to water-jars, &c. 3. A name of Vishnu. 4. A sort of riddle or charade. 5. The last and most celebrated of the twenty-four Jinas or Jaina teachers of the present æra. 6. A mystical figure or diagram. 7. A district and city, Burdwan. E. vṛdh to increase, śānac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Murāri (Anargharāghava). Oxf. 137^a.
2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]
3) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—an astronomer. Quoted by Varāhamihira W. p. 249.
4) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Kātantravistara.
5) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—pupil of Govinda Sūri: Kriyāguptaka. Gaṇaratnamahodadhi and—[commentary], composed in 1140. Siddharājavarṇana.
6) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Nānāśāstrārthanirṇaya [dharma]
7) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Śrāddhapradīpa.
8) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Bhaveśa, client of Rāmabhadra, king of Mithilā: Gaṅgākṛtyaviveka, etc.
9) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Dattakojjvala.
10) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—Prameyaprakāśa.
11) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Jñānapati. He was a client to Vīśala, minister to king Narendra: Yogamañjarī veterinary.
12) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—son of Bhaveśa: Dvaitaviṣayaviveka [dharma] Nānāśāstrārthanirṇaya [dharma]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—[from vardha] mfn. increasing, growing, thriving, prosperous, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] m. Ricinus Communis (so called from its vigorous growth), [Suśruta]
3) [v.s. ...] m. sweet citron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (also f(ā). )
4) [v.s. ...] m. a [particular] way of joining the hands, [Catalogue(s)]
5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] attitude in dancing, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]
6) [v.s. ...] a kind of riddle or charade, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] of a mountain and district (also of its town, now called Bardwān or Burdwān), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Purāṇa]
9) [v.s. ...] of a Grāma, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
10) [v.s. ...] of various authors and other men, [Catalogue(s)]
11) [v.s. ...] of the last of the 24 Arhats or Jinas, [Jaina literature]
12) [v.s. ...] of the elephant who supports the eastern quarter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) of a people, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
14) [v.s. ...] m. or n. a kind of mystical figure or diagram, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Lalita-vistara]
15) [v.s. ...] m. a dish or platter of a [particular] shape (sometimes used as a lid or cover for water-jars etc.), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]
16) [v.s. ...] a house having no entrance on the south side, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Matsya-purāṇa]
17) Vardhamānā (वर्धमाना):—[from vardhamāna > vardha] f. a species of Gāyatrī metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]
18) [v.s. ...] Name of the town of Bardwaln, [Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā]
19) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान):—[from vardha] n. = vardhamānapura, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra]
20) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Vardhamana suri, Vardhamana upadhyaya, Vardhamanadvara, Vardhamanagriha, Vardhamanaka, Vardhamanamati, Vardhamanamishra, Vardhamanapimpali, Vardhamanaprakasha, Vardhamanaprakriya, Vardhamanaprayoga, Vardhamanapura, Vardhamanapuradvara, Vardhamanapurana, Vardhamanapuriya, Vardhamanasvamin, Vardhamanavidya.
Full-text (+333): Vardhamanapura, Ganaratnamahodadhi, Vardhamanaka, Vardhamanendu, Avardhamana, Kriyaguptaka, Municandra, Trivikrama, Katantravistara, Vardhamanadvara, Vardhamanapuradvara, Vardhamanaprayoga, Vardhamanapurana, Vardhamanaprakriya, Vardhamanamati, Vardhamanapuriya, Vardhamani, Vardhamanamishra, Vardhamanasvamin, Citracampu.
Search found 23 books and stories containing Vardhamana, Vardhamāna, Vardhamānā; (plurals include: Vardhamanas, Vardhamānas, Vardhamānās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
Part 5 - General survey (summary of contents) < [Preface]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 11: The name-giving festival < [Chapter II - Birth of Ajita and Sagara]
Part 4: Marriage between Mahāvīra and Yaśodā < [Chapter II - Mahāvira’s birth and mendicancy]
Part 18: The Bhavanapatis < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 3325-3330 < [Chapter 26 - Examination of the ‘Person of Super-normal Vision’]
Verse 3348 < [Chapter 26 - Examination of the ‘Person of Super-normal Vision’]
Verse 3334-3335 < [Chapter 26 - Examination of the ‘Person of Super-normal Vision’]
The Mirror of Gesture (abhinaya-darpana) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)
Chapter I.a - Historical background of Jainism < [Chapter I - Introduction]
Chapter I.c - The lives of the Tīrthaṅkaras < [Chapter I - Introduction]
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)