Vardhamana, aka: Vardhamāna; 18 Definition(s)


Vardhamana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Vardhamana in Natyashastra glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the ten practices performed after the removal of the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. It is also known by the name Vardhamānaka. Accordingly, vardhamāna refers to “a class of songs with dance”. This type of preliminary can be substituted with the Madraka class.

Performing the vardhamāna preliminary pleases Rudra. According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”

2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) also refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-six combined Hands).—Vardhamāna (increase): Hamṣa-pakṣa hands palms down, turned together face upwards. Patron deity Vāsuki. Usage: Narasiṃha, his glory, tearing the raksasa’s chest.

2) Vardhamāna is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with combined hands (saṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): Two Haṃsapakṣa hands turned down will be the known as the Vardhamāna .

(Uses): It is to be used to represent the opening of objects like latticed windows.

Source: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Lalita, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Lalita group contains twenty-five out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A character in the story of Pañcatantra. (See under Pañcatantra).

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A mountain of Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 21.

1b) A son of Upadevī and Vasudeva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 179.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Katha (narrative stories)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of an ancient city, according to the “story of the golden city”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 24. Accordingly, “there lived long ago in a city called Vardhamāna, the ornament of the earth, a king, the terror of his foes, called Paropakārin...”. The story was told by Śaktivega to Udayana and Vāsavadatta in order to relate his incarnation as a Vidyādhara.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vardhamāna, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

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1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—A long vowel;

2) Vardhamāna.—Name of a famous Jain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि (gaṇaratnamahodadhi), and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himself. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर (kātantravistara) and क्रियागुप्तक (kriyāguptaka) as also a few religious books.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

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1) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) is the name of a commentator on Jayadeva’s Jayadevachandas mentioned in the “New Catalogus Catalogorum”. Jayadevachandas is the literary testimony of Jayadeva’s scholarly contribution. He follows the path of Piṅgala and includes both the Vedic and classical metres in his text, which is missing in the work of his predecessor Janāśraya.

2) Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (eg., the vardhamāna metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) wrote a commentary named Prakāśa on Udayana’s Tātparyapariśuddhi.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

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Vardhamana (वर्धमान): The northern gate of the Kuru capital Hastinapura.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

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Vardhamāna (वर्धमान, “increasing”) refers to “which increases over time” and represents one of the six types of guṇapratyaya: a category of knowledge (jñāna) obtained by clairvoyance (avadhi-jñāna), according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.21.

What is meant by increasing (vardhamāna) clairvoyance? It is the clairvoyant knowledge which keeps on increasing like the moon in the bright fortnight.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

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vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—p pr S Growing, increasing, advancing,prospering, thriving.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vardhamana in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान).—a. [vṛdh-śānac] Growing, increasing.

-naḥ 1 The castor-oil plant.

2) A kind of riddle.

3) Name of Viṣṇu.

4) Name of a district (said to be the same as the modern Baradvāna).

5) Sweet citron.

6) A particular way of joining hands.

7) A particular attitude in dancing.

8) Name of the 24th Arhat of Jina.

9) Name of the elephant who supports the eastern quarter.

-naḥ, -nam 1 A pot or dish of a particular shape; स्वस्तिकान् वर्धमानांश्च नन्द्यावर्तांश्च काञ्चनान् (svastikān vardhamānāṃśca nandyāvartāṃśca kāñcanān) Mb.7.82.2; lid.

2) A kind of mystical diagram.

3) A palace or temple built in the form of the above diagram.

4) A house having no door on the south side.

-nā Name of a district (the modern Baradvāna).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vardhamāna (वर्धमान) or Varddhamāna.—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Prosperous, thriving. 2. Increasing, growing. 3. A house having no entrance on the south-side. m.

(-naḥ) 1. The castor-oil tree. 2. A lid, a cover, especially a shallow earthen platter or saucer, used also as a top to water-jars, &c. 3. A name of Vishnu. 4. A sort of riddle or charade. 5. The last and most celebrated of the twenty-four Jinas or Jaina teachers of the present æra. 6. A mystical figure or diagram. 7. A district and city, Burdwan. E. vṛdh to increase, śānac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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