Druma: 29 definitions

Introduction:

Druma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Druma (द्रुम, “tree”).—One the classifications of plants according to their stature. Drumas are those that bear both flower. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Druma is listed as a classification for plants in the following sources:

The Bhāvārthadīpikā 3.10.19 (commentary on the Bhāgavatapurāṇa) by Śrīdhara.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Druma (द्रुम) or simply Dru refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Druma] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Druma (द्रुम) refers to “trees”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. Its interior was rendered splendid by lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. It was full of different kinds of trees [i.e., nānā-druma] and creepers (laden) with fruits and flowers of all seasons. It was resonant with the humming sounds of bees inebriated with honey. It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. [...]”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Druma (द्रुम).—A King in ancient Bhārata. Mention is made about him in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Stanza 233.

2) Druma (द्रुम).—In Mahābhārata, Chapter 67, Stanza 8, King Druma, who was the rebirth of the asura Śibi, is mentioned.

3) Druma (द्रुम).—The leader of the Kinnaras (heavenly musicians). Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 29). He sits in the Durbar of Kubera (God of wealth) and sings. He was the teacher of Rukmin, the son of Bhīṣmaka and he gave a bow to his pupil Rukmin. (Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158.)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Druma (द्रुम) refers to “trees”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] At the same time, several phenomena of evil portent forboding misery and distress happened, when the son of Varāṅgī was born making the gods miserable. [...] Idols and images of deities appeared to cry and fly up. Even when there was no gale, trees [i.e., druma] fell down. Planets in the sky clashed with one another. O excellent sage, these and similar portending phenomena occurred: Ignorant persons thought the submersion of the whole universe was imminent. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Druma (द्रुम).—The king of the Kimpuruṣas and Kinnaras (s.v.) stationed on the west during the siege of Gomanta;1 stationed by Jarāsandha at the western gate of Mathurā;2 attended the conference at Kuṇḍīna summoned by Śālva.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 11 [11]. Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 30.
  • 2) Ib. X. 50 11 [5].
  • 3) Ib. X. 76. 2 [9-10].
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Druma (द्रुम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Druma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Druma (द्रुम) refers to “trees” (in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] Oh, Sītā! Forest is full of trees (druma), Kuśa grass and bamboos with ends of their branches spread on all sides. Hence, living in a forest is a great misery’”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Druma (द्रुम) refers to “trees”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Hear now the effects of the heliacal rising of Canopus (Agastya), a star sacred to Agastya who suppressed the Vindhya mountains whose soaring heights obstructed the course of the Sun; [...] whose summits appeared to score the starry vault; whose rocks were full of buzzing bees scared by the violent pulling of flower trees [i.e., ākṛṣṭa-phulla-druma] by wild elephants and were also the abodes of hyenas, of bears, of tigers and of monkeys; through which lay the secret course of the Ravi which appeared to embrace its bosom with the affection of a mistress; and in whose forests dwelt the Devas and also Brāhmaṇa recluses, some subsisting on water, some on roots, some on the air and some altogether without food”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Druma (द्रुम) refers to a “tree”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.90-91.—Accordingly: “'[...] When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses? Best of the self-controlled! You ought not to become subject to grief like common people. What would be the difference between a tree and a mountain (druma-sānumat) if both shook in the wind?”.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Druma (द्रुम) refers to “trees”, according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the layout of the residence (gṛha) for the prāsādāśramin]—“[...] To the north is general storage. Not too far away, nor adjoining, is a secluded, sheltered lavatory building, aside from the residence. To the east should be made a copse, and trees with flowers and fruit (drumapuṣpaphaladrumāḥ). [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Druma (द्रुम) is the name of a Gandharva king according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “The king of the Gandharvas is called T’ong long mo (Druma); in the Ts’in language, ‘tree’”. Note: Druma is best known from the adventures of his daughter, the Kiṃnarī Manoharā, captured by the hunters of king Sucandrima, wed by prince Sudhanu (Sudhana), pursued by her father-in-law Subāhu, retrieved in the Himālaya by her husband and finally brought back in triumph to Hastināpura.

Druma is mentioned as the king of the Kinnaras (Kiṃnaras) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “some Śrāvakas heard T’ouen louen mo (Druma), king of the Kin t’o lo (Kiṃnara) playing the lute, singing and praising the Buddha according to the true nature of dharmas. Then Mount Sumeru and all the trees shook; the great disciples of the Buddha, Mahākāśyapa, etc., were unable to sit still on their seats”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Druma (द्रुम) is the name of a Kinnara mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Druma).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Druma (द्रुम) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Druma] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Druma (द्रुम) is the name of Asura Camara’s chief of infantry, as mentioned to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] In the city Cāmaracañcā in the assembly-hall Sudharmā, the Asura Camara, seated on the lion throne Camara, knew the Jina’s birth by clairvoyant knowledge and had the bell oghasvarā rung by Druma, the chief of his infantry, to inform the people”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

druma (द्रुम).—m S A tree, shrub, or plant.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

druma (द्रुम).—m A tree, shrub.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Druma (द्रुम).—[druḥ śākhāstyasya-maḥ, cf. P.V.2.18]

1) A tree; यत्र द्रुमा अपि मृगा अपि बान्धवो मे (yatra drumā api mṛgā api bāndhavo me) Uttararāmacarita 3.8.

2) A tree of Paradise.

3) An epithet of Kubera.

Derivable forms: drumaḥ (द्रुमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Druma (द्रुम).—(1) nt. (otherwise recorded only as m.), tree: drumāṇi Mahāvastu i.7.3 (prose, no v.l.); (2) m., name of the king of the Kiṃnaras (in Sanskrit name of the king of the Kiṃpuruṣas; not noted in Pali or Prakrit): Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 4.13; Mahāvastu ii.97.5; 108.5; Divyāvadāna 443.2; 451.12; 457.3; Mahāvyutpatti 3414; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.134.11; Śikṣāsamuccaya 261.15; Kāraṇḍavvūha 3.6 (printed Drama); (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 19.4; 655.9; Gaṇḍavyūha 250.4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druma (द्रुम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. A tree in general. 2. A tree of Swarga or paradise. 3. A name of Kuvera. E. dru to go, ma aff. druḥ śākhā asvi asya .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druma (द्रुम).—[dru + ma] 3., m. 1. A tree, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 255. 2. A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 227.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druma (द्रुम).—[masculine] tree; maya [adjective] wooden.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Druma (द्रुम):—[from dru] m. a tree, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (sometimes also any plant; according to some [especially] a tree of Indra’s paradise = pārijāta)

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a prince of the Kim-puruṣas, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa and Rukmiṇī, [Harivaṃśa]

4) Drumā (द्रुमा):—[from druma > dru] f. Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druma (द्रुम):—(maḥ) 1. m. A tree; Kuvera.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Druma (द्रुम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Duma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Druma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Druma (द्रुम) [Also spelled drum]:—(nm) a tree.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Druma (ದ್ರುಮ):—[noun] a woody perennial plant having a single usu. elongate main stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part; a tree.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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