Katu, Kaṭu, Kātu: 22 definitions


Katu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Kaṭu (कटु) is another name for Kaṭvī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Picrorhiza kurroa (kutki) from the Plantaginaceae or “plantain” family of flowering plants, according to verse 3.139-140 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Vaidyaka Śabda Sindhu identifies Kaṭvī with Kaṭukī (Picrorhiza kurroa), which on account of its laxative role does not tally with the Kaṭvī of the Raj Nighantu. Together with the names Kaṭu and Kaṭvī, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Kaṭu (कटु) is also mentioned as a synonym for Apāmārga, a medicinal plant identified with Achyranthes aspera Linn. (“prickly chaff-flower”) from the Amaranthaceae or “amaranth” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.88-91. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kaṭu and Apāmārga, there are a total of twenty-three Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

3) Kaṭu (कटु) is also mentioned as another name for Citraka, a medicinal plant identified with (1) [white variety] Plumbago zeylanica Linn.; (2) [red variety] Plumbago rosea Linn. syn. or Plumbago indica Linn., both from the Plumbaginaceae or “leadwort” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.43-45.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Kaṭu and Citraka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kaṭu (कटु) refers to “pungent substances” and is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., puṣkarataila (oil extracted from puṣkara)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kaṭu (pungent substances)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kaṭu (कटु):—1. Pungent; One among six rasa. 2. Synonym of Katuki(Picrorrhiza kurroa) and Rajika(Brassica juncea).

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Kaṭu (कटु) refers to “pungent (drugs)”, and is part of the diet in the treatment of horses, according to sections on the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The diet also plays a role during the treatment because the food imparts a greater strength and vigour to the horses and acts as a general prophylactic against diseases. The following diets are mentioned for the horses in Garuḍapurāṇa, which are according to the doṣa: [...] The diet in kaphaja-vikāra: In diseases of the deranged kapha, mudga (green gram) or kulattha (horse gram) rasa (soup/ gravy) mixed with kaṭu, tikta (pungent, bitter drugs), should be given to horses. [...]

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (ayurveda)

Kaṭu (कटु) or Kaṭurasa refers to an “acrid taste”, according to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā (Khilasthāna, verse 9.43-45ab) in a chapter on abdominal swelling caused by vitiation of the blood.—Accordingly, “Listen to the cause of that which produces the cravings [of a seemingly pregnant woman with raktagulma]. Generally, there is desire for those tastes which cause an increase of the bodily constituents because of the true similarity of their origin. [When] the vitiated blood has a Vāta or Pitta [imbalance] and is accumulating, it fuels desire for tastes such as [those which are] acrid (kaṭu), sour, salty and so on [kaṭvamlalavaṇādīnāṃ rasānāṃ]”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kaṭu (कटु) refers to “pungent flavour”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Saturn also presides over pungent flavour (kaṭu) and bitter flavour; over chemistry; over widows, serpents, thieves, buffaloes, asses, camels, beans, leguminous seeds and Niṣpāva”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kaṭu (कटु) refers to “pungent (oil)” (suitable for the fire oblation), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now there lived a Brahmin called Viṣṇudatta in Navanagara. [...] In the crop-growing season he experienced a lack of water. With words of self-conceit, [possessing] approval [to use] mantrapadas he said, ‘I am going to send forth rain showers and summon Nāgas’. He sacrificed the prescribed fire oblation with sesame seed, rice grain and mustard seed anointed with pungent oil (kaṭu-taila-abhyakta). He prepared an image-form of a certain harmful Nāga. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kaṭu (कटु, “acidic”) refers to one of the “six kinds of tastes” (rasa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kaṭu). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kaṭu (कटु) refers to “violent (actions)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice, fire, corrosive liquid or razor in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames from the fire of violent actions (kaṭukarma-pāvaka) in the plant and animal world , and subject to unequalled trouble in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Katu in India is the name of a plant defined with Aglaia odoratissima in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Aglaia affinis Merrill (among others).

2) Katu is also identified with Arisaema tortuosum It has the synonym Arum curvatum Roxb. (etc.).

3) Katu is also identified with Dysphania ambrosioides It has the synonym Chenopodium integrifolium Vorosch. (etc.).

4) Katu is also identified with Michelia champaca It has the synonym Sampacca suaveolens (Pers.) Kuntze (etc.).

5) Katu in Indonesia is also identified with Sauropus androgynus It has the synonym Aalius retroversa Kuntze (etc.).

6) Katu in Mali is also identified with Echinochloa stagnina It has the synonym Panicum scabrum var. submuticum (Franch.) A. Chev. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg (1924)
· Mant. Pl. (1767)
· Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon (1931)
· Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Botanici Berolinensis (1809)
· Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (DC.) (1824)
· Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.

If you are looking for specific details regarding Katu, for example chemical composition, health benefits, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, diet and recipes, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṭu (कटु).—a (S) Pungent, sharp, acrid. 2 Sharply bitter. 3 fig. Offensive, keen, cutting--speech. 4 fig. Fierce or fiery: also impetuous, vehement, ardent, smart.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṭu (कटु).—a Pungent, sharp, acrid. Sharply bitter.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु).—a. [(ṭu or ṭvī] f.)

1) Pungent, acrid; (said of a rasa or flavour; the rasas are six; madhura, kaṭu, amla, tikta, kaṣāya, and lavaṇa); कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः । आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकाभयप्रदाः (kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ | āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokābhayapradāḥ) || Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 17.9.

2) Fragrant, exhaling strong odour; सप्तच्छदक्षीरकटुप्रवाहम् (saptacchadakṣīrakaṭupravāham) R.5.48.

3) Ill-smelling, having a bad smell.

4) (a) Bitter. This sense is found qiven to the words कटु (kaṭu) and कटुक (kaṭuka) in Prākrit and later sanskrit works; cf. अतिकटुः कारवेल्लादिः अतितीक्ष्णो मरिचादिः (atikaṭuḥ kāravellādiḥ atitīkṣṇo maricādiḥ); अमृततरङ्गिणी (amṛtataraṅgiṇī) on Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 17.9,-नीलकण्ठ (nīlakaṇṭha) gives the same sense.

5) caustic (words); Y.3.142. (b) Disagreeable, unpleasant; श्रवणकटु नृपाणामेकवाक्यं विवव्रुः (śravaṇakaṭu nṛpāṇāmekavākyaṃ vivavruḥ) R.6.85.

6) Envious.

7) Hot, impetuous.

-ṭuḥ 1 Pungency, acerbity (one of the six flavours).

2) Name of several plants.

-ṭuḥ f. A medical plant (kaṭurohiṇī).

-ṭu n.

1) An improper action.

2) Blaming, reviling, scandal.

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Kātu (कातु).—A well.

Derivable forms: kātuḥ (कातुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु).—mfn. (-ṭuḥ-ṭuḥ or -ṭvī-ṭu) 1. Pungent. 2. Envious. 3. Fierce, impetuous, hot. 4. Fragrant. 5. Bad scented, ill smelling. 6. Displeasing, disagreeable. m.

(-ṭuḥ) 1. Pungency or a pungent taste. 2. A flower, (Michelia champaca.) 3. Champhor. 4. A sort of gourd, (Trichosanthes.) n. (-ṭu) 1. An improper action, an act which ought not to have been done. 2. Blaming, reviling, scandal. f.

(-ṭuḥ) 1. The name of a medicinal plant; also kaṭukā and kaṭukī. 2. A plant which bears a fragrant seed: see priyaṅgu. 3. Mustard. E. kaṭ to go, &c. and u Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु).— (for kartu, i. e. kṛt + u), adj., f. ṭu or ṭvī, Sharp, pungent; of taste, [Pañcatantra] 61, 11; of smell, Mahābhārata 14, 1408; of the wind, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 22, 11; of words, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 191.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु).—[adjective] pungent, biting, sharp, bitter; [abstract] [feminine], tva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭu (कटु):—[from kaṭ] mf( and us)n. ([Uṇādi-sūtra i, 9]; cf. √2. kṛt) pungent, acrid, sharp (one of the six kinds of flavour, rasa q.v.), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta; Bhagavad-gītā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] pungent, stimulating (as smell), strong-scented, ill-smelling, [Mahābhārata xiv; Raghuvaṃśa v, 48; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] bitter, caustic (as words) displeasing, disagreeable (as sounds)

4) [v.s. ...] fierce, impetuous, hot, envious, [Raghuvaṃśa vi, 85; Pañcatantra] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] m. (us) pungency, acerbity (as of a flavour), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.];

6) [v.s. ...] cf. [Lithuanian] kartus, ‘bitter’

7) [v.s. ...] Trichosanthes Dioeca, [Suśruta]

8) [v.s. ...] Michelia Campaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of several other plants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] f(us and ). Name of several plants

12) [v.s. ...] n. (u) an improper action, an act which ought not to have been done

13) [v.s. ...] blaming, reviling, scandal, [Horace H. Wilson]

14) Kātu (कातु):—m. = kūpa, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 23] (cf. kāṭa.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु):—[(ṭuḥ-ṭuḥ-ṭu) a.] Pungent; fierce; envious; disagreeable. m. Pungency; a flower; camphor; a plant. n. An improper act.

[Sanskrit to German]

Katu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kaṭu (कटु):—(a) bitter, vitriolic; unpleasant; ~[] bitterness; unpleasantness.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kaṭu (ಕಟು):—[noun] a kind of tax (now obs.).

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Kaṭu (ಕಟು):—

1) [adjective] having a sharp or strong taste or smell, esp. so as to produce a pricking sensation; pungent; acrid.

2) [adjective] bitter; virulent.

3) [adjective] that burns or corrodes organic tissue; caustic.

4) [adjective] sarcastic, biting (said of words, remarks etc.); reproaching, abusing harshly.

5) [adjective] disagreeable; unpleasant (said of behaviour).

6) [adjective] hot; impetuous; acting without reasoning.

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Kaṭu (ಕಟು):—

1) [noun] = ಕಟುಕರೋಹಿಣಿ [katukarohini].

2) [noun] an act , behaviour that is not agreeable as per social standards or custom.

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Kāṭu (ಕಾಟು):—[noun] a large tract of land covered with trees and underbush; a forest; woodland.

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Kāṭu (ಕಾಟು):—

1) [adjective] roaming with no fixed purpose or special plan.

2) [adjective] inclined to trouble, disturb another or others.

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Kāṭu (ಕಾಟು):—

1) [noun] a grasp or cut by the teeth.

2) [noun] a mark, wound, bruise or sting from biting; a bite; a puncture by an insect.

3) [noun] a dent made with a sharp weapon (as an axe, sickle, etc.).

4) [noun] that part of a scorpion which pierces and injects poison; the sting.

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Kāṭu (ಕಾಟು):—

1) [noun] a 'X' mark used to denote that a particular word, sentence or portion of a written passage is deleted, cancelled or disapproved.

2) [noun] ಕಾಟು ಹಾಕು [katu haku] kāṭu hāku to delete or cancel (written or printed matter) with or as with an 'X' mark; ಕಾಟುಗೀಟು [katugitu] kāṭugīṭu = ಕಾಟು [katu]4.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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