Bhramara, Bhrāmara: 28 definitions
Bhramara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Bhramar.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Bhramara (भ्रमर) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Bhramara) various roles suitable to them.
2) Bhramara (भ्रमर).—One of the 32 aṅgahāras (major dance movement) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. The instructions for this bhramara-aṅgahāra is as follows, “assuming successively Nūpurapāda, Ākṣipṭaka, Kaṭicchinna, Sūcīviddha, Nitamba, Karihasta, Uromaṇdala and Kaṭicchinna Karaṇas.”.
An aṅgahāra represents a ‘major dance movement’ and consists of a sequence of karaṇas (minor dance movements). A karaṇa combines sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position).
3) Bhramara (भ्रमर, “bee”) also refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).
(Bhramara Instructions): The middle finger and the thumb crossing each other, the forefinger bent, the remaining two fingers separated and raised. (Bhramara Uses): It is used to indicate the plucking of flowers with long stems such as lotus blue, and white water-lily, and earring.
4) Bhramara (भ्रमर) also refers to a one of the twenty maṇḍalas, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12. The Bhramara-maṇḍala is classified as a bhūmi, or “earthly”, of which there are ten in total. A maṇḍala is a combination of cārīs (“dance-steps”), which refers refers to the simultaneous movement of the feet (pāda), shanks (jaṅghā) and the hip (ūru). From these cārīs proceed dance as well as movements in general.
Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
1) The right foot to be moved in the janitā-cārī and the left foot in the syanditā-cārī,
2) The right foot in the śakaṭāsyā-cārī and the left foot to be stretched,
3) The right foot in the bhramarī-cārī (by turning the trika),
4) The left root in syanditā-cārī and the right foot in the śakaṭāsyā-cārī,
5) The left foot in the apakrāntā (apasarpī) cārī and the bhramarī-cārī by turning about the back.
One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Bhramara (bee): the second finger and thumb touching, the forefinger bent, the rest extended. Usage: bee, parrot, crane (sārasa), cuckoo (kokila), union (yoga).
According to another book: the forefinger of the Haṃsāsya hand is bent. It originates from Kaśyapa when he was making earrings for the mother of the Devas. Its sage is Kapila, its colour dark, its race Khacara, its patron deity the King of Flying Creatures (Garuḍa). Usage: union (yoga), vow of silence, horn,tusk of an elephant, picking flowers with long stalks, bee, utteringthe karṇa-mantra, taking out a thorn, untying the girdle, adverbs of two letters, flying creatures, dark colour.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Bhramara—The Bhramaras are the progeny of Pulaha. In the geographical chapters (of the Vayu-purana) we are often reminded of the existence of the ṣaṭ-padas or bhṛṅgas on the mountain-tops and in the forests where their humming sound is alluded to. See Vāyu-purāṇa 70.64 and 36.1-5.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Bhramara (भ्रमर).—A prince of the land of Sauvīra. He was a comrade of Jayadratha. Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 265 describes how Bhramara walked behind the chariot of Jayadratha with banner in his hand, when the latter abducted Pāñcālī. Bhramara was killed by Arjuna.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Bhramara (भ्रमर) refers to “bees”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When they [viz., Śiva’s Gaṇas (attendants)] went away and He was left alone with Satī, Śiva rejoiced much and sported with her. [...] Sometimes with musk He would make marks like bees (bhramara) on her breasts that resembled the buds of a golden lotus”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Bhramara is one of the eighty-four Siddhas associated with eighty-four Yogic postures (āsanas), according to popular tradition in Jodhpur, Rājasthān. These posture-performing Siddhas are drawn from illustrative sources known as the Nava-nātha-caurāsī-siddha from Vȧrāṇasī and the Nava-nātha-caruāsī-siddha-bālāsundarī-yogamāyā from Puṇe. They bear some similarity between the eighty-four Siddhas painted on the walls of the sanctum of the temple in Mahāmandir.
The names of these Siddhas (e.g., Bhramara) to 19th-century inscription on a painting from Jodhpur, which is labelled as “Maharaja Mansing and eighty-four Yogis”. The association of Siddhas with yogis reveals the tradition of seeing Matsyendra and his disciple Gorakṣa as the founders of haṭhayoga.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Bhramara (भ्रमर) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Kuṭaja in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.
2) Bhramara (भ्रमर) and Bhrāmara both refer to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Bhrāmara (भ्रामर) refers to one of the eight kinds of honey (madhu) according to the Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.133, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Honey was possibly, the earliest sweet thing Indians knew. [...] According to Suśruta the eight varieties of honey are mākṣika, bhrāmara, kṣaudra, pauttika, chātra, ārghya, auddalika and dāla each of these being obtained from different types of bees.
Caraka (Carakasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 27.242) states that of all these varieties, the mākṣika type (the honey collected by small bees) was considered the best and bhrāmara type (the honey collected by big black bees) was considered heavy to digest. Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha (Sūtrasthāna VI.98), a medieval period text states that among the eight varieties of honey bhrāmara, pauttika, kṣaudra and mākṣika are considered good in the increasing order.
Bhrāmara is also mentioned as one of the eight kinds of honey (madhu) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Bhramara (भ्रमर) is another name for “Bhṛṅgarāja” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning bhramara] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Bhrāmara (भ्रामर):—Variety of honey collected from Bhramara type of honey bee. Color of this honey will be of whitish.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study
Bhramara (भ्रमर) or Bhramaragītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Bhramara-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Bhramara (भ्रमर) refers to a “bee”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] (9) Above that is the principle of Unstruck Sound; the head of ‘A’ (aśira), it is omnipresent. Like (the sound of a) mad bee [i.e., matta-bhramara-saṃkāśa], that is said to be lucid meditation. [...]”.
2) Bhramara (भ्रमर) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Tisrapīṭha (located in the ‘end of sound’—nādānta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Caṇḍākṣa, Lampaṭa, Kṛṣṇa, Vikṛta, Bhāsurānana, Kapila, Kālaka, Bhramara.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Bhramara (भ्रमर) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Bhramara).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Bhramara (भ्रमर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Bhramara] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Bhramara (“bee”) or Bhramada is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Komatis (a trading caste of the Madras Presidency). The Komatis are said to have originally lived, and still live in large numbers on the banks of the Godavari river. One of the local names thereof is Gomati or Gomti, and the Sanskrit Gomati would, in Telugu, become corrupted into Komati. The sub-divisions are split up into septs (viz., Bhramara), which are of a strictly exogamous character.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bhramara (भ्रमर).—m (S) A large black bee; a humble bee. 2 A ring or curling line of hair.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bhramara (भ्रमर).—m A large black bee. A ring of hair.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A bee, large black bee; मलिनेऽपि रागपूर्णां विकसितवदनामनल्पजल्पेऽपि । त्वयि चपलेऽपि च सरसां भ्रमर कथं वा सरोजिनीं त्यजसि (maline'pi rāgapūrṇāṃ vikasitavadanāmanalpajalpe'pi | tvayi capale'pi ca sarasāṃ bhramara kathaṃ vā sarojinīṃ tyajasi) || Bv.1.1. (where the next meaning is also suggested).
2) A lover, gallant, libertine.
3) A potter's wheel.
4) A young man.
5) A top; अभ्रामयदहो दारुभ्रमरं स कदाचन (abhrāmayadaho dārubhramaraṃ sa kadācana) Śiva B.7.32.
6) A particular position of the hand.
-rī A bee; अमरी- कबरीभारभ्रमरीमुखरीकृतम् (amarī- kabarībhārabhramarīmukharīkṛtam) Kuval.
-ram Giddiness, vertigo.
--- OR ---
Bhrāmara (भ्रामर).—a. (-rī f.) [भ्रमरेण संभृतं भ्रमरस्येदं वा अण् (bhramareṇa saṃbhṛtaṃ bhramarasyedaṃ vā aṇ)] Relating to a bee.
-raḥ, -ram A kind of loadstone.
-ram 1 Whirling round.
4) Honey; निर्मलं स्फटिकाभं यत् तन्मधु भ्रामरं स्मृतम् (nirmalaṃ sphaṭikābhaṃ yat tanmadhu bhrāmaraṃ smṛtam) Bhāv. P.
5) A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment.
6) A village.
-rī 1 An epithet of Durgā.
2) Going round, walking round from left to right; (= pradakṣiṇā q. v.); as in दीयतां भ्रामर्यः (dīyatāṃ bhrāmaryaḥ) Karpūr.4; Vb.2.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raṃ) 1. Whirling, going round. 2. A dance performed in a ring round-about. 3. A village. 4. Epilepsy, 5. A honey. 6. A mode of sexual enjoyment. m.
(-raḥ) A sort of loadstone. f. (-rī) 1. A name of Parvati from her having assumed the form of a bee, in order to contend with Mahasur. 2. Yogini, or female attendant on Durga. E. bhramara a bee, &c. aff. aṇ or ghañ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhramara (भ्रमर).—[bhram + ara], I. m. 1. A (large black) bee, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 64, 1. 2. A lover, a gallant. Ii. n. Epilepsy.
--- OR ---
Bhrāmara (भ्रामर).—i. e. bhramara + a, I. m. A sort of loadstone. Ii. f. rī, 1. Pārvatī, 2. A female attendant on Durgā. Iii. n. 1. Honey. 2. Whirling round. 3. Epilepsy. 4. A kind of dancing. 5. A village.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bhramara (भ्रमर).—[masculine] ī [feminine] bee (adj. —° [feminine] ā).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhramara (भ्रमर):—[from bhram] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) a large black bee, a kind of bumble bee, any bee, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a gallant, libertine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] a young man, lad (= baṭu), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] a potter’s wheel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] position of the hand, [Catalogue(s)]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] m. ([plural]) of a people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
8) Bhramarā (भ्रमरा):—[from bhramara > bhram] f. a kind of creeper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) Bhrāmara (भ्रामर):—[from bhram] mf(ī)n. ([from] bhramara) relating or belonging to a bee, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] m. n. a kind of magnet or loadstone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. bhrāmaka)
11) [from bhram] n. ([scilicet] madhu) honey, [Suśruta]
12) [v.s. ...] dancing round, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] vertigo, giddiness, epilepsy, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] a village, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Bhramara (भ्रमर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A large black bee; a lover; vertigo. a. Whirling.
2) Bhrāmara (भ्रामर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Whirling; countrydance; honey; a village. m. Loadstone. f. (rī) Durgā.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Bhramara (भ्रमर) [Also spelled bhramar]:—(nm) a large black-bee; beetle; ~[rāvalī] a row of blackbees; ~[rī] a female black-bee.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] any of a number of related large, hairy, yellow-and-black social bees (esp. genus Bombus, family Apidae); bumblebee.
2) [noun] a potteṛs wheel.
3) [noun] a man, who leads an unrestrained, sexually immoral life; a rake; a libertine.
4) [noun] a brilliant electric spark discharge in the atmosphere, occurring within a thunder cloud, between clouds or between a cloud and the ground; lightning.
5) [noun] the state of having a whirling, dazed sensation; dizziness.
6) [noun] a toy, inversely conical, with a point on which it is made to spin with the help a string or cord; a top.
7) [noun] a particular mode in sexual coition.
8) [noun] (dance.) a combination of eight different kinds of gesticulation expressing sentiments.
9) [noun] (dance.) a moving in a circle keeping one foot after another in different ways.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] anything that is done, caused by bumble bee or bees.
2) [noun] the act of flying above or around.
3) [noun] a sweet, viscid fluid produced by bees from the nectar collected from flowers, and stored in nests or hives as food; honey.
4) [noun] the fact or condition of being deceived or deluded by appearances; a deception, a delusion; an instance of misapprehension of the true state of affairs.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+32): Bhramarabadha, Bhramarabhilina, Bhramaracchalli, Bhramaradeva, Bhramaradhavala, Bhramaradruta, Bhramaraduta, Bhramaradutakavya, Bhramaragita, Bhramaragitatika, Bhramarahita, Bhramaraja, Bhramaraka, Bhramarakabhramam, Bhramarakarandaka, Bhramarakati, Bhramarakita, Bhramarakitanyaya, Bhramarakunda, Bhramaralaka.
Full-text (+85): Bhramaralaka, Dvirepha, Bhramarapriya, Bhramarakita, Bhramaracchalli, Bhramarin, Bhramaravilasita, Bhramarotsava, Bhramaratithi, Bhramarakarandaka, Bhramaraka, Bhramareshta, Bhramarananda, Bhramarari, Bhramarapada, Bhramarabadha, Bhramaranikara, Bhramaramandala, Bhamara, Bhramarashtaka.
Search found 23 books and stories containing Bhramara, Bhrāmara, Bhramarā; (plurals include: Bhramaras, Bhrāmaras, Bhramarās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Agni Purana (by N. Gangadharan)
Vivekachudamani (by Shankara)
Abhinaya-darpana (English) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Plate X - Single Hands < [Plates]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 2.23 - The possessors of the remaining four senses < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 6 - Uparatna (6): Upala (chalcedony, opal, and agate) < [Chapter XXVII - Uparatna (minor gems)]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)