Badara, Badarā, Bādara: 26 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Badara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Badarā (बदरा) is another name (synonym) for Ajagandhā, which is the Sanskrit word for Cleome gynandra (stinkweed), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. Ajagandhā is also known as Tilaparṇikā, which is classified as a vegetable (śāka) by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work.

Badarā was identified as a synonym for Ajagandhā in the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th-century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Badara (बदर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Ziziphus Mauritiana Lam.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning badara] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Bādara (बादर) is another name for Kārpāsī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.188-189 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Bādara and Kālāñjanī, there are a total of ten Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Badara (बदर) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as badara) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Badara (बदर) is the name of a sacred place as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.12, “somehow men must strive to find a residence in a holy centre. On the shores of the ocean in the confluence of hundreds of rivers there are many such holy centres (puṇyakṣetra or tīrtha) and temples. [...] The devotees of Śiva are the bestowers of Śivaloka and accord cherished desires. When the Jupiter and the sun are in the zodiac of Meṣa, the devotee shall take the holy bath in Naimiṣa and Badara”.

Note: Badara is the name of the hermitage of Nara and Nārāyaṇa in the neighbourhood of Gaṅgodbheda, the source of the Ganges.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Bādara (बादर).—Of Kauśika gotra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 73.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Badara (बदर) denoting, like Karkandhu and Kuvala, a kind of jujube, is mentioned in the Yajurveda Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Bādara (बादर, “gross”) refers to one of the ten flaws (or transmigressions) requiring prāyaścitta (‘expiation’). Prāyaścitta means ‘purification’ of from the flaws or transmigressions.

Bādara is a Sanskrit technical term defined according to the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Bādara (बादर, “gross”) refers to “something can be grasped by any of the senses” (e.g., air can not be seen, but can be felt) and represents an attribute of certain sthāvara-jīvas (“immovable living things”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] the immovable jīvas [viz., sthāvara] having one sense are: earth, water, fire, air, and plants. The first four of these may be either fine (sūkṣma) or gross, (bādara). Plants are of two kinds: those that have one soul in one body (pratyeka) and those that have many souls in one body (sādhāraṇa); and those that have many souls in one body are also of two kinds, fine and gross”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Bādara (बादर).—What is meant by gross (bādara) flaw? To hide the subtle flaws committed while telling the gross flaws only to the preceptor for repentance is called gross flaw.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Bādara (बादर) refers to a “gross body” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is the meant by gross body (bādara) body-making karma? The rise of which causes a body to be such that it causes hindrance or others cause hindrance to it is called gross body body-making karma. 

The opposite-pair of bādara (gross body) is sūkṣma (minute body).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Badara.—same as tolaka (q. v.) or tolā. Note: badara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Badara.—same as tola or tolaka. Note: badara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

badara : (nt.) jujube fruit.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Badara, (m. & nt.) (cp. Ved. badara & badarī) the fruit of the jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba), not unlike a crabapple in appearance & taste, very astringent, used for medicine A. I, 130=Pug. 32; A. III, 76; Vin. IV, 76; J. III, 21; DhsA. 320 (cited among examples of acrid flavours); VvA. 186. Spelling padara for b° at J. IV, 363; VI, 529.—aṭṭhi kernel of the j. SnA 247.—paṇḍu light yellow (fresh) jujube-fruit A. I, 181 (so read for bhadara°).—missa mixture or addition of the juice of jujube-fruits Vin. IV, 76.—yūsa juice of the j. fruit VvA. 185. (Page 481)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

badara (बदर).—n S The fruit of badarī (Zizyphus jujuba).

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badarā (बदरा).—m ( H) A kind of boat, a budgerow.

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badarā (बदरा).—m dim. badarī f A saddle-bag or bag (as of shroffs) to carry money.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

badarā (बदरा).—m A kind of boat.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Badara (बदर).—[bad sthairye arac]

1) The jujube tree.

2) The kernel of the fruit of the cotton-plant.

-rā The cotton shrub.

-ram 1 The fruit of jujube; करबदरसदृशमखिलं भुवनतलं यत् प्रसादतः कवयः । पश्यन्ति सूक्ष्ममतयः सा जयति सरस्वती देवी (karabadarasadṛśamakhilaṃ bhuvanatalaṃ yat prasādataḥ kavayaḥ | paśyanti sūkṣmamatayaḥ sā jayati sarasvatī devī) Vās.1; बदरामलकाम्रदाडिमानामपहृत्य श्रियमुन्नतां क्रमेण (badarāmalakāmradāḍimānāmapahṛtya śriyamunnatāṃ krameṇa) Bv.2.8.

2) The pod of the cotton shrub.

3) The berry used as a weight.

Derivable forms: badaraḥ (बदरः).

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Bādara (बादर).—a. (- f.) [बदर-अण् (badara-aṇ)]

1) Belonging to or coming from the jujube tree.

2) Made of cotton.

3) Coarse (opp. to sūkṣma).

-raḥ The cotton shrub.

-ram 1 The jujube.

2) Silk.

3) Water.

4) A garment of cotton.

5) A conch-shell winding from left to right.

-rā The cotton shrub.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Badara (बदर).—name of a kiṃnara prince: Divyāvadāna 118.22.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Badara (बदर).—mf. (-raḥ-rī) 1. The jujube, (Zizyphus jujuba or scandens.) m.

(-raḥ) The seed of the cotton pod. f. (-rā-rī) Cotton. f.

(-rā) 1. A plant, (Mimosa octandra.) 2. A medicinal drug, commonly Varahakranti. n.

(-raṃ) 1. The fruit of the jujube. 2. The berry or pod of the cotton. E. bad to be firm, Unadi aff. arac; or if derived from vad to give information; it is read by some authorities vadara .

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Bādara (बादर) or Vādara.—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Made of cotton, mf.

(-raḥ-rā) The cotton plant. n.

(-raṃ) 1. The jujube. 2. Silk. 3. Water. 4. A garment made of cotton. 5. A conch-shell that winds from left to right. E. vadara cotton, aff. aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Badara (बदर).—I. m., and f. (and vadari), The jujube, Zizyphus jujuba or scandens, [Nala] 12, 5 (v). Ii. m. The seed of the cotton pod. Iii. f. and , Cotton. Iv. f. . 1. A plant, Mimosa octandra. 2. A medicinal drug. V. n. 1. The fruit of the jujube. 2. The pod of the cotton.

— Cf. vadarī.

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Bādara (बादर).—i. e. badarā + a, I. adj. Made of cotton. Ii. m. The cotton plant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Badara (बदर).—[substantive], ī [feminine] the jujube tree, [neuter] badara its fruit, [feminine] also = seq.

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Bādara (बादर).—[adjective] coming from the jujube tree, [neuter] its berry; [plural] [Name] of a people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Badara (बदर):—m. the jujube tree, Zizyphus Jujuba, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) another tree (= deva-sarṣapa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) the kernel of the fruit of the cotton plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) dried ginger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Name of a man [gana] naḍādi

6) Badarā (बदरा):—[from badara] f. the cotton shrub, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a species of Dioscorea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Mimosa Octandra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Clitoria Ternatea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Badara (बदर):—n. the edible fruit of the jujube (also used as a weight), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

11) the berry or fruit of the cotton shrub, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Bādara (बादर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] badara) belonging to or derived from the jujube tree, [Suśruta]

13) made of cotton, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) coarse (opp. to sūkṣma), [Śīlāṅka]

15) m. or (ā) f. the cotton shrub, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) m. [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira]

17) n. the jujube (= badara), [Suśruta]

18) the berry of Abrus Precatorius or the plant itself, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) silk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) a conch shell which winds from left to right, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] = vāra (Name of a plant or [wrong reading] for vāri?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Badara (बदर):—[(raḥ-rī)] 1. m. 3. f. The jujube. m. Seed of the cotton pod. f. (rā-rī) Cotton. f. () A mimosa plant. n. Fruit of the jujube; the berry or pod of cotton.

2) Bādara (बादर):—[(raḥ-rā)] 1. m. f. The cotton plant. a. Made of cotton.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Badara (बदर):—(in den späteren Schriften auch vadara)

1) m. parox. [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 3, 131.] a) Zizyphus Jujuba, Judendorn (vgl. badarī) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) eine Art Senf (devasarṣapa) [Rājanirghaṇṭa] — c) der Kern in der Frucht der Baumwollenstaude (kārpāsāsthi) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 583. fg.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 208. fg.] — d) Nomen proprium eines Mannes gaṇa naḍādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 1, 99.] Vgl. bādarāyaṇa . —

2) f. ā Name verschiedener Pflanzen: Baumwollenstaude [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 4, 4.] [Medinīkoṣa] ein best. Knollengewächs, = gṛṣṭi, vārāhī [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 5, 16.] [Medinīkoṣa] Mimosa octandra Roxb. (elāparṇī) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Clitoria Ternatea (viṣṇukrāntā) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [VIŚVA im Śabdakalpadruma] —

3) f. ī gaṇa gaurādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 1, 41.] Acc. eines auf badarī ausgehenden comp. gaṇa ghoṣādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 2, 85.] a) Judendorn [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 17.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1138.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 39.] [Śāṅkhāyana’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 4, 17.] [Mahābhārata 3, 2405. 11569. 13, 636.] [Harivaṃśa 1500.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 55, 8.] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 103, 9. 3, 17, 9.] [Suśruta 2, 114, 19. 122, 21. 193, 4.] mūla [436, 16.] phala [Spr. 4125.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 7, 3. 8, 2, 13.] Fälschlich für die Beere [Mahābhārata 3, 7051.] aiṅgudaṃ badarīmiśram (badarairmiśram ed. Bomb., badaronmiśram [Gorresio]) [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 103, 29.] — b) Baumwollenstaude [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) Mucuna pruritus Hook. (kapikacchu) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — d) Nomen proprium einer der Gaṃgā -Quellen ( [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde I, 547]) und einer daran gelegenen Einsiedelei des Nara und Nārāyaṇa [Mahābhārata.1,1567.3,1636. 12749.4,373. 1890. 8396. fg. 12749.5,3824. 12,1432. 4662. 13329. 13,598.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.3,4,4.9,3,36.] [Oxforder Handschriften 39,b,31.] badaryāśrama [149,a,36.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 5,139.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3,4,21.] vadarītapovana [Kirātārjunīya 12, 34.] Vgl. badarikā . —

4) n. a) proparox. die essbare Frucht des Judendorns, Brustbeeren [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 3, 163,] [Scholiast] [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 17.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 19, 22. 90. 21, 30.] [Kāṭhaka-Recension 12, 10] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 464.] [Taittirīyabrāhmaṇa 1, 8, 5, 1.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 5, 5, 4, 10. 12, 7, 1, 3. 2, 9.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 15, 10, 12. 19, 2, 18.] [Mahābhārata 9, 2777. 2780. fg. 13, 2773.] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 28, 21. 111, 35.] [Suśruta 1, 145, 18. 157, 4. 209, 3. 17. 238, 3. 367, 13. 2, 73, 4. 440, 3.] yūṣa [459, 18.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 8, 72.] [VĀSAVAD. 2, 1.] als Gewicht [Oxforder Handschriften 307,b,3.] — b) die Frucht der Baumwollenstaude [Medinīkoṣa] — c) = seviphala [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — Vgl. kaṭubadarī, kṣitivadarī, nṛpabadara, bhūbadarī, rājabadara, bādarika .

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Bādara (बादर):—

1) adj. a) vom Judendorn kommend: Holz [Suśruta 2, 350, 19.] — b) baumwollen [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 3, 12.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 669.] [Halāyudha 2, 395.] —

2) m. a) die Baumwollenstaude [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1139.] [Halāyudha 2, 47.] f. ā dass. [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 14, 19.] —

3) n. a) = badara Brustbeere [Suśruta 2, 504, 13.] — b) die Beere des Abrus precatorius [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 600. fg.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 213.] die Pflanze selbst [Medinīkoṣa] — c) = vīra wohl eine best. Pflanze [Medinīkoṣa] — d) Seide. — e) Wasser [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] — f) eine nach rechts sich wendende Muschel (dakṣiṇāvartaśaṅkha) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — Die 5 letzten Bedeutungen geben [WILSON] und [Śabdakalpadruma] dem Worte vārdara, wie in [Medinīkoṣa] gedruckt ist, was aber in den Corrigg. zu vādara verbessert wird.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Badara (बदर):——

1) *m. — a) Zizyphus Jujuba , Judendorn. — b) ein anderer Baum , = devasarṣapa [Rājan 9,157.] — c) der Kern in der Frucht der Baumwollenstaude. — d) Nomen proprium eines Mannes. —

2) *f. ā — a) die Baumwollenstaude. — b) ein Dioscorea. — c) Mimosa octandra. — d) Clitoria ternatea.

3) f. ī — a) Judendorn. Hier und da fälschlich für die Beere ; vgl. 4)a). — b) *die Baumwollenstaude [Rājan 4,191.] — c) *Mucuna pruritus [Rājan 3,39.] — d) Nomen proprium einer der Gaṅgā-Quellen und einer daran gelegenen Einsiedelei des Nara und Nārāyaṇa. —

4) n. badara — a) die essbare Frucht des Judendorns , Brustbeere. Auch als Gewicht verwendet. — b) *die Frucht der Baumwollenstaude.

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Bādara (बादर):——

1) Adj. — a) von Judendorn kommend [Āpastamba’s Dharmasūtra] — b) *baumwollen. — c) grob (Gegensatz sūkṣma) [Śīlāṅka’s Commentar] —

2) *m. f ( ā) die Baumwollenstaude [Rājan 4,191.] —

3) m. Pl. Nomen proprium Nomen propriumeine Volkes. —

4) n. — a) Brustbeere. — b) *die Beere des Abrus precatorius oder die Pflanze selbst. — c) *Siede. — d) *Wasser. — e) *eine nach rechts sich windende Muschel. — f) * = vīra ( vāri?).

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Badara (बदर):—(nm) the jejube tree and its fruit; (ind) out, out of the gate.

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