Daru, Dāru: 35 definitions


Daru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Dāru (दारु) is another name for “Devadāru” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning dāru] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Dāru (दारु) is another name for Devadāru, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar), from the Pinaceae family. It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.28), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

2) Dāru can also represent a synonym for Dārvī, which is the Sanskrit name for Berberis aristata (Indian barberry).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts (shilpa)

1) Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood” (as a material for icons), as discussed in chapter 11 (Kriyāpāda) of the Padmasaṃhitā: the most widely followed of Saṃhitā covering the entire range of concerns of Pāñcarātra doctrine and practice (i.e., the four-fold formulation of subject matter—jñāna, yoga, kriyā and caryā) consisting of roughly 9000 verses.—Description of the chapter [śilā-dāru-saṃgraha]: An icon may be made out of metal, gems, stone, clay, wood (dāru) or marble. The varieties of metals and stones and woods which may be utilized in making an image are discussed—each affording the worshipper different benefits. [...] Then wood (dāru) [is discussed]—the proper time to collect it, the proper kinds of wood, the improper kinds, rituals before cutting a tree, how to cut the tree, how to prepare the wood (dāru) for the carpenter’s use, etc. (86-112).

2) Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood” (used for sculpting), as discussed in chapter 6 of the Puruṣottamasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra text consisting of more than 1800 verses devoted to temple-building and the practical concerns of the Pāñcarātra priestly community.—Description of the chapter [dāru-saṃgraha-vidhāna]: Icons made from other materials—e.g., gems, etc.—yield a variety of different results (1-41). Then, turning to icons fashioned from wood (dāru), Bhagavān tells—much as in the preceding chapter—how to go about selecting the proper wood (dāru), both scientifically and ritually (4b-35).

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Dāru (दारु) or Dārubera refers to “icons made with wood”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas prescribe different materials for different types of icons installed in the temple. [...] Marīci and Bhṛgu state that the dhruva icons of Viṣṇu are made of processed earth (mṛd) with brick (iṣṭakā), wood (dāru), stone (śilā) and metal (loha) every succeeding one being superior to the one preceding in sequential order.

The deteriorated wooden icons [i.e., dāru-bera] must be burnt and mixed in the water of sea, river, etc., thus insists the Vaiṣṇava Āgamas.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dāru (दारु) refers to “(nooses made of) timber”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.24 (“Śiva consents to marry Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Viṣṇu: “[...] Anyone bound with nooses of iron and timber [i.e., loha-dāru-maya] can secure release but one bound with nooses of women never frees oneself. Worldly enjoyment tightens the bondage. Salvation is inaccessible to a man drawn to worldly enjoyment even in his dream. If he wishes for happiness, an intelligent man shall duly forsake all worldly pleasures. Worldly enjoyment that dooms persons is on a par with poison. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Dāru (दारु) or Dārūdyāna refers to the “pine park” (which Śiva visited as a naked ascetic), according to the Halāyudhastotra verse 34-35.—Accordingly, “The visitation of the wives of the distinguished sages in the Pine Park (dāru-udyāna), the oblation with seed in Fire, the twilight dance: Your behaviour is not reprehensible. O Three-eyed one! The doctrines of the world do not touch those who have left worldly life, having passed far beyond the path of those whose minds are afflicted by false knowledge. The gods all wear gold and jewels as an ornament on their body. You do not even wear gold the size of a berry on your ear or on your hand. The one whose natural beauty, surpassing the path [of the world], flashes on his own body, has no regard for the extraneous ornaments of ordinary men”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 6.9-15ab]—“[...] He [who is ill] quickly escapes from death. My speech is true and not false. According to the rules for the great protection [rite, the Mantrin] should make an oblation in the name of [the afflicted] into a fire fueled with holy wood (puṇya-dāru-indhana). [This fire burns] in a round pot [adorned] with three girdles. [The mantrin] uses sesame seeds soaked in ghee and milk [mixed] together with white sugar. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Dāru (दारु) [=dāruja?] refers to “(a piece of) wood”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] touches his buttocks, there is [an extraneous thing] arising from the buttocks [, i.e. coccyx?] or an iron nail at a depth of two cubits [underground]. [The officiant] should remove that extraneous thing from there. If [someone] scratches his thigh, there is an extraneous thing related to the thigh or piece of wood (dāruja) at a depth of one and a half cubits. [The officiant] should remove it carefully. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Dhiti blog: The Navakalevara Ceremony at Puri

Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood” and represents the material of Jagannātha (symbolizing the “cutting of the miseries of the world” and “imparting eternal bliss”), according to the Puruṣottama-māhātmya of the Skanda-purāṇa.—Accordingly, Jagannātha is made of dāru (wood) because a dāru image cuts up the miseries of the world and imparts eternal bliss. The text also profoundly states that in reality, the Lord of the Universe is neither made of wood nor stone, and that He assumes these forms or arcāvatāras merely to delude the world. The beloved god Jagannath acquired a wooden form (dārurūpa, dārumaya) after Śrī Kṛṣṇa himself promised devotees that he would be reincarnated in a wooden form in the Kaliyuga. This divine promise is elaborated upon in the sthala-purāṇa of the kṣetra—[...]

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Dāru (दारु, ‘wood’) is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later, denoting amongst other things the pole of a chariot, logs as fuel, the wooden parts of a car, possibly wooden stocks, and so forth.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “The Yogin wonders if this body, impure as it is, does not have some permanence. Wrong! It is a great suffering. This body is the place of arising of all the suffering. Just as water arises from the earth, wind from the ether and fire from wood (dāru), so all the inner and outer suffering comes from the body. The inner sufferings are old age, sickness and death; the outer sufferings are the knife (asi), the stick (daṇḍa), cold and heat (śītoṣṇa), hunger and thirst (kṣutpipāsā), etc. It is because there is a body that these sufferings exist”.

Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Daru (दरु) [?] (in Chinese: T'o-leou) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Citrā or Citrānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Citrā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Daru] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Dāru (दारु) [?] (in Chinese: T'o-leou) is also the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Rohiṇī or Rohiṇīnakṣatra.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Dāru (दारु) is the name of an ancient city, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “Now in Jambūdvīpa in this same Bhāratakṣetra in the village Dāru there was a Brāhman, Vasubhūti. He had a son, Atibhūti, by his wife, Anukośā; and his son had a wife, Sarasā. One day she was kidnaped quickly by a trick by a Brāhman, Kayāna, who had become infatuated with her. [...]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Dāru (दारु) refers to “wood”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “On a flat piece of wood (dāru-paṭṭa) or stone, on the ground or on sandy soil, the wise [person] should adopt a stable posture for the accomplishment of absorption. Thus, sitting cross-legged, sitting half cross-legged, thunderbolt, hero posture and the previously mentioned pleasant and lotus [postures] as well as abandonment of the body is highly thought of. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Daru or Devadaru is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Daru refers to the “timber-tree” and its forests are mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Daru), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Daru, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Daru [दारु] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. from the Berberidaceae (Barberry) family having the following synonyms: Berberis hypoleuca, Berberis asiatica var. clarkeana. For the possible medicinal usage of daru, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Daru in India is the name of a plant defined with Berberis aristata in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Berberis aristata Sims.

2) Daru is also identified with Berberis asiatica It has the synonym Berberis asiatica Griff. (etc.).

3) Daru is also identified with Cedrus deodara It has the synonym Cedrus libani A. Richard subsp. deodara (Roxburgh) P.D. Sell (etc.).

4) Daru is also identified with Punica granatum.

5) Daru is also identified with Rubus niveus It has the synonym Rubus micranthus D. Don (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· North American Flora (1928)
· Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal (1979)
· Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1908)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Prodromus Florae Nepalensis (1825)
· Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas (1845)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Daru, for example health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dāru : (nt.) wood; timber; fire-wood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dāru, (nt.) (Sk. dāru, *dereǔo (oak) tree; cp. Av. dāuru (wood) Gr. dόru (spear), drus (oak); Lat. larix (fr. *dārix)=larch; Oir. daur (oak); Goth. triu, Ags. treo= tree. Also Sk. dāruṇa, Lat. dūrus (hard) etc., Oir. dru strong. See also dabba2, dabbī & duma) wood, piece of wood; pl. woodwork, sticks A.I, 112; It.71; Dh.80; J.II, 102; III, 54; VI, 366; DhA.I, 393; PvA.76 (candana°), 141.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dārū (दारू).—f ( P) Spirituous or vinous liquor. 2 Gunpowder. dārū ṭhāsaṇēṃ To swill or swig strong drink. dārū pikaviṇēṃ To distil spirit.

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darū (दरू).—f R (dūrvā S) A grass sacred to gaṇapati, Agrostis linearis.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dāru (दारु).—f Spirituous, or vinous liquor. Gunpowder.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dāru (दारु).—a. [dīryate dṝ-uṇ]

1) Tearing, rending.

2) Liberal.

3) Kind.

-ruḥ 1 A liberal or munificent man.

2) A donor.

3) An artist.

-ru n. (said to be m. also)

1) Wood, a piece of wood, timber.

2) A block.

3) A lever.

4) A bolt.

5) The pine or Devadāru tree.

6) Ore.

7) Brass.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dāru (दारु).—m. (always nt., according to Dictt., in Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, except for one Sanskrit acc. sg. dārum), tree: dāruḥ Lalitavistara 188.14 (verse), end of line, all mss. according to Lefm. (Calcutta (see LV.) dāru).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāru (दारु).—mfn. (-ruḥ-rvī-ru) 1. Liberal, munificent, a giver, a donor. 2. An artist. 3. Tearing, rending, a tearer. mn. (-ruḥ-ru) Wood, timber. n. (-ru) 1. A sort of pine, (Pinus devadaru.) 2. Brass. E. dṝ to tear or split, Unadi affix uṇ, or to give, ru Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāru (दारु).—i. e. dṛ10 + vant = van = u, n. 1. Wood, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 100. 2. A species of pine, Pinus deodora Roxb., [Suśruta] 1, 161, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāru (दारु).—1. [adjective] breaking.

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Dāru (दारु).—2. [neuter] a piece of wood, wood i.[grammar]; [adverb] vat† like a piece of wood.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dāru (दारु):—[from ] 1. dāru mfn. liberal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. [Pāṇini 3-2, 159])

2) [v.s. ...] m. See 2. dāru.

3) [from dāra] 2. dāru mfn. breaking, splitting (Indra), [Ṛg-veda vii, 6, 1]

4) [v.s. ...] m. an artist, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) 3. dāru m. n. ([gana] ardharcādi) a piece of wood, wood, timber, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (usually n., m. only, [Harivaṃśa 15522])

6) n. Pinus Devadāru, [Suśruta]

7) ore, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [connected with 4. dru and taru; cf. also [Zend] dauru; [Greek] δόρυ, δρῦς; [Gothic] triu; [German] trewo; [English] tree].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāru (दारु):—[(ruḥ-ru)] 2. m. n. Wood. n. Sort of pine; brass. a. Liberal; tearing.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dāru (दारु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dāru.

[Sanskrit to German]

Daru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dārū (दारू):—(nf) liquor; medical treatment; medicine (as in [davā-dārū]).

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Dāru (दारु) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dāru.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Daru (ದರು):—

1) [noun] a kind of song, the lyrics of which arouse sexual feelings or desires; an erotic song.

2) [noun] a particular kind of dance, expressing erotic feelings:.

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Daru (ದರು):—[noun] a long, relatively narrow depression between uplands, hills or mountains; a valley.

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Daru (ದರು):—[noun] the bodily strength that resists fatigue, illness, hardship, etc.; stamina.

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Dāru (ದಾರು):—

1) [noun] the long, hard, fibrous timber of a tree; wood.

2) [noun] a piece of a wood.

3) [noun] the hard core of a tree; the central part of exogenous trees, hardened by age; heart-wood.

4) [noun] a tree in gen.

5) [noun] the tree Morinda citrifolia of Rubiaceae family; turmeric timber tree.

6) [noun] the tree Pinus deodara of Pinaceae family; Indian fir.

7) [noun] a bolt used for preventing the door from being opened.

8) [noun] a forest.

9) [noun] a man who liberally donates; a donor.

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Dāru (ದಾರು):—

1) [noun] any alcoholic drink made by distillation; liquor.

2) [noun] ದಾರೂಬಂದಿ [darubamdi] dārū bandi the forbidding by law of the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Dāru (दारु):—n. 1. pine; fir; 2. firewood; 3. carpenter; 4. wine; liquor (of inferior quality);

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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