Kshudra, Kṣudrā: 24 definitions

Introduction:

Kshudra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣudrā can be transliterated into English as Ksudra or Kshudra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kṣudrā (क्षुद्रा):—Another name for Kaṇṭakārī (Solanum xanthocarpum), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda. Kṣudrā is derived from Kṣudra, of which the literal translation is “minute”, “diminutive” or “tiny”. In a different context, it can also translate to “cruel”, “mean”, “poor” or “wicked”

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kshudra in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks from the Malvaceae (Mallow) family having the following synonyms: Corchorus antichorus, Corchorus humilis, Corchorus microphyllus. For the possible medicinal usage of kshudra, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Kṣudrā (क्षुद्रा) is another name for Kaṇṭakārī, a medicinal plant identified with Solanum xanthacarpum, a synonym of Solanum virginianum L. (“surattense nightshade” or “Thai eggplant”) from the Solanaceae or “nightshades” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.30-32 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kṣudrā and Kaṇṭakārī, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Kṣudrā (क्षुद्रा) also represents a synonym for Kṣudracuñcu which is a variety of Cuñcu, an unidentified medicinal plant possibly identified with (i) Marsilea dentata Linn., (ii) Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. or (iii) Marsilea minuta Linn., according to verse 4.148-149. Together with the names Kṣudrā and Kṣudracuñcu, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to “class of prāsāda § 4.5; 5.7.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to “wicked men”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Śrāvaṇa year of Jupiter, mankind will be happy and crops will thrive and ripen well; wicked men [i.e., kṣudra] and impostors will suffer with their followers”

2) Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to “small animals” (e.g., reptiles and venomous creatures) [?], according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).— Accordingly, “Maṇi Ketu is a comet which appears for only 3 hours occasionally; it possesses an invisible disc and appears in the west; its tail is straight and white and it resembles a line of milk drawn from a human breast. There will be happiness in the land from the very time of its appearance for four and a half months; reptiles and venomous creatures [i.e., kṣudra-jantu] will come into existence”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to the “lowest (siddhis), according to the Kiraṇatantra chapter 49 (dealing with vratacaryā).—Accordingly, “Garuḍa spoke: ‘You have taught me, O great Lord, the activities of the Neophyte, the Putraka and the Ācārya. Tell me those of the Sādhaka’. The Lord spoke: ‘[...] This is the auspicious Raudra-vrata: imposing with a chignon of matted locks, marked by a trident and khaṭvāṅga, equipped with a clean half skull, awe-inspiring with a third eye, clothed in the skin of a tiger, peaceful. For one firm [in this observance, the highest Siddhi will arise in six months]; middling [powers] in four months; the lowest [powers] (kṣudra-siddhi) will arise in three months. [...]’”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to the “low (works of magic)”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—In one place in the Yogakhaṇḍa, the goddess describes the kind of teacher that one should avoid. He is not just immoral. Even worse, although ignorant of the Kaula rites, he criticizes the Kula scriptures. He is always intent on the practice of Tantra and does not possess the Command. He is intent on the low works of magic (kṣudra-karman) taught in the Bhūta and Gāruḍa Tantras. He abandons his teacher and is deceitful By talking with such a teacher and keeping his company, one goes to hell. He is not a part of the tradition and has no authority in any Kula lineage.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) refers to “tiny (ants)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Charity (is) cow dung and water united, moral conduct and cleansing, Patience, taking away tiny ants (kṣudra-pipīlika-apanayana), heroism, bringing forth the religious rite. Meditation, single-minded in each moment, wisdom, splendidly clear lines, These perfections, six indeed are gained, having made the Muni’s maṇḍala”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kṣudra.—cf. Prakrit cūla=culla ‘small’; prefixed to the names of persons, localities, etc., in order to distinguish them from others; e. g., Kṣudra-Mūla, Mahā-Mūla; Kṣudra-Dharmagiri, Mahā-Dharmagiri. Note: kṣudra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—n (S) kṣudraka n (S) A fault, foible, failing, folly, weakness, defect.

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kṣudra (क्षुद्र) [or क्षुद्रक, kṣudraka].—a (S) Small or little, lit. fig.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—n A fault, foible. a Small or little.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—a. [kṣud-kartari rak] (compar. kṣodīyas; superl. kṣodiṣṭha)

1) Minute, small, tiny, little, trifling.

2) Mean, low, vile, base; क्षुद्रेऽपि नूनं शरणं प्रपन्ने (kṣudre'pi nūnaṃ śaraṇaṃ prapanne) Kumārasambhava 1.12.

3) Wicked.

4) Cruel.

5) Poor, indigent.

6) Miserly, niggardly; Meghadūta 17.

7) Diminutive, short.

8) Trifling, insignificant.

9) Unimportant, minor.

-draḥ 1 A small particle of rice.

2) A bee or wasp.

-drā 1 A bee; क्षुद्राभिरक्षुद्रतराभि- राकुलम् (kṣudrābhirakṣudratarābhi- rākulam) Śiśupālavadha 12.54.

2) A fly or gnat.

3) A woman maimed or crippled.

4) A quarrelsome woman.

5) A prostitute, whore, harlot; उपसृष्टा इव क्षुद्राधिष्ठितभवनाः (upasṛṣṭā iva kṣudrādhiṣṭhitabhavanāḥ) K.17.

6) A base or despicable woman.

7) A dancing girl.

-dram Ved. A particle of dust, flour, meal; अव क्षुद्रमिव स्रवेत (ava kṣudramiva sraveta) Ṛgveda 1.129.6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—(= kṣaudra, q.v.; compare Pali Lex. khudda, honey, Abhidh., see Childers), (1) epithet of madhu, = kṣau- dra(ṃ) madhu, (a kind of) honey: kṣudramadhusadṛśāni phalāni Mahāvastu ii.107.4; 108.4, 13; kṣudra-madhu (°dhv, °dhum) aneḍakaṃ (once °ko; or anel°) Mahāvastu i.339.8; 340.13; 341.7 (vv.ll. kṣaudra-, kṣudro, kṣudraṃ; at least 1 ms. each time kṣudra-); (2) adj., honey-like, honeyed, honey-, sweet: with yvāgu, gruel, Mahāvastu ii.84.9—10 (prose) kṣudrāye ca yvāgūye ghaṭikā haste; 13, 16 yvāgu (°gū) kṣudrā (n. sg.); kṣudra-kṣudrāṇi phalāni Mahāvastu iii.145.2, see s.v. kṣudra-pāka, in which kṣudra-seems to = Sanskrit svādu-.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—mfn.

(-draḥ-drā-draṃ) 1. Small, little. 2. Mean, low. 3. Mean, niggardly, avaricious. 4. Cruel. 5. Poor, indigent. f.

(-drā) 1. A woman maimed or crippled, wanting a limb, &c. 2. A dancing girl. 3. A whore, a harlot. 4. A fly. 5. A bee or wasp. 6. A gnat, &c. 7. A prickly nightshade: see kaṇṭakārī. 8. The egg plant, (Solanum melongena.) 9. Sorrel, (Oxalis monadelpha.) E. kṣud to bruise or pound, Unadi affix rak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—[kṣud + ra], adj., f. . 1. Small, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 33, 21. 2. Mean, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 89. Comparat. kṣodīyaṃs, superl. kṣodiṣṭha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र).—[adjective] small, minute (also kṣudraka); low, mean.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣudra (क्षुद्र):—[from kṣud] mf(ā)n. ([Comparative degree] kṣodīyas, [superlative degree] diṣṭha, qq.vv.) minute, diminutive, tiny, very small, little, trifling, [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xiv, 30; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa iii; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Aitareya-upaniṣad; Yājñavalkya] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] mean, low, vile, [Manu-smṛti vii, 27; Yājñavalkya i, 309; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] wicked (said in joke), [Mālavikāgnimitra]

4) [v.s. ...] niggardly, avaricious, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] cruel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] poor, indigent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] m. a small particle of rice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] = -roga (q.v.), [Suśruta]

9) [v.s. ...] = -panasa (q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Kṣudrā (क्षुद्रा):—[from kṣudra > kṣud] f. ([Pāṇini 4-3, 119]) a kind of bee, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

11) [v.s. ...] a fly, gnat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a base or despicable woman, [Pāṇini 4-1, 131]

13) [v.s. ...] a maimed or crippled woman, [ib.; Patañjali]

14) [v.s. ...] a whore, harlot, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a dancing girl, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a quarrelsome woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Name of several plants (Solanum Jacquini, also another variety of Solanum, Oxalis pusilla, Coix barbata, Nardostachys Jaṭā-māṃsī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Kṣudra (क्षुद्र):—[from kṣud] n. a particle of dust, flour, meal, [Ṛg-veda i, 129, 6 and viii, 49, 4;]

19) [v.s. ...] cf. [Lithuanian] kUdikis, ‘an infant’; [Persian] كودك kUdak, ‘small a boy.’

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र):—[(draḥ-drā-draṃ) a.] Small; mean; cruel. f. A cripple; a dancer; a harlot; a fly; a bee; a gnat; a prickly nightshade; sorrel; the egg-plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khuḍḍa, Khuḍḍaga, Khudda, Chuḍḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kshudra in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kshudra in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṣudra (क्षुद्र):—(a) small; mean, base, petty; wicked; contemptible.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṣudra (ಕ್ಷುದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] small; little; minor.

2) [noun] relatively worthless or unimportant; trivial; insignificant.

3) [noun] having or showing a tendency to make much of small matters.

4) [noun] small-minded; mean, narrow, ungenerous, etc.

5) [noun] wanting or taking all that one can get, with no thought of others' needs; greedy; miserly.

6) [noun] cruel a) deliberately seeking to inflict pain and suffering; enjoying otherś suffering; without mercy or pity; b) causing pain, distress, etc.

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Kṣudra (ಕ್ಷುದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a man lacking the necessities of life or living in complete poverty; a poor man; a destitute.

2) [noun] a mean, small-minded; contemptible man.

3) [noun] a sweet sticky yellowish fluid made by bees and other insects from nectar collected from flowers; honey.

4) [noun] a thick heavy, spiral shell, bearing short projections, of various marine gastropod molluscs of the family Strombidae; a small conch.

5) [noun] any small insect of the widely distributed hymenopterous family Formicidae; an ant.

6) [noun] light from the sun; sunlight.

7) [noun] a malicious, false, and injurious statement spoken about a person, in his absence, to a third person; a slander.

8) [noun] the quality of being mean, narrow, petty ungenerous, small-minded; pettiness; small-mindedness.

9) [noun] a stinging hymenopterous insect of the genus Apis which collects nectar and pollen, produces wax and honey, and lives in large communities; a bee.

10) [noun] a man habitually making false or malicious statements about a person, intended to injure or defame; a slanderer.

11) [noun] ಕ್ಷುದ್ರ ಕೇಳುವವನು ಶೂದ್ರನಿಗಿಂತ ಕಡೆ [kshudra keluvavanu shudranigimta kade] kṣudra kēḷuvavanu śudraniginta kaḍe (prov.) to heed to a slanderer is the abuse of human in oneself.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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