Madhuka, Mādhūka, Madhukā, Madhūka: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Madhuka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Madhūka (मधूक):—A Sanskrit word referring to Madhuca indica, a species of tropical tree from the Sapotaceae family of flowering plants. It can also be spelled as Madhuka. In English, this plant is known as the “butter tree”. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is a deciduous tree with odorous lightly yellow flowers. It bears greenish fruits which are cultivated. The distilled spirit of the flowers are known among adivasis (Santals in particular).

This plant (Madhūka) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā.

2) Madhuka (मधुक):—A Sanskrit word referring to “liquorice”, a perennial herb from the Fabaceae (pea/bean) family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known as Madhūka (मधूक), Madhukā (मधुका) or Yaṣṭimadhuka (यष्टिमधुक). Its official botanical name is Glycyrrhiza glabra and is commonly referred to in english as liquorice or ‘sweet root’. It grows best in deep valleys with lots of sun. The sweet flavour is extracted from the root of the plant.

This plant (Madhuka) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the name Yaṣṭimadhu.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Madhuka (मधुक) is the name of a tree (Mahuā) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Revatī, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Madhuka], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Madhūka (मधूक) refers to a type of flower from which wine was extracted, according to the Kumārasambhava III.38 , and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—According to Suśruta, in the preparation of these drinks, when surā is used instead of water it was called surāsavā. Liquors were also prepared with madhūka flowers and honey. [...] Kumārasambhava describes the wine extracted from flowers (puṣpāsava or madhūka) and also deals with the after effects of drinking wine. Sugar was also used as an antidote for the intoxication caused by wine. Flowers of mango and red paṭala were also used to perfume various wines.

Madhūka (the flower) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., madhūka]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., picumandabīja (nimb tree)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Madhūka (मधूक) refers to the medicinal plant Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel, and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Madhūka] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

1) Madhuka (मधुक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning madhuka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

2) Madhūka (मधूक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) Mac Bride” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning madhūka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Madhuka (मधुक) is a Sanskrit word, possibly identified with Bassia latifolia (mahua) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat. Note that Bassia latifolia is a synonym of Madhuca longifolia.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as madhuka).”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Madhuka (मधुक).—A Bhārgava and Madhyamādhvaryu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 16.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (M) next»] — Madhuka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

madhuka : (m.) the tree Bassia Latifolia. || madhukā (f.) liquorice.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Madhukā, (f.) (fr. madhuka) honey drink, sweet drink, liquor Mhvs 5, 52. (Page 519)

— or —

Madhuka, (adj. n.) (fr. madhu) connected with honey. 1. (n.) the tree Bassia latifolia (lit. honey tree) Vin. I, 246; J. V, 324, 405; VI, 529; Miln. 165.—2. the fruit of that tree J. IV, 434.—3. (adj.) (-°) full of honey J. VI, 529 (madhu° containing honey).—4. connected with an intoxicating drink, given to the drink of (-°) J. IV, 117 (surā-meraya°).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madhuka (मधुक).—a.

1) Sweet.

2) Sweet-speaking, melodious.

3) Of the colour of honey.

-kaḥ 1 Name of a tree (= madhūka q. v.).

2) The Aśoka tree.

3) A kind of bird.

4) The liquorice root.

-kam 1 Tin.

2) Liquorice.

3) The palmliquor.

--- OR ---

Madhūka (मधूक).—1 A bee.

2) Name of a tree; अङ्गैर्मुग्धमधूकपुष्परुचिभिर्लावण्यसारैरयम् (aṅgairmugdhamadhūkapuṣparucibhirlāvaṇyasārairayam) Mv.2.21.

-kam 1 A flower of the Madhūka tree; दूर्वावता पाण्डुमधूकदाम्ना (dūrvāvatā pāṇḍumadhūkadāmnā) Ku.7.14; स्निग्धो मधूकच्छविर्गण्डः (snigdho madhūkacchavirgaṇḍaḥ) Gīt.1; R.6.25.

2) Liquorice.

Derivable forms: madhūkaḥ (मधूकः).

--- OR ---

Mādhūka (माधूक).—a. Sweet-speaking, amiable; मैत्रेयकं तु वैदेहो माधूकं संप्रसूयते (maitreyakaṃ tu vaideho mādhūkaṃ saṃprasūyate) Ms.1.33.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhuka (मधुक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Sweet, (in taste.) 2. Sweet-speaking or sounding, mellifluous, melodious. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A bard, a panegyrist, one who recites the lineage and praises of sovereigns in their presence. 2. A kind of bird. 3. A tree, (Bassia latifolia.) mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) Liquorice, &c. n.

(-kaṃ) Tin. f.

(-kā) 1. A plant, (Menis- permum glabrum.) 2. The sweet lime. 3. A kind of panic seed. E. madhu sweet, kai to sound, aff. ḍa; or madhu honey, kan aff. of comparison, &c.

--- OR ---

Madhuka (मधुक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A tree, (Bassia latifolia.) 2. A bee. n.

(-kaṃ) A flower of the Madhuka tree. E. man to respect, ūka aff., and dha substituted for the final.

--- OR ---

Mādhūka (माधूक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) 1. Sweet-speaking or sounding. 2. Made from the Bassia tree. E. madhūka and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhuka (मधुक).—[madhu + ka], I. adj. Sweet. Ii. m. A bard. Iii. m. and n. Liquorice. Iv. n. Tin.

--- OR ---

Madhūka (मधूक).—derived from madhu, m. A tree, Bassia latifolia, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 7, 14.

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Mādhūka (माधूक).— (from madhu and madhūka), adj. 1. Sweet-voiced, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 33. 2. Made of the Bassia tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhūka (मधूक).—[masculine] bee, [Name] of a tree.

--- OR ---

Mādhūka (माधूक).—[adjective] sweet-voiced.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Madhuka (मधुक):—[from madhu] (ifc.) = madhu [gana] ura-ādi

2) [v.s. ...] mfn. honey-coloured (only in -locana, ‘having h°-c° eyes’, Name of Śiva), [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] sweet (in taste), [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] mellifluous, melodious, [ib.]

5) [v.s. ...] m. a species of tree, [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira] (Bassia Latifolia or Jonesia Asoka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

6) [v.s. ...] Parra jacana or Goensis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] m. liquorice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. n.)

8) [v.s. ...] m. a kind of bard or panegyrist, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] the son of a Maitreya and a married Āyogavī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] (madh) Name of a man, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

11) Madhukā (मधुका):—[from madhuka > madhu] f. Menispermum Glabrum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Glycyrrhiza Glabra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] black Panic, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

15) Madhuka (मधुक):—[from madhu] n. liquorice, [Suśruta] (cf. m.)

16) [v.s. ...] n. old honey, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] tin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Madhūka (मधूक):—[from madhu] m. ([from] madhu) a bee, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]

19) [v.s. ...] Bassia Latifolia (from the blossoms and seeds of which arrac is distilled and oil extracted), [ib.; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

20) [v.s. ...] n. the blossoms or fruit of B° L°, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] liquorice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] bees-wax, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) Mādhuka (माधुक):—mfn. coming from or belonging to the Madhuka tree, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

24) m. [plural], ‘mead-makers’, Name of the Maireyakas or of a [particular] mixed caste, [Mahābhārata]

25) Mādhūka (माधूक):—mfn. ([from] madhūka) made from Bassia Latifolia, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti xi, 95]

26) (= madhura-bhāṣin) sweet-voiced (said of the Maitreyakas), [Manu-smṛti x, 33] ([Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti]; cf. mādhuka)

27) n. a kind of mead, [Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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