Pratihara, Pratīhāra, Pratihārā, Prātihāra: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Pratihara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pratihar.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pratihara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A King born of the race of Bharata. Pratīhāra was the son of Parameṣṭhī and the father of Pratihartā. (Chapter 1, Aṃśa 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A door-keeper of the king's palace; Kālanemi's arrival is announced to Tāraka by the door-keeper kneeling and with mouth shut by his hand;1 Vīraka for Śiva;2 characteristics of; skilled, of good personality, speaking agreeably, and not overbearing.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 154. 1, 4.
  • 2) Ib. 154. 383, 386.
  • 3) Ib. 215. 11.

1b) Of the family of Parameṣṭhi.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 65; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 36.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: archive.org: Studies in Kautilya Vocabulary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) refers to a type of profession mentioned in the Śukranītisāra 2.128-188.—The Śukranītisāra is a Sanskrit work on ethics by Śukrācārya comprised of four chapters. The second chapter (uvarājādikṛtya, “the duties of the royal princes and the like”) describes a large number of varied topics, eg., it contains observations on the ministers, priests, sacive, treasury, a large number of officers and employees (such as a Pratihāra).

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार) in general means an official employed in the king’s palace in charge of the court procedure and royal audience. He might be the door keeper of the royal palace, or any important chambers of the king. It seems that the pratīhāras served not only as door keepers but also as important sāmantas.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—Excessive contact with the sound-producing organ which is looked upon as a fault; cf. वर्गेषु जिह्वाप्रथनं चतुर्षु ग्रासो मुख्ये प्रतिहारश्चतुर्थे । चतुर्थे वर्गे (vargeṣu jihvāprathanaṃ caturṣu grāso mukhye pratihāraścaturthe | caturthe varge) (तवर्गे (tavarge)) प्रतिहारः अतिप्रयत्नो नाम दोषो भवति । (pratihāraḥ atiprayatno nāma doṣo bhavati |) Uvvata on R. Pr.XIV.7.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Pratihara refers to one of the thirty-six Rajput clans, according to various inscriptions and literature. They are possible part Padmanabha list, who compiled the 15th-century Kanhadadeprabandha, a work describing the Muslim invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD. The kingdom or dynasty of the Pratiharas had their own princes and nobles and were further separated into sub-clans and families. Their name can also be spelled as Pratihārā.

The Rajputs are a Hindu race claiming to be descendants of the ancient Kṣatriya-varṇa (warrior caste). Originally, the Rajputs consisted of two principal branches: the Sūryavaṃśa (solar race) and the Candravaṃśa (lunar race), to which later was added the Agnivaṃśa (fire-born race).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pratihāra or Pratīhāra.—(EI 23; BL), also called Pratihārin (EI 3, 23), ‘a door-keeper’; but cf. Mahāpratihāra who was a high officer; officer in charge of the defence of the royal palace or bed-chamber or the head of the guards of the city gate; a chamberlain or inditer of grants, according to some (HD); personal attendant of a king, according to others (CII; 4). See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 73; Vol. IX, p. 192; Bṛhaspati quoted by Viśvarūpa on the Yājñavalkyasmṛti, I. 307 (for his qualifications); Mahābhārata, Ādiparvan, 85. 28-29; Viṣṇudharmottara, II. 24. 12; Śukra, I. 121. Cf. Antaḥ-pratīhāra (IE 8-3), Rajju-pratihāra. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pratihāra.—(IE 8-5), levy for the maintenance of the door- keepers of the city gates; cf. pratihāra-prastha. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratihara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) or Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—

1) Striking back.

2) A door, gate.

3) A porter, door-keeper; आर्य अदेशकालः प्रतीहारस्य (ārya adeśakālaḥ pratīhārasya) Svapna. 5,6.

4) A juggler.

5) Juggling, a juggling trick.

6) (In gram.) The hard contact of the tongue with the edge of the teeth in pronouncing dental letters.

7) Intimating arrival (āgamananivedana); संप्राप्यैते महात्मानो राघवस्य निवेशनम् । विष्ठिताः प्रतिहारार्थम् (saṃprāpyaite mahātmāno rāghavasya niveśanam | viṣṭhitāḥ pratihārārtham) Rām.7.1.7; see प्रतिहारण (pratihāraṇa).

-rī A female doorkeeper.

Derivable forms: pratihāraḥ (प्रतिहारः), pratīhāraḥ (प्रतीहारः).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—&c. See प्रतिवेश (prativeśa) &c.

See also (synonyms): pratīveśa, pratīhāsa.

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Prātihāra (प्रातिहार).—A juggler, conjurer.

Derivable forms: prātihāraḥ (प्रातिहारः).

See also (synonyms): pratihāraka, prātihārika.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A door-keeper. 3. A Juggler. 4. Trick, disguise. E. prati against, hṛ to take, aff. ghañ .

Pratihāra can also be spelled as Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—m. (raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A porter, a warder. 3. An agreement for return of assistance, alliance, confederacy. f. (-rī) A female door-keeper; (though this word is a feminine in form, is not necessarly so in sense.) E. prati severally, mutually, hṛ to convey, aff. ghañ; also pratihāra .

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Prātihara (प्रातिहर).—m.

(-raḥ) A juggler. E. pratihāra the same, and aṇ pleonastic: see the next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—pratīhāra, i. e. prati-hṛ + a, I. m. 1. A door. 2. A door-keeper, [Hitopadeśa] 89, 2 (ī); a chamberlain, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 18, 194 (ī). 3. A juggler. Ii. f. , A female doorkeeper, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 25, 1.

Pratihāra can also be spelled as Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—see pratihº.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—[masculine] striking against, pushing back; door, gate (which keeps off), porter ([feminine] ī).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—[masculine] ī [feminine] door-keeper, porter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—[=prati-hāra] [from prati-hṛ] m. striking against, touch, contact ([especially] of the tongue with the teeth in the pronunciation of the dentals), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

2) [v.s. ...] shutting, closing, stopping (a-pr), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] Name of [particular] syllables in the Sāman hymns (with which the Pratihartṛ begins to join in singing, generally at the beginning of the last Pada of a stanza; also pratī-h, [Atharva-veda; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa]), [Brāhmaṇa; ???] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] magical formula spoken over weapons, [Rāmāyaṇa] ([varia lectio] ra-tara)

5) [v.s. ...] (that which keeps back), a door, gate (also pratī-h, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. [compound] below)

6) [v.s. ...] a door-keeper, porter, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc. (also pratī-h; [dual number] two d°-k° id est. two statues at the entrance of a temple, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]; f(ī). a female d°-k°, portress, [Priyadarśikā])

7) [v.s. ...] a juggler, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] juggling, trick, disguise, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):—[=pratī-hāra] [from pratī] m. (in most meanings) = prati-hāra, q.v.

10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] alliance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([wrong reading] for pratī-kāra above)

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a family of kings, [Catalogue(s)]

12) Prātihāra (प्रातिहार):—[=prāti-hāra] [from prāti] m. a juggler, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—[prati-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. A door; doorkeeper; juggler; trick.

2) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):—[pratī-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. A door; a porter; alliance. f. ()

3) Prātihara (प्रातिहर):—[prāti-hara] (raḥ) 1. m. A juggler.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—(von har mit prati) m.

1) das Anschlagen, Hartaufstossen (der Zunge): pratihāraścaturthe varge [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 14, 7.] —

2) das Zurückstossen: a [Pañcaviṃśabrāhmaṇa 24, 1, 12.] —

3) in der Sāman Litanei heissen so gewisse Silben, mit welchen der Pratihartar in den Gesang einfällt, gewöhnlich am Anfang des letzten Pada eines Verses. [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 3, 23.] [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 5, 10.] [LĀṬY. 6, 10, 22—29. 11, 1—3. 12, 1. fgg.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 1, 10, 11.] prastāvodgīthapratihāropadravanidhanāni bhaktayaḥ [MÜLLER, SL. 210.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 2, 2, 1.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 56. 470.] velā [LĀṬY. 3, 8, 2. 2, 10, 23.] vant [6, 1, 17.] dvi [12, 1. 7, 4, 1.] pratī [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 11, 7, 12.] [Śāṅkhāyana’s Brāhmaṇa 17, 6.] —

4) Bez. eines best. Zauberspruchs [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 30, 4.] —

5) Thor (abhaltend) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1004, v. l.] [Halāyudha 5, 2.] [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] pa Thorhüter [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 15, 31.] rakṣī Thorwächterin [Raghuvaṃśa 6, 20.] niyuktā pratihārabhūmau 31. samāsasāda pratihārabhūmim [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 58.] pratīhāra [Amarakoṣa 2, 2, 15. 3, 4, 25, 172.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1004.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 4, 264.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 281.] —

6) Thorsteher, Thürhüter (Abwehrer) [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 73, 13 (75, 14 Gorresio).] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 33, 28.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 43, 265.] Inschr. bei [Colebrooke II, 292.] pratī [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 1, 6. 3, 4, 25, 172.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 721.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 269.] [Spr. 414. 2607.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 25, 21.] [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 8. 126.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 27, 160. 35, 79.] [Rāmāyaṇa] [Gorresio VII, S. 341] (wo pratīhāra zu lesen ist). devarāja [Harivaṃśa 9260.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 186.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 484.] [Hitopadeśa 89, 2.] [Vetālapañcaviṃśati 28, 10. 11.] mahā [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 142. 484] (wo mit der ed. Calc. mahā st. mahī zu lesen ist). pratīhārī Thorsteherin [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 25, 172.] [Medinīkoṣa] [Śākuntala 61, 16. 90, 9.] [Mālavikāgnimitra 43, 1. 58, 20.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 1, 53. 7, 107. 26, 46.38, 139. 50, 124.] —

7) der du. pratīhārau zwei Thürsteher scheint zwei Statuen am Eingange eines Tempels zu bezeichnen [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 55, 14.] = nandivandikau nach dem [Scholiast] —

8) Gaukler [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa 2, 10, 11]; vgl. prātihāra, prātihāraka, prātihārika . Nach [RĀMĀŚRAMA] zu [Amarakoṣa] auch Gaukelei [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] —

9) Nomen proprium eines Fürsten, eines Sohnes des Parameṣṭhin, [Viṣṇupurāṇa 164.] pratīha [Bhāgavatapurāṇa] —

10) pratīhāra Bez. eines best. Bündnisses [Hārāvalī 16]; falsche Form für pratīkāra. pratihāram absol. s. u. har mit prati .

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):—s. u. pratihāra .

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Prātihāra (प्रातिहार):—(von pratihāra) m. Taschenspieler, Gaukler [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa 2, 10, 11.] [Śabdakalpadruma]

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Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—

9) pratī Nomen proprium eines fürstlichen Geschlechts [Oxforder Handschriften 352,b,4.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):——

1) m. — a) das Anschlagen , Hartaufstossen (der Zunge). — b) das Zufallen in 1. apratihāra. — c) in der Sāman-Litanei gewisse Silben , mit welchen der Pratihartar in den Gesang einfällt , gewöhnlich am Anfange des letzten Pada eines Verses. — d) ein best. über Waffen gesprochener Zauberspruch. v.l. tara. — e) Thor. — f) Thorsteher , Thürhüter. — g) *Gaukler. — h) *Gaukelei. — i) Nomen proprium eines Fürsten. —

2) f. ī Thor- , Thürstehern [Priyadarśikā 7,15] ; vgl. [11,1.] Vgl. pratīhāra.

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):——

1) m. — a) = pratihāra 1)c) ([Atharvaveda 11,7,12]) — b) = pratihāra 1)*e) — c) = pratihāra 1)f) (Statue eines Thorhüters [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhatsaṃhitā 56,11]). — d) *ein best. Bündniss ; richtig pratīkāra. — e) *Nomen proprium eines fürstlichen Geschlechts. —

2) f. ī Thorsteherin [Bālarāmāyaṇa 63,14.fgg.183,22.]

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Prātihāra (प्रातिहार):—und ka m. Taschenspieler , Gaukler.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratihara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) [Also spelled pratihar]:—(nm) a gatekeeper; watchman.

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