Pratihara, Pratīhāra, Pratihārā, Prātihāra: 12 definitions


Pratihara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratihara in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A King born of the race of Bharata. Pratīhāra was the son of Parameṣṭhī and the father of Pratihartā. (Chapter 1, Aṃśa 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A door-keeper of the king's palace; Kālanemi's arrival is announced to Tāraka by the door-keeper kneeling and with mouth shut by his hand;1 Vīraka for Śiva;2 characteristics of; skilled, of good personality, speaking agreeably, and not overbearing.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 154. 1, 4.
  • 2) Ib. 154. 383, 386.
  • 3) Ib. 215. 11.

1b) Of the family of Parameṣṭhi.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 65; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 36.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Studies in Kautilya Vocabulary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) refers to a type of profession mentioned in the Śukranītisāra 2.128-188.—The Śukranītisāra is a Sanskrit work on ethics by Śukrācārya comprised of four chapters. The second chapter (uvarājādikṛtya, “the duties of the royal princes and the like”) describes a large number of varied topics, eg., it contains observations on the ministers, priests, sacive, treasury, a large number of officers and employees (such as a Pratihāra).

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार) in general means an official employed in the king’s palace in charge of the court procedure and royal audience. He might be the door keeper of the royal palace, or any important chambers of the king. It seems that the pratīhāras served not only as door keepers but also as important sāmantas.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—Excessive contact with the sound-producing organ which is looked upon as a fault; cf. वर्गेषु जिह्वाप्रथनं चतुर्षु ग्रासो मुख्ये प्रतिहारश्चतुर्थे । चतुर्थे वर्गे (vargeṣu jihvāprathanaṃ caturṣu grāso mukhye pratihāraścaturthe | caturthe varge) (तवर्गे (tavarge)) प्रतिहारः अतिप्रयत्नो नाम दोषो भवति । (pratihāraḥ atiprayatno nāma doṣo bhavati |) Uvvata on R. Pr.XIV.7.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Pratihara refers to one of the thirty-six Rajput clans, according to various inscriptions and literature. They are possible part Padmanabha list, who compiled the 15th-century Kanhadadeprabandha, a work describing the Muslim invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD. The kingdom or dynasty of the Pratiharas had their own princes and nobles and were further separated into sub-clans and families. Their name can also be spelled as Pratihārā.

The Rajputs are a Hindu race claiming to be descendants of the ancient Kṣatriya-varṇa (warrior caste). Originally, the Rajputs consisted of two principal branches: the Sūryavaṃśa (solar race) and the Candravaṃśa (lunar race), to which later was added the Agnivaṃśa (fire-born race).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pratihāra or Pratīhāra.—(EI 23; BL), also called Pratihārin (EI 3, 23), ‘a door-keeper’; but cf. Mahāpratihāra who was a high officer; officer in charge of the defence of the royal palace or bed-chamber or the head of the guards of the city gate; a chamberlain or inditer of grants, according to some (HD); personal attendant of a king, according to others (CII; 4). See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 73; Vol. IX, p. 192; Bṛhaspati quoted by Viśvarūpa on the Yājñavalkyasmṛti, I. 307 (for his qualifications); Mahābhārata, Ādiparvan, 85. 28-29; Viṣṇudharmottara, II. 24. 12; Śukra, I. 121. Cf. Antaḥ-pratīhāra (IE 8-3), Rajju-pratihāra. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pratihāra.—(IE 8-5), levy for the maintenance of the door- keepers of the city gates; cf. pratihāra-prastha. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratihara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) or Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—

1) Striking back.

2) A door, gate.

3) A porter, door-keeper; आर्य अदेशकालः प्रतीहारस्य (ārya adeśakālaḥ pratīhārasya) Svapna. 5,6.

4) A juggler.

5) Juggling, a juggling trick.

6) (In gram.) The hard contact of the tongue with the edge of the teeth in pronouncing dental letters.

7) Intimating arrival (āgamananivedana); संप्राप्यैते महात्मानो राघवस्य निवेशनम् । विष्ठिताः प्रतिहारार्थम् (saṃprāpyaite mahātmāno rāghavasya niveśanam | viṣṭhitāḥ pratihārārtham) Rām.7.1.7; see प्रतिहारण (pratihāraṇa).

-rī A female doorkeeper.

Derivable forms: pratihāraḥ (प्रतिहारः), pratīhāraḥ (प्रतीहारः).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—&c. See प्रतिवेश (prativeśa) &c.

See also (synonyms): pratīveśa, pratīhāsa.

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Prātihāra (प्रातिहार).—A juggler, conjurer.

Derivable forms: prātihāraḥ (प्रातिहारः).

See also (synonyms): pratihāraka, prātihārika.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A door-keeper. 3. A Juggler. 4. Trick, disguise. E. prati against, hṛ to take, aff. ghañ .

Pratihāra can also be spelled as Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—m. (raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A porter, a warder. 3. An agreement for return of assistance, alliance, confederacy. f. (-rī) A female door-keeper; (though this word is a feminine in form, is not necessarly so in sense.) E. prati severally, mutually, hṛ to convey, aff. ghañ; also pratihāra .

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Prātihara (प्रातिहर).—m.

(-raḥ) A juggler. E. pratihāra the same, and aṇ pleonastic: see the next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—[masculine] striking against, pushing back; door, gate (which keeps off), porter ([feminine] ī).

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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—[masculine] ī [feminine] door-keeper, porter.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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