Pratihara, Pratīhāra, Pratihārā, Prātihāra: 19 definitions
Pratihara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Pratihar.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A King born of the race of Bharata. Pratīhāra was the son of Parameṣṭhī and the father of Pratihartā. (Chapter 1, Aṃśa 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—A door-keeper of the king's palace; Kālanemi's arrival is announced to Tāraka by the door-keeper kneeling and with mouth shut by his hand;1 Vīraka for Śiva;2 characteristics of; skilled, of good personality, speaking agreeably, and not overbearing.3
1b) Of the family of Parameṣṭhi.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 65; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 36.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: archive.org: Studies in Kautilya Vocabulary
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) refers to a type of profession mentioned in the Śukranītisāra 2.128-188.—The Śukranītisāra is a Sanskrit work on ethics by Śukrācārya comprised of four chapters. The second chapter (uvarājādikṛtya, “the duties of the royal princes and the like”) describes a large number of varied topics, eg., it contains observations on the ministers, priests, sacive, treasury, a large number of officers and employees (such as a Pratihāra).Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)
Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार) in general means an official employed in the king’s palace in charge of the court procedure and royal audience. He might be the door keeper of the royal palace, or any important chambers of the king. It seems that the pratīhāras served not only as door keepers but also as important sāmantas.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—Excessive contact with the sound-producing organ which is looked upon as a fault; cf. वर्गेषु जिह्वाप्रथनं चतुर्षु ग्रासो मुख्ये प्रतिहारश्चतुर्थे । चतुर्थे वर्गे (vargeṣu jihvāprathanaṃ caturṣu grāso mukhye pratihāraścaturthe | caturthe varge) (तवर्गे (tavarge)) प्रतिहारः अतिप्रयत्नो नाम दोषो भवति । (pratihāraḥ atiprayatno nāma doṣo bhavati |) Uvvata on R. Pr.XIV.7.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)
Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार) or “door-keeper” refers to a certain class of personalities which follows specific guidelines in the tradition of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the rules of Painting of different classes [e.g., pratīhāra—“door-keepers”] have been elaborately discussed. Like cloths, accessories of different character also vary in their pictures. The picture of a pratīhāra i.e., door keeper should be adorned with a staff in his hand and a sword hanging along his side. In Bānabhatta’s Kādambarī, a reference of holding golden stick by door keeper is found which corroborates with the idea of the picture of a door keeper as narrated in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
India history and geographySource: Wisdom Library: India History
Pratihara refers to one of the thirty-six Rajput clans, according to various inscriptions and literature. They are possible part Padmanabha list, who compiled the 15th-century Kanhadadeprabandha, a work describing the Muslim invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD. The kingdom or dynasty of the Pratiharas had their own princes and nobles and were further separated into sub-clans and families. Their name can also be spelled as Pratihārā.
The Rajputs are a Hindu race claiming to be descendants of the ancient Kṣatriya-varṇa (warrior caste). Originally, the Rajputs consisted of two principal branches: the Sūryavaṃśa (solar race) and the Candravaṃśa (lunar race), to which later was added the Agnivaṃśa (fire-born race).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Pratihāra or Pratīhāra.—(EI 23; BL), also called Pratihārin (EI 3, 23), ‘a door-keeper’; but cf. Mahāpratihāra who was a high officer; officer in charge of the defence of the royal palace or bed-chamber or the head of the guards of the city gate; a chamberlain or inditer of grants, according to some (HD); personal attendant of a king, according to others (CII; 4). See Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 73; Vol. IX, p. 192; Bṛhaspati quoted by Viśvarūpa on the Yājñavalkyasmṛti, I. 307 (for his qualifications); Mahābhārata, Ādiparvan, 85. 28-29; Viṣṇudharmottara, II. 24. 12; Śukra, I. 121. Cf. Antaḥ-pratīhāra (IE 8-3), Rajju-pratihāra. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Pratihāra.—(IE 8-5), levy for the maintenance of the door- keepers of the city gates; cf. pratihāra-prastha. Note: pratihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) or Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—
1) Striking back.
2) A door, gate.
3) A porter, door-keeper; आर्य अदेशकालः प्रतीहारस्य (ārya adeśakālaḥ pratīhārasya) Svapna. 5,6.
4) A juggler.
5) Juggling, a juggling trick.
6) (In gram.) The hard contact of the tongue with the edge of the teeth in pronouncing dental letters.
7) Intimating arrival (āgamananivedana); संप्राप्यैते महात्मानो राघवस्य निवेशनम् । विष्ठिताः प्रतिहारार्थम् (saṃprāpyaite mahātmāno rāghavasya niveśanam | viṣṭhitāḥ pratihārārtham) Rām.7.1.7; see प्रतिहारण (pratihāraṇa).
-rī A female doorkeeper.
Derivable forms: pratihāraḥ (प्रतिहारः), pratīhāraḥ (प्रतीहारः).
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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—&c. See प्रतिवेश (prativeśa) &c.
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Prātihāra (प्रातिहार).—A juggler, conjurer.
Derivable forms: prātihāraḥ (प्रातिहारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A door-keeper. 3. A Juggler. 4. Trick, disguise. E. prati against, hṛ to take, aff. ghañ .
Pratihāra can also be spelled as Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).
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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—m. (raḥ) 1. A door. 2. A porter, a warder. 3. An agreement for return of assistance, alliance, confederacy. f. (-rī) A female door-keeper; (though this word is a feminine in form, is not necessarly so in sense.) E. prati severally, mutually, hṛ to convey, aff. ghañ; also pratihāra .
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(-raḥ) A juggler. E. pratihāra the same, and aṇ pleonastic: see the next.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—pratīhāra, i. e. prati-hṛ + a, I. m. 1. A door. 2. A door-keeper, [Hitopadeśa] 89, 2 (ī); a chamberlain, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 18, 194 (ī). 3. A juggler. Ii. f. rī, A female doorkeeper, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 25, 1.
Pratihāra can also be spelled as Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).
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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—see pratihº.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार).—[masculine] striking against, pushing back; door, gate (which keeps off), porter ([feminine] ī).
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Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार).—[masculine] ī [feminine] door-keeper, porter.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—[=prati-hāra] [from prati-hṛ] m. striking against, touch, contact ([especially] of the tongue with the teeth in the pronunciation of the dentals), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]
2) [v.s. ...] shutting, closing, stopping (a-pr), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] Name of [particular] syllables in the Sāman hymns (with which the Pratihartṛ begins to join in singing, generally at the beginning of the last Pada of a stanza; also pratī-h, [Atharva-veda; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa]), [Brāhmaṇa; ???] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] magical formula spoken over weapons, [Rāmāyaṇa] ([varia lectio] ra-tara)
5) [v.s. ...] (that which keeps back), a door, gate (also pratī-h, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. [compound] below)
6) [v.s. ...] a door-keeper, porter, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc. (also pratī-h; [dual number] two d°-k° id est. two statues at the entrance of a temple, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]; f(ī). a female d°-k°, portress, [Priyadarśikā])
7) [v.s. ...] a juggler, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] juggling, trick, disguise, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):—[=pratī-hāra] [from pratī] m. (in most meanings) = prati-hāra, q.v.
10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] alliance, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([wrong reading] for pratī-kāra above)
11) [v.s. ...] Name of a family of kings, [Catalogue(s)]
12) Prātihāra (प्रातिहार):—[=prāti-hāra] [from prāti] m. a juggler, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pratihāra (प्रतिहार):—[prati-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. A door; doorkeeper; juggler; trick.
2) Pratīhāra (प्रतीहार):—[pratī-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. A door; a porter; alliance. f. (rī)
3) Prātihara (प्रातिहर):—[prāti-hara] (raḥ) 1. m. A juggler.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Paḍihāra.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pratihāra (प्रतिहार) [Also spelled pratihar]:—(nm) a gatekeeper; watchman.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] an entrance; a door.
2) [noun] a man who guards the entrance of a building; a door-keeper.
3) [noun] (masc.) an entertainer who is skilled in producing illusion by sleight of hand, deceptive devices, etc.; a magician.
4) [noun] the art of producing illusions as entertainment by the use of sleight of hand, deceptive devices, etc.; magic.
5) [noun] name of particular syllables in the Sāma hymns (gen. at the beginning of the last line of a stanza).
6) [noun] (Dvaita phil.) Aniruddha, the deity at the outermost sheath or circle of the Supreme.
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1) [noun] a driving back; a causing to retreat; the act of repelling.
2) [noun] an entrance; a door.
3) [noun] a man who guards the entrance of a building; a door-keeper.
4) [noun] (masc.) an entertainer who is skilled in producing illusion by sleight of hand, deceptive devices, etc.; a magician.
5) [noun] the art of producing illusions as entertainment by the use of sleight of hand, deceptive devices, etc.; magic.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+3): Pratihara induraja, Pratihara-prastha, Pratiharabhashya, Pratiharabhumi, Pratiharadhuramdhara, Pratiharagoptri, Pratiharaka, Pratiharakapaksha, Pratiharaki, Pratiharam, Pratiharana, Pratiharapa, Pratiharapaksha, Pratihararakshi, Pratiharasutra, Pratiharata, Pratiharatara, Pratiharatva, Pratiharavant, Pratiharavat.
Full-text (+76): Pratiharaka, Pratiharika, Pratiharata, Padihara, Pratihararakshi, Pratiharatara, Pratiharam, Mahapratihara, Pratihari, Antahpratiharam, Pratiharabhumi, Dvipratihara, Pratiharatva, Pratiharadhuramdhara, Apratihara, Pratiharasutra, Pratiharavat, Pratiharapa, Pratiharagoptri, Pratihareti.
Search found 31 books and stories containing Pratihara, Prati-hara, Prati-hāra, Pratī-hāra, Prāti-hāra, Prāti-hara, Pratīhāra, Pratihārā, Pratihāra, Prātihāra, Prātihara; (plurals include: Pratiharas, haras, hāras, Pratīhāras, Pratihārās, Pratihāras, Prātihāras, Prātiharas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Impact of Vedic Culture on Society (by Kaushik Acharya)
Mingling of Cultures (K): The Gurjara Pratihāras < [Chapter 4]
Central Administration < [Chapter 5]
Council of Royal Officials < [Chapter 5]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Chandogya Upanishad (Shankara Bhashya) (by Ganganatha Jha)
Section 1.11 (eleventh khaṇḍa) (nine texts) < [Chapter 1 - First Adhyāya]
Section 2.4 (fourth khaṇḍa) (two texts) < [Chapter 2 - Second Adhyāya]
Section 2.3 (third khaṇḍa) (two texts) < [Chapter 2 - Second Adhyāya]
Harshacharita (socio-cultural Study) (by Mrs. Nandita Sarmah)
Part 3: Other Office Bearers of the Government < [Chapter 5 - Political Aspects]
Part 9.1: Infantry (padāti): < [Chapter 5 - Political Aspects]
Shaiva Upanishads (A Critical Study) (by Arpita Chakraborty)