The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Words denoting men and the four classes of men which is chapter 364 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 364 - Words denoting men and the four classes of men

[Full title: Words denoting men and the four classes of men (nṛ-brahman-kṣatra-viś-śūdra-varga)]

Fire-god said:

1. I shall describe the class of men [i.e., nṛ], brahmins [i.e., brahman], kṣatriyas [i.e., kṣatra], vaiśyas [i.e., viś] and śūdras. (The words) naraḥ [nara], pañcajanāḥ [pañcajanā/pañcajana], martyāḥ [martyā/martya] (denote men). (The words) yoṣit, yoṣā, abalā and vadhūḥ [vadhū] (denote a woman).

2. A person seeking a lover, going to the place indicated (by the lover) (is called) abhisārikā. (The words) kulaṭā, puṃścalī and asatī (mean a wanton woman). A nude woman (is called) koṭavī.

3. Kātyāyanī is middle-aged, (wears ochre garment and is without husband)[1]. One who lives in other’s house (is called) sairindhrī. (She is independent and proficient in hair dressing etc.).[2] Asiknī is not old (and serves the harem). Mālinī is a woman in her monthly course.

4. Vārastrī, gaṇikā and veśyā (mean a courtezan). Brothers’ wives are (mutually known as) yātaras. Husband’s sister (is known as) nanānda. (The descendants for seven generations are known as) sapiṇḍas and sanābhis

5. (Sisters born of the same womb are called) samānodaryaḥ [samānodarya], sodaryaḥ [sodarya], sagarbhyaḥ [sagarbhya] and sahajāḥ [sahajā]. (The words) sagotra, bāndhava, jñāti, bandhu, svaḥ and svajana are synonyms (denoting relatives belonging to the same clan).

6. (The words) dampatī, jampatī, bhāryāpatī and jāyāpatī (denote the husband and wife). (The outer skin of the embryo is known as) garbhāśaya, jarāyu and ulbam [ulba]. (The foetus is called) kalala, in the neuter.

7. (The words) garbha and bhrūṇa are synonyms denoting (the young one in the womb). (The words) klība, śaṇḍha (are used to denote) a eunuch. Uttānaśayā and ḍimbā would (mean a child that sucks milk from the mother’s breasts). Bāla (boy) (is known to be) māṇavaka:

8. (The words) picaṇḍila [piciṇḍila?] and bṛhatkukṣi [vṛhatkukṣi] (mean a person having a big belly). (The word) abhraṭa (is used to mean) a natanāsika (one having a flat nose). (A naturally deformed person is denoted by the words) vikalāṅga and apogoṇḍa [apogaṇḍa/pogaṇḍa?]. (The words) ārogyam [ārogya] (free from illness) would (also be known as) anāmayam [anāmaya].

9. (A deaf person is denoted by the words) eḍa and badhira. (The word) gaḍula (is used to denote) a hunch-back. (The word) kuni (is used to denote) a person having a maimed hand. (The words) kṣaya, śoṣa and yakṣmā (mean consumption). Pratiśyāya and pīnasa (catarrh) (are synonyms).

10. Kṣut, kṣutam [kṣuta] and kṣava (sneezing) (are synonyms). (The word) kṣut is feminine. (The words) kāsa and kṣavathu (meaning cough) are both masculine. Śotha (swelling) is also known as śvayathu and śopha. Pādasphoṭa (sore on the foot) (is also known as) vipādikā.

11. Kilāsam [kilāsa] and sidhmam [sidhma] (scab) are synonyms. Pāma, pāmā and vicarcikā (are used to mean) kacchū (scab). (The words) koṭha, maṇḍalakam [maṇḍalaka], kuṣṭham [kuṣṭha] and śvitram [śvitra] (white leprosy) (are synonyms). Arśas (piles) (is also known as) durnāmakam [durnāmaka].

12. (The words) ānāha and nibandha (denote suppression of urine and feces). Grahaṇīruk and pravāhikā (denote diarhoea). (The words) bījam [bīja], vīryam [vīrya], indriyam [indriya] and śuklam [śukla] (mean semen). (The words) palalam [palala], kravyam [kravya] and āmiṣam [āmiṣa] (denote flesh).

13. Bukkā and agramāṃsam [agramāṃsa] (denote the lotus-shaped flesh in the heart). Hṛdayam [hṛdaya] and hṛt (heart) are synonyms. Vapā and vasā (denote the marrow of the flesh). The artery on the back of the neck (is known as) manyā. (The words) nāḍī, dhamani and śirā (artery) (are synonyms).

14-15. Tilakam [tilaka] and kloma (denote lump of flesh). Mastiṣkam [mastiṣka] (is the fluid on the fore-head). Dūṣikā (denotes) the rheum of the eyes. Antra (intestine) (is also known as) purītat. Plīhā and gulma (spleen) (are synonyms). (The words) vasnasā (in the masculine) and snāyu (in the feminine) (denote tendon). Kālakhaṇḍam [kālakhaṇḍa] and yakṛt are synonyms (denoting liver). Karpara and kapāla (denote skull), kapālam [kapāla] in the neuter. Bones (are in general denoted by the words) kīkasam [kīkasa], kulyam [kulya] and asthi.

16. (The word) kaṅkāla (denotes) skeleton in the body. (The word) kaśeruka (denotes) back-bone. The skull-bone (is called) karoṭi, in the feminine. (The word) parśukā denotes the bones on the sides (of the body).

17. The limbs of the body (are denoted by the words) aṅgam [aṅga], pratīka and avayava. (The words) śarīram [śarīra], varṣma and vigraha (denote a body). Śroṇiphalakam [śroṇiphalaka] (buttocks) (is also called) kaṭa (and that word is) masculine. Kaṭi, śroṇi and kakudmatī (hip) (are synonyms).

18. The hinder part of the waist of women (is known as) nitamba, in the neuter. The frontal part is jaghanam [jaghana]. The kūpakas (hollows below the loins) are in the nitamba. (The word is used) in the neuter. (The hollows above the loins are called) kukundaras.

19. The fleshy portions in the hip are called) sphicau (sphic) and kaṭiprothau [kaṭiprotha?]. (The organ of generation of woman is called) upastha (because that is near) the two which are to be described now. In the case of women it is (called) bhagam [bhaga] and yoni. Śiśna, medhra, mehanam [mehana] and śepha (denote penis).

20. (The words) picaṇḍa, kukṣi, jaṭharam [jaṭhara], udaram [udara] and tundam [tunda] (denote belly). Stana and kuca (mean breast). Cūcuka is the tip of breast. (The words) kroḍam [kroḍa] and bhujāntaram [bhujāntara] denote chest. The word kroḍam [kroḍa] is not masculine.

21. Skandha, bhujaśiras and aṃsa denote shoulder. (The junction of shoulder is known as) jatru. (Nail is denoted by the words) punarbhava, kararuha, nakhara and nakha (used) not in feminine.

22. Prādeśikā is the span of the thumb and the forefinger. Tālā is the span of the thumb and the middle finger. Gokarṇa is the span of the thumb and the ring finger. The span of the thumb and the little finger is vitasti measuring twelve finger breadths.

23. The open hand with the fingers extended (is called) capeṭa, pratala and prahasta. Ratni (is the distance) from elbow to the end of closed fist. Aratni (is the distance) from elbow to the end of little finger.

24. Neck with three lines (is called) kambugrīvā. (The words) avaṭu, ghāṭā and vṛkāṭikā [kṛkāṭikā?] (denote the backside of the union of head and neck). Cibuka (chin) is below the lips, then the two gaṇḍas (cheeks), the throat and chin.

25-26. The outer ends of eyes are (called) apāṅgas. Kaṭākṣa (is used to denote) the look with apāṅga. (The words) cikura, kuntala and vāla (denote hair). (The words) pratikarma, prasādhanam [prasādhana], ākalya, veṣa and nepothyam [nepothya] (denote) beautification. It is perceivable and is produced by union with a play. Cūḍāmaṇi is the crest-jewel. The central gem in a necklace (is called) tarala.

27. (The ear-ornament is called) karṇikā and tālapatra. Lambanam [lambana] or lalantīkā (denote) a long necklace. (The words) mañjīra and nūpura (denote the anklet) on the foot. Kiṅkiṇī and kṣudraghaṇṭikā (denote a small bell).

28. (The words) dairghyam [dairghya], āyāma and āroha (are used to denote the length of a cloth etc.). (The words) pariṇāha and viśālatā (denote the width). Paṭaccaram [paṭaccara] (denotes)a rag. Saṃvyānam [saṃvyāna] (is the cloth worn) on the shoulder.

29. (The words) racanā and parisyanda [parispanda?] (denote the arrangement of flowers etc.). (The words) ābhoga and paripūrṇatā (denote the fulfilling of all services). Samudgaka and sampuṭaka (mean a casket). (The words) pratigraha and patadgraha (mean a spitoon).

Footnotes and references:


The purāṇa omits the other characteristics. See Amara paṅkti II08.


Cf. Amara paṅkti 1109.

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