Prakara, Prākāra: 15 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Prakara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Prakāra (प्रकार).—(l) attribute, attribute which differentiates, manner, difference; differentiating description: cf. कंचि-त्प्रकारं प्राप्तः इत्थंभूतः (kaṃci-tprakāraṃ prāptaḥ itthaṃbhūtaḥ) Kas. on P.II.3.21: (2) resemblance, similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency: cf. प्रकारे गुणवचनस्य । प्रक्रारो भेदः सादृश्यं च। तदिह सादृश्यं प्रकारो गृह्यते । प्रकारे वर्तमानस्य गुणवचनशब्दस्य द्वे भवतः । पटुपटुः मृदुमृदुः । अपरिपूर्णगुण इत्यर्थः । परि-पूर्णगुणेन न्यूनगुणस्य उपमाने सत्येवं प्रयुज्यते (prakāre guṇavacanasya | prakrāro bhedaḥ sādṛśyaṃ ca| tadiha sādṛśyaṃ prakāro gṛhyate | prakāre vartamānasya guṇavacanaśabdasya dve bhavataḥ | paṭupaṭuḥ mṛdumṛduḥ | aparipūrṇaguṇa ityarthaḥ | pari-pūrṇaguṇena nyūnaguṇasya upamāne satyevaṃ prayujyate) Kas. on P. VIII.1.12; (3) differentiating attribute; cf. प्रकारवचने थाल् (prakāravacane thāl) V. 3.23, प्रकारवचने जातीयर् (prakāravacane jātīyar) V. 3.69, स्यूलादिभ्यः प्रकारवचने कन् (syūlādibhyaḥ prakāravacane kan) V. 4.3 where Kasika defines the word प्रकार (prakāra) as सामान्यस्य भेदको विशेषः प्रकारः (sāmānyasya bhedako viśeṣaḥ prakāraḥ) Ka, on V. 3.23 and 69; (4) type, cf. इतिशब्दः प्रकारार्थः (itiśabdaḥ prakārārthaḥ) Kas. on V. 2.93: cf. also अदिशब्दः प्रकारे (adiśabdaḥ prakāre) Kas. on देवपथादिभ्यश्च (devapathādibhyaśca) P.V.3.100; cf also आदिइाब्दः प्रकारे वर्तते । देवदत्तादय आढ्याः । देवदत्तप्रकारा इत्यर्थः (ādiiाbdaḥ prakāre vartate | devadattādaya āḍhyāḥ | devadattaprakārā ityarthaḥ) M.Bh. on I.3.1 Vart. 11.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Prākāra (प्राकार) is an enclosure wall built around the building. It may be a temple, a palace or any other similar important structure, prākāra for a building may be more than one in number. They will be generally concentric in nature. Prākāra, according to Mānasāra, is an enclosure, wall, fence, rampart or a surrounding wall. The uses of prākāra, according to Mānasāra, are many. They are built for strength- (bala), for accommodating deities (parivāra), for beauty (śobha) and for defence (rakṣaṇa). The prākāras up to five are mentioned in Mānasāra and Mayamata.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Prakāra (प्रकार, “variety”) refers to one of the five cause of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the number of syllables in the metre of a dhruvā constitute its class (jāti). Such numbers being odd or even, will give rise to its variety (prakāra)”.

2) Prakāra (जाति) refers to a set of twenty rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the eighteen prakāras connected with the eighteen jātis:

  1. Citra,
  2. Sama,
  3. Vibhakta,
  4. Chinna,
  5. Chinnaviddha,
  6. Viddha,
  7. Anuviddha,
  8. Svarūpānugata,
  9. Anusṛta,
  10. Vicyuta,
  11. Durga,
  12. Avakīrṇa,
  13. Ardhāvakīrnā,
  14. Ekarūpa,
  15. Parikṣipta,
  16. Sācīkṛta,
  17. Samalekha,
  18. Citralekha,
  19. Sarvasamavāya,
  20. Dṛḍha

These different prakāras of the playing of drums, should be taken up to follow movements and songs, after considering the Sentiments and the States involved. Prakāras and jātis apply to all mārgas. But in movements they are to be in their pure forms.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Prakara (प्रकर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the high walls surrounding the temple grounds.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prakāra (प्रकार).—m (S) Sort, kind, species. 2 Manner, mode, way. Pr. ēka gahūṃ pra0 bahu. 3 In arithmetic &c. A case. pra0 karaṇēṃ g. of o. & pl To tease or distress in various ways.

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prākāra (प्राकार).—m S An enclosure, a fence, a surrounding wall.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prakāra (प्रकार).—m Sort, kind. Manoer, made. prakāra karaṇēṃ To tease in various ways.

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prākāra (प्राकार).—m An enclosure, a surrounding wall.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prakara (प्रकर).—

1) A heap, multitude, quantity, collection; मुक्ताफलप्रकरभाञ्जि गुहागृहाणि (muktāphalaprakarabhāñji guhāgṛhāṇi) Śi.5.12; बाष्पप्रकरकलुषां दृष्टिम् (bāṣpaprakarakaluṣāṃ dṛṣṭim) Ś.6.9; R.9.56; Ku.5.68.

2) A nosegay, bunch of flowers.

3) Aid, assistance, friendship.

4) Usage, practice.

5) Respect.

6) Seduction, abduction.

7) Washing, cleansing (saṃkṣālana); अत्रामत्रप्रकरकरणे वर्ततेऽसौ नियुक्तः (atrāmatraprakarakaraṇe vartate'sau niyuktaḥ) Viś. Guṇa.154.

-ram Aloe-wood.

Derivable forms: prakaraḥ (प्रकरः).

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Prakāra (प्रकार).—

1) Manner, mode, way, fashion; कः प्रकारः किमेतत् (kaḥ prakāraḥ kimetat) Māl.5.2.

2) Sort, kind, variety, species; oft. in comp.; बहुप्रकार (bahuprakāra) manifold; त्रिप्रकार, नाना° (triprakāra, nānā°) &c.

3) Similitude.

4) Speciality, special property or quality; तद्वतितत्प्रकारकोऽनुभवः प्रमा (tadvatitatprakārako'nubhavaḥ pramā) T. S.

5) Difference.

Derivable forms: prakāraḥ (प्रकारः).

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Prākāra (प्राकार).—

1) A fence, a wall, an enclosure.

2) An encircling or surrounding wall, rampart; द्वितीयं हेमप्राकारं कुर्वद्भिरिव वानरैः (dvitīyaṃ hemaprākāraṃ kurvadbhiriva vānaraiḥ) R.12.71; Pt.1.229.

Derivable forms: prākāraḥ (प्राकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Prakāra (प्रकार).—(?) in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 146.5 (verse) puṣpaiḥ (so all mss., KN em. puṣpa-, kept by WT without note) prakāraiḥ sama- laṃkṛtaṃ ca; according to Tibetan adorned with many flowers (me tog maṅ pos). On the face of the reading of the mss. and the Tibetan rendering, prakāra should be an adj., many; it is otherwise known only as a noun, kind, sort. KN's em. hardly helps; with kinds of flowers could not, so far as I know, serve as a substitute for with many kinds…; for this we should expect bahu-, nānā-, or the like, modifying prakāra. I have thought of reading pravāraiḥ, taking it as = pravaraiḥ, excellent, with ā for a m.c.; but Tibetan does not support this.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prakara (प्रकर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who or what does much or well. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A heap a, quantity. 2. A bundle of flowers, a nosegay. 3. Aid, assistance, friendship. 4. Usage, custom, continuance of a similar practice. 5. Respect. 6. Seduction, abduction. n.

(-raṃ) Aloe wood, (Agallochum.) f. (-rī) 1. Theatrical dress or disguise, as wearing a woman’s garb, &c. 2. An episodical incident in a drama. 3. An open piece of ground, the meeting of four roads, or the proper scite of any magical operations. E. pra before kṛ to make, aff. ap .

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Prakāra (प्रकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Difference. 2. Similitude. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Sort, kind, species. 2. Way, mode, manner. 3. Property, quality, speciality, E. pra before, kṛ to do, aff. ghañ .

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Prākāra (प्राकार).—m.

(-raḥ) An inclosure, a fence, a rampart, particularly a surrounding wall, &c. elevated on a mound of earth. E. pra and āṅ implying initial, first, kṛ to make, aff. ghañ; otherwise the prefix is considered as pra only, the vowel being made long by the affix being ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prakara (प्रकर).—i. e. pra-kṛ̆ + a, I. m. 1. A heap, a quantity, plenty, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 136. 2. Aid. 3. Custom, use. Ii. n. Aloe-wood. Iii. f. . 1. A kind of song, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 113. 2. A short interlude in a drama.

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Prakāra (प्रकार).—i. e. pra-kṛ + a, m. 1. Kind, Mahābhārata 1, 7412; species, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 2. 2. Speciality, Bhāṣāp. 134. 3. Way, manner, [Pañcatantra] 199, 20.

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Prākāra (प्राकार).—i. e. pra-kṛ + a + a, m. An inclosure, a surrounding wall, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 48; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 197, 17; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 289.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prakara (प्रकर).—[masculine] heap, multitude.

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Prakāra (प्रकार).—[masculine] manner, way, sort, kind; °— adj. like, -fold, [abstract] tva [neuter]

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Prākāra (प्राकार).—[masculine] encircling wall, rampart.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prakara (प्रकर):—[=pra-kara] 1a etc. See pra-√kṛ.

2) [v.s. ...] 2a See pra-√kṝ, p.654.

3) Prakāra (प्रकार):—[=pra-kāra] a etc. See pra-√kṛ.

4) Prakara (प्रकर):—[=pra-kara] [from pra-kṛ] 1b mf(ī)n. (for 2. See pra-kṝ) doing much or well, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] m. aid, friendship, [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] usage, custom, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] respect, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] seduction, [ib.]

9) Prakāra (प्रकार):—[=pra-kāra] [from pra-kṛ] b m. sort, kind, nature, class, species, way, mode, manner, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya; Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] kena prakāreṇa, in what way? how? [Pañcatantra]

11) [v.s. ...] raiḥ, in one way or another, [Rāmāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] rāmāyaṇasya bhāratasya vā prakāraḥ, a kind of [Rāmāyaṇa] or, [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī] (mostly ifc. mfn.; cf. tri- ‘of three kinds’, nānā-, bahu-)

13) [v.s. ...] similitude or difference, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Prakara (प्रकर):—[from pra-kṝ] 2b m. (for 1. See pra-kṛ) a scattered heap, heap, multitude, quantity, plenty, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] a nosegay, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [from pra-kṝ] n. aloe wood, Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) Prākāra (प्राकार):—[=prā-kāra] [from prā] a See sub voce

18) Prākara (प्राकर):—m. Name of a son of Dyutimat, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

19) n. Name of a Varṣa called after Prākara, [ib.] ([varia lectio] pīvara, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa])

20) Prākāra (प्राकार):—[=prā-kāra] b m. ([from] prā for pra and √1. kṝ; cf. [Pāṇini 6-3, 122], [vArttika] 1, [Patañjali]) a wall, enclosure, fence, rampart ([especially] a surrounding wall elevated on a mound of earth; ifc. f(ā). ), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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