Prakara, Prākāra: 21 definitions
Prakara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Prakāra (प्रकार).—(l) attribute, attribute which differentiates, manner, difference; differentiating description: cf. कंचि-त्प्रकारं प्राप्तः इत्थंभूतः (kaṃci-tprakāraṃ prāptaḥ itthaṃbhūtaḥ) Kas. on P.II.3.21: (2) resemblance, similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency: cf. प्रकारे गुणवचनस्य । प्रक्रारो भेदः सादृश्यं च। तदिह सादृश्यं प्रकारो गृह्यते । प्रकारे वर्तमानस्य गुणवचनशब्दस्य द्वे भवतः । पटुपटुः मृदुमृदुः । अपरिपूर्णगुण इत्यर्थः । परि-पूर्णगुणेन न्यूनगुणस्य उपमाने सत्येवं प्रयुज्यते (prakāre guṇavacanasya | prakrāro bhedaḥ sādṛśyaṃ ca| tadiha sādṛśyaṃ prakāro gṛhyate | prakāre vartamānasya guṇavacanaśabdasya dve bhavataḥ | paṭupaṭuḥ mṛdumṛduḥ | aparipūrṇaguṇa ityarthaḥ | pari-pūrṇaguṇena nyūnaguṇasya upamāne satyevaṃ prayujyate) Kas. on P. VIII.1.12; (3) differentiating attribute; cf. प्रकारवचने थाल् (prakāravacane thāl) V. 3.23, प्रकारवचने जातीयर् (prakāravacane jātīyar) V. 3.69, स्यूलादिभ्यः प्रकारवचने कन् (syūlādibhyaḥ prakāravacane kan) V. 4.3 where Kasika defines the word प्रकार (prakāra) as सामान्यस्य भेदको विशेषः प्रकारः (sāmānyasya bhedako viśeṣaḥ prakāraḥ) Ka, on V. 3.23 and 69; (4) type, cf. इतिशब्दः प्रकारार्थः (itiśabdaḥ prakārārthaḥ) Kas. on V. 2.93: cf. also अदिशब्दः प्रकारे (adiśabdaḥ prakāre) Kas. on देवपथादिभ्यश्च (devapathādibhyaśca) P.V.3.100; cf also आदिइाब्दः प्रकारे वर्तते । देवदत्तादय आढ्याः । देवदत्तप्रकारा इत्यर्थः (ādiiाbdaḥ prakāre vartate | devadattādaya āḍhyāḥ | devadattaprakārā ityarthaḥ) M.Bh. on I.3.1 Vart. 11.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Prākāra (प्राकार) is an enclosure wall built around the building. It may be a temple, a palace or any other similar important structure, prākāra for a building may be more than one in number. They will be generally concentric in nature. Prākāra, according to Mānasāra, is an enclosure, wall, fence, rampart or a surrounding wall. The uses of prākāra, according to Mānasāra, are many. They are built for strength- (bala), for accommodating deities (parivāra), for beauty (śobha) and for defence (rakṣaṇa). The prākāras up to five are mentioned in Mānasāra and Mayamata.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Prākāra (प्राकार) refers to “enclosure, surrounding wall §§ 2.5, 24; 3.6; 4.33, 36; 5.1, 5, 12.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Prakāra (प्रकार, “variety”) refers to one of the five cause of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the number of syllables in the metre of a dhruvā constitute its class (jāti). Such numbers being odd or even, will give rise to its variety (prakāra)”.
The following are the eighteen prakāras connected with the eighteen jātis:
These different prakāras of the playing of drums, should be taken up to follow movements and songs, after considering the Sentiments and the States involved. Prakāras and jātis apply to all mārgas. But in movements they are to be in their pure forms.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Prākāra (प्राकार) refers to “enclosing walls”, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The mountain is said to be the body. The peak (of the mountain) is the head. Adorned with that, O goddess, (the Island of the Moon [i.e., Candradvīpa]) is adorned with a mountain peak. There, in the middle, (measuring a) finger-width that Stone (extends for) one hundred leagues. It has doors above and below and is adorned with Bhṛgu (Sa) (as its) arches. The enclosing walls (prākāra) there are Cchagalin (Ba), which, (enclosed) all around, is a square. [...]”.
2) Prākāra (प्राकार) refers to the “(golden) walls” (adorning the sacred seat of Oḍḍiyāna), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The venerable great lord of Oḍra resides in the cavity in the Middle Land. It is (Oḍḍiyāna) the first (sacred seat) and, yellow in colour, it has mountains, forests, and groves, large and small, and is adorned with golden walls [i.e., hema-prākāra-maṇḍita]. It has rivers and rivulets and many (other) things. It is full of all the seeds and is square all around. It has thunderbolts as door chains and Mālinī (who resides there) holds a thunderbolt (vajra) in her hand. Endowed with the sovereignty of the Wheels, it is the sacred seat (Udyāna) attended by the mistress of the sacred seat”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Prakara (प्रकर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the high walls surrounding the temple grounds.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Prākāra (प्राकार) might be taken as a derivate of prakāra, “sort”, to mean ādi, based on Prakrit pagāra (PH s.v.). This would be quite intelligible, but assumes that Hem. departed from his sources. This, of course, he may have done, but generally in such descriptions he follows the āgamas very closely. There is also the possibility (which also assumes that Hemacandra departed from his sources) that prākāra should be taken just as it is, with the idea of a fluted ball, or perhaps raised patterns could conceivably be called “prākāra”, which would fit, to some extent, the vicchitti of Hāribhadrīyāvaśyakavṛttiṭippaṇaka Muni Jayantavijayaji favors this idea.—(Cf. JAOS 52, p. 88)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
prakāra (प्रकार).—m (S) Sort, kind, species. 2 Manner, mode, way. Pr. ēka gahūṃ pra0 bahu. 3 In arithmetic &c. A case. pra0 karaṇēṃ g. of o. & pl To tease or distress in various ways.
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prākāra (प्राकार).—m S An enclosure, a fence, a surrounding wall.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
prakāra (प्रकार).—m Sort, kind. Manoer, made. prakāra karaṇēṃ To tease in various ways.
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prākāra (प्राकार).—m An enclosure, a surrounding wall.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A heap, multitude, quantity, collection; मुक्ताफलप्रकरभाञ्जि गुहागृहाणि (muktāphalaprakarabhāñji guhāgṛhāṇi) Śi.5.12; बाष्पप्रकरकलुषां दृष्टिम् (bāṣpaprakarakaluṣāṃ dṛṣṭim) Ś.6.9; R.9.56; Ku.5.68.
2) A nosegay, bunch of flowers.
3) Aid, assistance, friendship.
4) Usage, practice.
6) Seduction, abduction.
7) Washing, cleansing (saṃkṣālana); अत्रामत्रप्रकरकरणे वर्ततेऽसौ नियुक्तः (atrāmatraprakarakaraṇe vartate'sau niyuktaḥ) Viś. Guṇa.154.
Derivable forms: prakaraḥ (प्रकरः).
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1) Manner, mode, way, fashion; कः प्रकारः किमेतत् (kaḥ prakāraḥ kimetat) Māl.5.2.
2) Sort, kind, variety, species; oft. in comp.; बहुप्रकार (bahuprakāra) manifold; त्रिप्रकार, नाना° (triprakāra, nānā°) &c.
4) Speciality, special property or quality; तद्वतितत्प्रकारकोऽनुभवः प्रमा (tadvatitatprakārako'nubhavaḥ pramā) T. S.
Derivable forms: prakāraḥ (प्रकारः).
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1) A fence, a wall, an enclosure.
2) An encircling or surrounding wall, rampart; द्वितीयं हेमप्राकारं कुर्वद्भिरिव वानरैः (dvitīyaṃ hemaprākāraṃ kurvadbhiriva vānaraiḥ) R.12.71; Pt.1.229.
Derivable forms: prākāraḥ (प्राकारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Prakāra (प्रकार).—(?) in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 146.5 (verse) puṣpaiḥ (so all mss., KN em. puṣpa-, kept by WT without note) prakāraiḥ sama- laṃkṛtaṃ ca; according to Tibetan adorned with many flowers (me tog maṅ pos). On the face of the reading of the mss. and the Tibetan rendering, prakāra should be an adj., many; it is otherwise known only as a noun, kind, sort. KN's em. hardly helps; with kinds of flowers could not, so far as I know, serve as a substitute for with many kinds…; for this we should expect bahu-, nānā-, or the like, modifying prakāra. I have thought of reading pravāraiḥ, taking it as = pravaraiḥ, excellent, with ā for a m.c.; but Tibetan does not support this.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who or what does much or well. m.
(-raḥ) 1. A heap a, quantity. 2. A bundle of flowers, a nosegay. 3. Aid, assistance, friendship. 4. Usage, custom, continuance of a similar practice. 5. Respect. 6. Seduction, abduction. n.
(-raṃ) Aloe wood, (Agallochum.) f. (-rī) 1. Theatrical dress or disguise, as wearing a woman’s garb, &c. 2. An episodical incident in a drama. 3. An open piece of ground, the meeting of four roads, or the proper scite of any magical operations. E. pra before kṛ to make, aff. ap .
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(-raḥ) 1. Difference. 2. Similitude. n.
(-raṃ) 1. Sort, kind, species. 2. Way, mode, manner. 3. Property, quality, speciality, E. pra before, kṛ to do, aff. ghañ .
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(-raḥ) An inclosure, a fence, a rampart, particularly a surrounding wall, &c. elevated on a mound of earth. E. pra and āṅ implying initial, first, kṛ to make, aff. ghañ; otherwise the prefix is considered as pra only, the vowel being made long by the affix being ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Prakara (प्रकर).—i. e. pra-kṛ̆ + a, I. m. 1. A heap, a quantity, plenty, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 136. 2. Aid. 3. Custom, use. Ii. n. Aloe-wood. Iii. f. rī. 1. A kind of song, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 113. 2. A short interlude in a drama.
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Prakāra (प्रकार).—i. e. pra-kṛ + a, m. 1. Kind, Mahābhārata 1, 7412; species, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 2. 2. Speciality, Bhāṣāp. 134. 3. Way, manner, [Pañcatantra] 199, 20.
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Prākāra (प्राकार).—i. e. pra-kṛ + a + a, m. An inclosure, a surrounding wall, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 48; [Daśakumāracarita] in
Prakara (प्रकर).—[masculine] heap, multitude.
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Prakāra (प्रकार).—[masculine] manner, way, sort, kind; °— adj. like, -fold, [abstract] tva [neuter]
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Prākāra (प्राकार).—[masculine] encircling wall, rampart.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Prakara (प्रकर):—[=pra-kara] 1a etc. See pra-√kṛ.
2) [v.s. ...] 2a See pra-√kṝ, p.654.
3) Prakāra (प्रकार):—[=pra-kāra] a etc. See pra-√kṛ.
4) Prakara (प्रकर):—[=pra-kara] [from pra-kṛ] 1b mf(ī)n. (for 2. See pra-kṝ) doing much or well, [Horace H. Wilson]
5) [v.s. ...] m. aid, friendship, [ib.]
6) [v.s. ...] usage, custom, [ib.]
7) [v.s. ...] respect, [ib.]
8) [v.s. ...] seduction, [ib.]
9) Prakāra (प्रकार):—[=pra-kāra] [from pra-kṛ] b m. sort, kind, nature, class, species, way, mode, manner, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya; Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
10) [v.s. ...] kena prakāreṇa, in what way? how? [Pañcatantra]
11) [v.s. ...] raiḥ, in one way or another, [Rāmāyaṇa]
12) [v.s. ...] rāmāyaṇasya bhāratasya vā prakāraḥ, a kind of [Rāmāyaṇa] or, [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī] (mostly ifc. mfn.; cf. tri- ‘of three kinds’, nānā-, bahu-)
13) [v.s. ...] similitude or difference, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) Prakara (प्रकर):—[from pra-kṝ] 2b m. (for 1. See pra-kṛ) a scattered heap, heap, multitude, quantity, plenty, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
15) [v.s. ...] a nosegay, [Horace H. Wilson]
16) [from pra-kṝ] n. aloe wood, Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) Prākāra (प्राकार):—[=prā-kāra] [from prā] a See sub voce
18) Prākara (प्राकर):—m. Name of a son of Dyutimat, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
19) n. Name of a Varṣa called after Prākara, [ib.] ([varia lectio] pīvara, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa])
20) Prākāra (प्राकार):—[=prā-kāra] b m. ([from] prā for pra and √1. kṝ; cf. [Pāṇini 6-3, 122], [vArttika] 1, [Patañjali]) a wall, enclosure, fence, rampart ([especially] a surrounding wall elevated on a mound of earth; ifc. f(ā). ), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Prakara (प्रकर):—[pra-kara] (raḥ) 1. m. A heap; a nosegay; aid; usage; respect; seduction. f. Theatrical dress; open piece of ground; meeting of four roads; minor plot. n. Aloe wood a. Doing much or well.
2) Prakāra (प्रकार):—[pra-kāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Difference; similitude. n. Sort, kind; way, mode.
3) Prākāra (प्राकार):—[prā+kāra] (raḥ) 1. m. An inclosure, a fence.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Prakara (प्रकर) [Also spelled prakar]:—(nm) a circle (as of friends, associates, etc.); assembly.
2) Prakāra (प्रकार) [Also spelled prakar]:—(nm) kind; quality; mode, manner; way, method; type; pattern; -[bheda] difference in kind/quality/type; -[vidyā] typology.
3) Prākāra (प्राकार) [Also spelled prakar]:—(nm) a parapet; rampart.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a large number of people, animals or things collected at a place; a group; a multitude.
2) [noun] a bunch of flowers.
3) [noun] a myrrhlike gum resin of certain trees used as incense or in making incenses; bdellium.
4) [noun] the act of helping; an aid; an assistance; a help.
5) [noun] the act of using or the state of being used.
6) [noun] respect; regard.
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1) [noun] a way, mode or manner.
2) [noun] state or instance of being equal; equality.
3) [noun] a special quality, feature, point, characteristic, etc.; speciality.
4) [noun] condition, quality, fact or instance of being different; difference.
5) [noun] (phil.) a distinct or outstanding part, quality or characteristic of something.
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1) [noun] a barrier, as of wooden or thorny plants, metal posts, rails, wire mesh, etc., used as a boundary or means of protection or confinement; a fence.
2) [noun] a wall surrounding a building.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+10): Prakarabhanjana, Prakaradharani, Prakaragra, Prakaraka, Prakarakarna, Prakarakhanda, Prakaramardi, Prakaramardin, Prakaramtara, Prakaran, Prakarana, Prakaranagrantha, Prakaranapada, Prakaranapancika, Prakaranasama, Prakaranashas, Prakaranata, Prakaranatas, Prakaranatva, Prakaranavadartha.
Ends with (+77): Aghoramantrasadhanaprakara, Agnisamaropanaprakara, Ahananaprakara, Ajataprakara, Anasravaprakara, Anikaprakara, Aprakara, Aradhanaprakara, Aranyaprakara, Ashvatthasevanaprakara, Atmavidyaprakara, Aurvaprakara, Aushadhaprakara, Bahiprakara, Bahitprakara, Bahuprakara, Bashpaprakara, Bhedaprakara, Bhinnaprakara, Caulopanayanaprakara.
Full-text (+238): Payara, Pagara, Prakarata, Prakariya, Prakarika, Aprakara, Pramshuprakara, Prakarabhanjana, Prakaramardi, Prakaradharani, Prakarakhanda, Prakaramardin, Prakarashesha, Prakarakarna, Prakarastha, Bahuprakara, Prakaruka, Prakaraka, Prakaragra, Prakaravat.
Search found 29 books and stories containing Prakara, Prākāra, Prakāra, Pra-kara, Pra-kāra, Prā-kāra, Prākara; (plurals include: Prakaras, Prākāras, Prakāras, karas, kāras, Prākaras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
The Manasara < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Tiruvarur < [Chapter VIII - Temples of Uttama Chola’s Time]
Temples in Vriddhachalam < [Chapter VIII - Temples of Uttama Chola’s Time]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Tiruvarur < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
Temples in Tiruppainjili < [Aditya I]
Temples in Tiruvanaikkaval (Jambukesvaram) < [Aditya I]
Later Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Argal (Argalur) < [Chapter XII - Temples of Kulottunga III’s Time]
Temples in Srirangam < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Temples in Kanchipuram (Vishnu Kanchi) < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)