Cataka, Caṭaka, Cātaka: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Cataka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chataka.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands that indicate Flying Creatures.—Cātaka, the Lāṅgula hand fluttered.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Caṭaka (चटक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “tree sparrow”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Caṭaka is part of the sub-group named Pratuda, refering to animals “who eat while striking”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

The meat of the sparrow (caṭaka) is sweet, unctuous, promotes strength and semen, alleviates sannipāta, particularly vāta. The eggs of the Sparrow (caṭaka) are useful in diminished semen, cough, heart disease and injuries. They are sweet, bot cauising burning sensation and immediately strength-promoting.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Caṭaka (चटक) refers to a “sparrow”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “celestial” (khecara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as celestial (khecara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The celestial animals are [viz., caṭaka (a sparrow)].

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Cātaka (चातक) refers to a type of bird, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Sitā said to Śiva:—“[...] the most unbearable season of the advent of clouds (ghanāgama or jaladāgama) has arrived with clusters of clouds of diverse hues, and their music reverberating in the sky and the various quarters. [...] The sweet and delightful sounds of the Cātaka birds that are fond of clouds fall upon the way-farers like the arrows of rain-showers causing incessant pain. See the wickedness perpetrated by the clouds on my body. They are pelting it with hailstones. But they cover and protect the peacocks and Cātakas who are their followers”.

2) Cātaka (चातक) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Caṭakas] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Caṭaka (चटक) refers to the bird “Sparrow” (Passer domesticus).—Birds have been described in several ancient Sanskrit texts that they have been treated elaborately by eminent scholars. These birds [viz., Caṭaka] are enumerated in almost several Smṛtis in context of specifying the expiations for killing them and their flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites. These are elaborated especially in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [chapter VI], Gautamasmṛti [chapter 23], Śātātapasmṛti [II.54-56], Uśānasmṛti [IX.10-IX.12], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.172-I.175], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.28-51.29], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.16].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Caṭaka (चटक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Caṭakī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Caṭaka] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Cātaka (चातक) refers to the bird Cuculus melanoleucus (who, according to literary convention, subsists on rain-drops), according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, “[...] as soon as the Lord’s bath-water fell on the ground, with devotion it was seized by some, like rain by cātakas. ‘Where, pray, will we obtain that again?’ With this thought, some gods put the water on their heads like men in a desert. Some gods with eagerness sprinkled their bodies again and again, like elephants suffering from summer-heat”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

caṭaka : (m.) a sparrow. || cātaka (m.) a hornbill.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṭaka (चटक).—f ( H) A taste, taking to, penchant; an acquired liking or fondness. v lāga. 2 An ill-habit; a way or trick. 3 The anguish of separation and the longing for the return of. v lāva, lāga, basa.

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caṭakā (चटका).—m (cāṭaṇēṃ To graze; to take off the skin.) Glow, ardor, scorching heat (of the sun, fire, or a heated body), considered as catching or affecting: also the hot or acrid qualities of substances, as affecting the mouth or throat. v lāga. 2 The smart or sensation following upon a burn, or, to the tongue and palate, upon touching a thing sharp and biting. v basa. 3 The scar or mark of a burn. 4 A pang, thrill, sudden agony: (as affecting the mind.) v basa. 5 Covert and cutting speech; a reflection, sarcasm, taunt, fling, hit. v māra. 6 Care or concern about; anxious heedfulness or regard. Ex. cākara māṇasāsa cākarīcā caṭa- kā asāvā. 7 The pains of the absence of, and the longing for the return of. v lāva, lāga, basa. Ex. lōbha harīcā laṭakā lāvuni gēlā ca0; tō māḷī dāda- vyā kēlā || tō vihirīnta paḍūna mēlā || tyācēṃ kāṃhīṃ vāṭata nāhīṃ malā || sakhyācā ca0 lāgūna gēlā. 8 A brand with the cauterizing iron, esp. a small and slight one. v dē, lāva. Ex. nasatēci caṭakē lāvīta || śuddhāvari mūrkhatvēṃ ||. 9 Heating (gold) by applying bluestone &c. and throwing it into the fire. v . Also, by meton., the materials used in this operation. 10 A blow or loss (as in trade). v basa, lāga. 11 See caṭaka & carakā throughout.

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cātaka (चातक).—m (S) A bird, Cuculus melano-lucus. Fabled to drink only from the clouds, and therefore to be ever eagerly expectant of rain. Hence cātakanyāyēṃ karūna (After the law or according to the manner of the cātaka.) With eager expectation or with intense and strong desire--looking or waiting for.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caṭaka (चटक).—f A taste, taking to, penchant. An ill habit; a way or trick.

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caṭakā (चटका).—m Glow, ardour. The smart or sensation following upon a burn, or to the tongue and palate. A pang, thrill, sudden agony (as affecting the mind). Care or concern about.

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cātaka (चातक).—m A bird, Cuculus melano-lucus.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caṭaka (चटक).—A sparrow.

Derivable forms: caṭakaḥ (चटकः).

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Caṭakā (चटका).—

1) A hen-sparrow.

2) The root of long pepper.

See also (synonyms): caṭikā.

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Cātaka (चातक).—(- f.) [cat yācane kartari ṇvul] Name of a bird which is supposed to live only on rain-drops; सूक्ष्मा एव पतन्ति चातकमुखे द्वित्राः पयोबिन्दवः (sūkṣmā eva patanti cātakamukhe dvitrāḥ payobindavaḥ) Bh.2.121; see also 2.51 and R.5.17.

Derivable forms: cātakaḥ (चातकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cāṭaka (चाटक).—(?) , read probably cāṭuka (= Sanskrit cāṭu, and once cāṭuka, which in the passage cited in [Boehtlingk and Roth] may be an adj.; in Rājat. 1.213, cited in [Boehtlingk] s.v. cāṭu, for cāṭusīt- read [Page227-a+ 71] with Stein caṭasī-), agreeable, pleasant, approximate synonym of prekṣaṇīya: Gaṇḍavyūha 214.23, see s.v. carci (-gātra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṭaka (चटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A sparrow. f.

(-kā) 1. A hen-sparrow. 2. A young hensparrow. 3. The root of long pepper: see caṭakāśiras and caṭikā. E. caṭ to break, kvun affix, braking corn, &c. caṭati bhinatti dhānyādikam .

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Cātaka (चातक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A bird, a kind of cuckoo, (Cuculus melanoleucus.) E. cat to beg, affix karttari ṇvul; begging water from the clouds, the supposed sole source of the fluid which this bird drinks.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṭaka (चटक).—m. A sparrow, [Pañcatantra] 80, 5. f. , A hen-sparrow, [Pañcatantra] 80, 10.

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Cātaka (चातक).—m. A kind of cuckoo, Cuculus melanoleucus, supposed to drink only drops of rain, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 89.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṭaka (चटक).—[masculine] ā [feminine] a sparrow.

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Cātaka (चातक).—[masculine] the bird Cataka (supposed to live only upon rain drops).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Caṭaka (चटक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a poet and minister under Jayāpīḍa. Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 496.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caṭaka (चटक):—[from caṭ] m. a sparrow, [Mahābhārata xii; Harivaṃśa; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Pañcatantra]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a poet, [Rājataraṅgiṇī iv, 496]

3) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] ‘sparrows’, a nickname of Vaiśampāyana’s school ([varia lectio] for caraka), [Vāyu-purāṇa]

4) Caṭakā (चटका):—[from caṭaka > caṭ] a f. (gaṇas ajādi and kṣipakādi) a hen-sparrow, [Pañcatantra i, 15, 0/1; 18, 0/1]

5) [v.s. ...] a young hen-sparrow, [Pāṇini 4-1, 128], [vArttika] 2

6) [v.s. ...] Turdus macrourus (śyāmā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] = kā-śiras, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

8) [from caṭ] b f. of ka q.v.

9) Cātaka (चातक):—m. the bird Cucculus melanoleucus (said to subsist on rain-drops), [Śakuntalā vii, 7; Raghuvaṃśa xvii, 15; Meghadūta] etc.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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