Candra, aka: Cāndra, Candrā; 19 Definition(s)

Introduction

Candra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chandra.

In Hinduism

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets).—Candra: left hand–Solapadma, right hand–Patāka.

(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
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Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Ayurveda (science of life)

Candra (चन्द्र) is another name for Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. It can also be spelled as Kampilla (कम्पिल्ल).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Candra (चन्द्र, “shining”) refers to the moon, which is also known as soma or śiśira, amonst others. The corresponding day of the week is sunday (somavāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Purāṇa

1) Candra (चन्द्र).—Another name for Jaladhāra, which is one of the seven major mountains in Śākadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 86. Śākadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Medhātithi, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

2) Candrā (चन्द्रा) is another name for Hrādinī, one of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

Priyavrata is the son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1a) Candra (चन्द्र).—(personified) pointed out, in the Amṛtamathana, to Hari, Rāhu drinking nectar in the guise of a deva. Hence Rāhu is said to chase the moon in parvas. Fought with Rāhu in a Devāsura war.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 9. 24-26; 10. 31.

1b) The son of Viśvasandhi and father of Yuvanāśva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 6. 20.

1c) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Satyā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 13.

1d) A son of Bali.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 11.

1e) One of Danu's sons.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 8.

1f) The son of Nara and father of Kevala.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 41-2.

1g) The son of Hemacandra, and father of Dhūmrākṣa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 51-2.

1h) The moon who completes in two fortnights the circuit which the sun makes in a year. He is the life of all living beings and occupies each of the twenty-eight constellations for thirty muhūrtas (a day).1 Lord of plants, yajñas, vratas and tapas; not going near Rohini, a bad omen;2 the whitish dark spot in it appears like a śara;3 its maṇḍalam made of clouds and waters as of Sūrya; here is the sthāna of all deities, planets, etc., the size of the moon is twice that of the sun; is reckoned as Vasu in the Vaivasvata epoch;4 grows through the effulgence of the sun and is known as Idvatsara; has 15 kalas and not 16.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 10. 30; V. 22. 8-10.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 8. 2; 163. 41; 246. 57.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 77.
  • 4) Ib. 53. 55-62, 80.
  • 5) Ib. 56. 30-31.

1i) A mountain one of the seven mountains of Plakṣadvīpa touching the sea and medicinal plants gathered by the Aśvins for nectar.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 76; 19. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 7.

1j) A group of nāḍis of sun (fire) with enough light.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 29.

2a) Candrā (चन्द्रा).—A river in Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 42; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 28.

2b) A daughter of Vṛṣaparvan.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 22.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purāṇa book cover
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The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Pāñcarātra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Candra (चन्द्र) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Candranṛsiṃha or Candranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pāñcarātra book cover
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Pāñcarātra (पाञ्चरात्र, pancaratra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Nārāyaṇa is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaiṣnavism, the Pāñcarātra literature includes various Āgamas and tantras incorporating many Vaiṣnava philosophies.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Candra (चन्द्र, “monday”) corresponds with the moon and refers to the second of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. It is also known by the name Soma or Śaśi. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (eg., candra) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vāstuśāstra book cover
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Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Candra (चन्द्र) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., candra) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

1) candra or is a Sanskrit term meaning “the moon” or “shining”.

2) cāndra can mean “monday”, “lunar”, “light half of a month” or “lunar month”.

3) Candra (चन्द्र):—Son of Viśvagandhi (son of Pṛthu). He had a son named Yuvanāśva. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.6.20)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Chandra is said to have emerged from the sea of milk, when it was churned by both the Asuras and Devas. Due to his brilliant form he was given the status of a planet, one of the Navagrahas. He is considered one of the Devas. He is also referred to in the texts as Soma.

The Maarkandeya Purana makes Chandra to be the son of the sage Atri and his wife Anasuya, by the divine grace of Brahma. According to this story, the power of Brahma entered Atri and was born as Chandra to his wife.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Candra is said to be the son of Prabhākra (the Sun). He is also identified with the Vedic Soma. Soma = Amṛta the nectar of immortality which alludes to the nourishing, nurturing and invigorating influence of the Moon on all life forms. He is described as young, beautiful, fair; two- armed and having in his hands a club and a displaying the Varadā mudra, or holding 2 white lotuses.

(Source): Red Zambala: The Navagrahas — Planetary Deities

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Candra (चन्द्र) refers to the eleventh of the “fourteen world protectors” (caturdaśalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 10). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., caturdaśalokapāla and Candra). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Candra (चन्द्र, “moons”) refers to a class of “stellar celestial beings” (jyotiṣī), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Where does the moon revolve? The moon revolves 880 yojana above the earth (citrā) level. What is the duration of existence of moon? It is one pit-measured-period (palya) plus one hundred thousand years.

Stellar celestial beings (eg., Candra) are named after their vehicle which is endowed with shining light. These are called by the significant general name luminaries or stellar.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

India history and geogprahy

Xandremes was the Naga King Candra or Candramsha.—Candra was the greatest king of Naga dynasty. In fact, Naga King Candra was the author of the Iron Pillar inscription of Delhi. Historians mistakenly propounded that Candragupta II of Gupta dynasty was the author of this inscription. The strongest evidence is that the script of Iron Pillar does not match with the script of other inscriptions of Candragupta II. Moreover, the script of Iron Pillar is older than the script of Prayaga Prashasti of Samudragupta.

The script clearly indicates the older characters of box-headed script which was used in Vakataka inscriptions. Vakatakas were the successors of Naga Kings of Central India. Evidently, Candra, the author of Iron Pillar inscription was the Naga King and not Gupta King. In all probability, Chandra or Chandramsha was the King Xandrames as mentioned by Greek historians. Naga Kings were not belonged to any Kshatriya dynasty. They trace their mythical origin from Shesha Naga. The Gupta inscriptions indicate that Nagas were elevated to Kshatriya dynasty. This is the reason why Greek historians refer to the low origin of Xandrames.

(Source): academia.edu: Who was the Indian King Sandrokottus?

1) Candra is the name of a king from the Śilāhāra dynasty mentioned in the “Tālale plates of Gaṇḍarāditya”. Accordingly, “Nāyima’s son was named Candra, who greatly increased his royal fortune, who accumulated a mass of religious merit, who appeared lovely with his fame spread in the (whole) world, who was a vertable ocean of charity, praised by the learned and charming to eyes. Candra’s son, again, was king Jatiga (II), a great warrior, who commanded a troop of elephants”.

2) Candra or Candrarāja is the name of a king from the Śilāhāra dynasty, mentioned in the “Kolhāpur plates of Gaṇḍarāditya”. Accordingly, “There was a son of king Jatiga (I), Nāyimma by name. His son was Candrarāja, of great fame. To him, again, was born a son (named) Jatiga (II), praised by the people of the world”.

(Source): What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

candra (चंद्र).—m The moon.

--- OR ---

cāndra (चांद्र).—

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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