Patola, Paṭola: 25 definitions


Patola means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Paṭola (पटोल) is a Sanskrit word referring to Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd), from the Cucurbitaceae family. Certain plant parts of Paṭola are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. It is a perennial fruit similar to cucumber and squash. It is a dioecious (male and female plants) vine (creeper) plant with heart-shaped leaves (cordate) and is grown on a trellis. The fruits are green with white or no stripes. Size can vary from small and round to thick and long — 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 cm).

According to the Bhāvaprakāśa it has the following synonyms: Kulaka, Tikta, Pāṇḍuka, Karkaśacchada, Rājīphala, Pāṇḍuphalā, Rājeya, Amṛtaphala, Bījagarbha, Pratīka, Kuṣṭhahā and Kāsabhañjana. The Bhāvaprakāśa is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Ayurvedic work), this plant is mentioned as an effective agent in the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Bṛhatyādigaṇa group of medicinal drugs.

2) Paṭola (पटोल) can also refer to Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd), als from the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family. It is also known as Tiktapaṭolā. In english, other synonyms include “serpent gourd”, “chichinda” or “padwal”. It is found throughout the wilderniss across most of South and Southeast Asia.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Paṭola (पटोल) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant identified with Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.22-24 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. Paṭola is commonly known in Hindi as Parval; in Marathi as Kaḍu-parval; in Gujarati as Kaḍvī-padār; in Bengali as Tit-paltā; in Telugu as Advipotlā; and in Tamil as Kaṭṭu-puttola.

Paṭola is mentioned as having sixteen synonyms: Kaṭuphala, Kulaka, Karkaśacchada, Rājanāmā, Amṛtaphala, Pāṇḍu, Pāṇḍuphala, Bījagarbha, Nāgaphala, Kuṣṭhāri, Kāsamardana, Pañca, Jyotsnī, Kuṣṭhaghna and Rājiphala.

Properties and characteristics: “Paṭola is kaṭu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and uṣṇa-vīrya (of hot potency). It is benificial in rakta-pitta (bleeding disorders) and kapha diseases. It cures kaṇḍu (itching), kuṣṭha (leprosy and allied skin diseases), blood disorders, fever, burning sensations and body-aches”.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Paṭola (पटोल) refers to a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 46.337, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We can see the description of flowering and fruit bearing plants in Ṛgveda. But we come across the specific names of them only in the later Saṃhita and Brāhmaṇa literature. [...] According to Suśruta among all the fruits pomegranates, Emblic myrobalan, grapes, dates, parūṣaka, rājādana and mātuluṅga (Citrus medica) are considered as the best. Some dry fruits such as almonds, walnuts, pistachio were also used. Paṭola and vārtāka (brinjal) were considered as good fruits.

According to Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya Sūtrasthāna VIII.42-43 (also Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha Sūtrasthāna VII.134), paṭola, kūṣmāṇḍa, suniṣaṇṇaka, jīvanti, unripe radish and vāstuka are good vegetables.

Paṭola or “snake gourd” is mentioned as being beneficial (hita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here In the phalaśāka (unripe fruits) group Paṭola (snake gourd) is mentioned as beneficial to the body (hita).

Paṭola or “small cucumber” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., paṭola (small cucumber)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., siddhārthaka (mustard)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Paṭola (पटोल) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Trichosanthes lobata Roxb.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning paṭola] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Paṭola (पटोल) refers to “snake gourd” and is used in the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—[Treatment of worms, mucous discharges, Intoxication and deranged Vāyu]—A compound formulation made up of powdered paṭola (snake gourd), nimba (neem) leaves, vacā (sweet flag), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Pippalī (Piper longum), Śṛṅgavera (Zingiber officinale) should be administered to the horse with water.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Paṭola (पटोल) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment of Rājilā-snake-bites, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—The tenth Adhyāya prescribes antidotes for Rājilā snake venom.—According to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā verse X.33b-38a: “[...] Śūlī, Dark ulasī, Jīvantī, kuṣṭhā, Cinnamon, Lakṣmaṇa, Maṇḍūkī, Sūtavārtākī and Paṭola can be given as side dish. These along with clove and Horsegram, Śigru and Neem totally destroy poison. Bovine milk, butter-milk, ghee and Buffalo-curd and buttermilk and ghee also are highly recommended in the Agada treatment. Trikaṭu must be consumed after food”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Paṭola (पटोल) refers to two types of vegetables fit for use in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.121b-125 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Paṭola (पटोल) refers to a kind of vegetable, according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.3.44ff—Accordingly:—“[...] among the cooked vegetables were paṭolas, squash, mānakacu and a salad made with pieces of ginger and various types of spinach [viz., paṭola]. [...] Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa was offered all the food, and the Lord took it very pleasantly”

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Paṭola (पटोल) (or Palola) refers to a country belonging to “Aiśānī (north-eastern division)” classified under the constellations of Revatī, Aśvinī and Bharaṇī, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Revatī, Aśvinī and Bharaṇī represent the north-eastern consisting of [i.e., Paṭola] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Patola in the Gujarati language is the name of a plant identified with Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. from the Cucurbitaceae (Pumpkin) family having the following synonyms: Anguina dioeca, Trichosanthes officinalis. For the possible medicinal usage of patola, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Patola in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Patola in India is the name of a plant defined with Trichosanthes cucumerina in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Trichosanthes pachyrrhachis Kundu (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Acta Bot. Yunnan. (1994)
· Journal of Botany, British and Foreign (1939)
· Species Plantarum
· Flora Japonica (Thunberg) (1784)
· Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (1942)
· FBI (1879)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Patola, for example extract dosage, health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

paṭola : (m.) the snake-gourd.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Paṭola, (dial. ?) a kind of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca Vin. I, 201 (°paṇṇa). (Page 402)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pātōḷā (पातोळा) [or pātōvaḷā, or पातोवळा].—m A dish composed of rice-flour, pompion or cucumber sugar &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṭola (पटोल).—A species of cucumber (Mar. paḍavaḷa); सामसाध्येषु कार्येषु यो दण्डं योजयेद् बुधः । स पित्ते शर्कराशाम्ये पटोलं कटुकं पिबेत् (sāmasādhyeṣu kāryeṣu yo daṇḍaṃ yojayed budhaḥ | sa pitte śarkarāśāmye paṭolaṃ kaṭukaṃ pibet) || Pañcatantra (Bombay) 3.132; also पटुक (paṭuka).

-lam A kind of cloth.

Derivable forms: paṭolaḥ (पटोलः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭola (पटोल).—m.

(-laḥ) A kind of cucumber, commonly Parwor, (Trichosanthes diœca.) n.

(-laṃ) A sort of cloth, a kind of chintz. f. (-lī) A small cucumber, either the same as above, (Trichosanthes diœca,) or another kind, (Luffa acutangula.) E. paṭ to go, in the causal form, aff. olac; removing malady.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭola (पटोल).—A kind of cucumber; Trichosanthes dioeca, Roxb. m. The plant. n. The fruit, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 423.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭola (पटोल).—[masculine] a kind of cucumber.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paṭola (पटोल):—m. (cf. paṭu, paṭuka) Trichosanthes Dioeca

2) n. its fruit, [Suśruta; Pañcatantra]

3) a kind of cloth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭola (पटोल):—[(laṃ-lī)] 1. m. 3. f. A kind of cucumber. 1. n. Sort of cloth.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paṭola (पटोल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paola, Paṭolā, Paḍola.

[Sanskrit to German]

Patola in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Paṭolā (पटोला) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paṭolā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paṭōla (ಪಟೋಲ):—

1) [noun] the climber Trichosanthes anguina of Cucurbitaceae family.

2) [noun] its gourd, used as a vegetble; snake gourd.

--- OR ---

Paṭōḷa (ಪಟೋಳ):—[noun] = ಪಟೋಲ [patola].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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