Shirisha, Śirīṣa, Sirīsa, Śirīṣa, Sirisa, Shirisa: 20 definitions

Introduction

Shirisha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śirīṣa and Śirīṣa can be transliterated into English as Sirisa or Shirisha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) is a Sanskrit word referring to Albizia lebbeck (“Siris tree”), from the Fabaceae (“legume”) family, according to the Pandus database, but to Acacia sirissa (possible synonym) according to Monier-Williams. It is also known by the names Sirīsa (सिरीस), Śukapuṣpa, Śukadruma, Śukataru, Śukapriya and Śuka. The word is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such asthe Carakasaṃhitā and the Suśrutasaṃhitā. The tree grows to a height of 18–30m tall with a trunk of 50 cm to 1 m in diameter. Its leaves are 7.5–15 cm long, with one to four pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 6–18 leaflets. It has fragrant white flowers with lots of stamens (2.5–3.8 cm long). The fruit is a pod containing six to twelve seeds.

According to the Amarakośa, the plant has two synonyms: Kapītana and Bhaṇḍila. The Amarakośa is a 4th century Sanskrit botanical thesaurus authored by Amarasiṃha.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Ayurvedic work), the plant Śirīṣa is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Śirīṣa (शिरीष).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—The plant bears flowers in spring. Apart from its use in other diseases, it is regarded as the best among the anti-poison drugs.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) refers to a medicinal plant known as Albizzia lebbeck Benth., and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Śirīṣa). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śirīṣa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shirisha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) is the name of a plant which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] Karavīra flowers measure three times that. Scholars say that the flowers of Nirguṇḍī too measure likewise. In Karṇikāra and Śirīṣa flowers too, the same mode of calculation holds good. Ten prasthas of Bandhujīva flowers constitute a hundred thousand. [...] The devotee shall perform the worship of Śiva with different flowers after considering these modes of calculation for the fulfilment of desires if he has any or for the sake of salvation if he has no desire”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śirīṣa (शिरीष).—Of Ātreya gotra.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 197. 7.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Śirīśa (शिरीश) is the name of the tree (vṛkṣa) associated with Caṇḍogra: the eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The tree associated with the east is sometimes given as Śukataru or Harivāsa. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These trees (eg., Śirīśa) that are associated with the cremation grounds are often equated with the eight bodhi-trees of the Buddhas (the current buddha plus the seven previous one). According to the Śmaśānavidhi each tree has a secondary tree (upavṛkṣa) that is depicted as lovely and covered in vaṅga flowers and fruit. In each tree lives a naked rākṣasa who is wrathful in form, who eats human flesh and who has the animal face or the mount of the dikpati in his cremation ground.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Śirīṣa is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Caṇḍogra; with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Indra; with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Vāsuki and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Garjita.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Śirīṣa (शिरीष) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Acacia sirisha) under which the parents of Supārśva are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Supārśva is the seventh of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Pratiṣṭha according to Śvetāmbara but Supratiṣṭha according to Digambara and his mother is Pṛthvī , according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Śirīṣa (शिरीष) refers to the caityavṛkṣa (sacred-tree) associated with the Diś or Dikkumāra class of the bhavanavāsin species of Devas (gods), according to Jain cosmology. They are defined according to the cosmological texts, such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition, or the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Śirīṣa (शिरीष) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Śirīṣa tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Śirīśa (शिरीश) refers to the tree associated with Supārśvanātha: the seventh of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Supārśvanātha has, according to the canon, the emblem of the mystic cross called the Svastika. Books give him the additional symbolic decorations of serpents. There is some regularity with regard to the number of the hoods of the serpents. The number must be either one or five or nine. His Kevala tree is Śirīśa. The attendant spirits serving him are Mātaṅga and Śānti (Digambara: Varanandi and Kālī). The name of the bearer of the fly-fan is Dharmavīrya.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Shirisha is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—The tender and delicate frame of a lady is always compared with its flower.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Shirisha), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Shirisha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Shirisha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sirīsa : (m.) the tree Acacia Sirissa.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sirīsa, (nt.) (cp. Class. Sk. śirṣa) the tree Acacia sirissa D. II, 4; S. IV, 193; Vv 8432; VvA. 331, 344; °-puppha a kind of gem Miln. 118. Cp. serīsaka. (Page 711)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śirīṣa (शिरीष).—m S A tree, Mimosa sirisha.

--- OR ---

śirīsa (शिरीस).—m (sarṣapa S) A kind of mustard, Sinapis dichotoma.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śirīṣa (शिरीष).—[śṝ-īṣan kicca Uṇ.4.28] Name of a tree.

-ṣam A flower of this tree (regarded as the type of delicacy); शिरीषपुष्पाधिकसौकुमार्यौ बाहू तदीयाविति मे वितर्कः (śirīṣapuṣpādhikasaukumāryau bāhū tadīyāviti me vitarkaḥ) Ku.1.41; so पदं सहेत भ्रमरस्य पेलवं शिरीषपुष्पं न पुनः पतत्रिणः (padaṃ saheta bhramarasya pelavaṃ śirīṣapuṣpaṃ na punaḥ patatriṇaḥ) 5.4; R.16. 48; Me.67.

Derivable forms: śirīṣaḥ (शिरीषः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śirīṣa (शिरीष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) A kind of tree, (Acacia sirisa.) E. śṝ to injure, Unadi aff. īṣan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śirīṣa (शिरीष):—m. Acacia Sirissa (n. its flower), [ṢaḍvBr.] etc. etc.

2) m. [plural] Name of a village, [Patañjali on Pāṇini 1-2, 51.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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