Mallika, Mallikā: 23 definitions
Mallika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Mallikā (मल्लिका):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana
Mallika (मल्लिक):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (e.g. mallika flowers) confers all pleasures to the worshipper, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Mallikā (मल्लिका) is the name of a flower used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11:—“[...] offerings of flowers, especially white flowers and rare flowers, shall be made to Lord Śiva. Flowers of Apāmārga, Karpūra, Jātī, Campaka, Kuśa, Pāṭala, Karavīra, Mallikā, Kamala (lotus) and Utpalas (lilies) of various sorts shall be used. When water is poured it shall be poured in a continuous stream”.
2) Mallikā (मल्लिका) is the name of a plant which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] with Śamī leaves he will secure salvation (mukti). With Mallikā flowers (kusuma) he will secure an auspicious woman (śubhatara-strī). [...] twenty prasthas of Mallikā flowers constitute a hundred thousand; while so many flowers (puṣpa) of gingelly plant (tila) measure a little less than a prastha. [...] The devotee shall perform the worship of Śiva with different flowers after considering these modes of calculation for the fulfilment of desires if he has any or for the sake of salvation if he has no desire”.
3) Mallikā (मल्लिका) is mentioned as one of the various flowers conjured by Vasanta (spring) in an attempt to charm Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.9. Accordingly as Kāma related to Brahmā:—“[...] Spring (Vasanta) too did the needful in enchanting Him. O, listen to it, O fortunate Being. I tell you the truth, the truth alone. He caused the various kinds of flowers to bloom in the place where Śiva was stationed—flowers such as Campakas, Keśaras, Punnāgas, Ketakas, Mallikās, Kurabakas etc. etc.”.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
1) Mallikā (मल्लिका) wood is used for brushing the teeth in the month Mārgaśīrṣa for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Mārgaśīrṣa, the performer should brush his teeth with the piece of mallikā-wood. The food taken is madhu. The deity to be worshipped is Anaṅga. The flowers used in worship are malati. The naivedya offerings are Fruits. The result accrued is ten aśvamedha sacrifices.
2) Mallikā (मल्लिका) flowers are also used in worship in the month Jyeṣṭha for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In Jyeṣṭha, the tooth-brush is that of aśvattha-wood. The food taken is lavaṅga. The deity to be worshipped is Pradyumna. The flowers used in worship are mallikā. The naivedya offerings is sohalikā. The result accrued equals vajapeya.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Mallikā (मल्लिका) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “Jasminum sambac”, a species of jasmine from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. It is a technical term used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carkasaṃhitā and the Suśrutasaṃhitā. Examples of the various synonyms of Mallikā are: Mallā, Mallī, Vanamallikā, Vārṣikī, Śatabhīru (Śītabhīrū), Bhūpadī, Candraka, Vanacandrikā, Gandharāja, Karuṇamallī, Kumārī, Sugandhā, Jatī and Tṛṇaśūnya.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Mallikā (मल्लिका) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Mallikā) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.
The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Mallikā (मल्लिका) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., mallikā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.
2) Mallikā (मल्लिका) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., mallikā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)
Mallikā (मल्लिका) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Mallikā has 27 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 5, 5, 4, 4, 4 and 5 mātrās, where the 4th caturmātra must not be [ISI].
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Mallikā (मल्लिका) is a Sanskrit word referring to a sweet-scented flower of Vṛndāvana.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Mallika. Chief queen of Pasenadi, king of Kosala. She was the daughter of the chief garland maker of Kosala, and was very good and beautiful. When she was sixteen she was, one day, on her way to the garden with some companions, carrying with her three portions of sour gruel in a basket. Meeting the Buddha, she offered them to him and worshipped him. The Buddha, seeing her wrapt in joy, smiled, and, in answer to Anandas question, said she would be chief queen of Kosala that very day. J.iii.405; SA.i.110ff. It was to explain Mallikas good fortune that the Kummasapinda Jataka was preached.
It happened that Pasenadi, having suffered defeat at the hands of Ajatasattu that very day, was passing by and entered the flower garden, attracted by Mallikas voice. Mallika, seeing him coming, and noting his weariness, seized his horses bridle. The king, discovering that she was unmarried, dismounted, and, having rested awhile, his head on her lap, entered the town with her and took her to her own house. In the evening he sent a chariot for her, and with great honour and pomp brought her from her own home, set her on a heap of jewels and anointed her chief queen. From that day onward she was the beloved and devoted wife of the king and an undeviating follower of the Buddha (DhA.iii.121f). The king found her sagacious and practical minded and consulted her and accepted her advice when in difficulty - e.g., in the Asadisa dana, wherein he wished to excel his subjects, and again when he was troubled by evil dreams as narrated in the Mahasupina Jataka. DhA.ii.8ff. says that Mallika called the king a simpleton for putting his faith in brahmins and took him to the Buddha, and while the king sat trembling, asked the questions for him and had them explained.
The Jataka states how Mallika saved many innocent lives from being sacrificed, and the Buddha declared that in a past life too, as Dinna (q.v.), she had saved the lives of a large number of people by her wisdom (DhA.ii.15f).
Both Mallika and Pasenadis other queen, Vasabhakhattiya, desired to learn the Dhamma, and, at their request conveyed through Pasenadi, the Buddha asked Ananda to visit the palace regularly and teach them the Doctrine. Ananda found in Mallika an apt and ready pupil, conscientious in her work; Vasabhakhattiya was not so devoted to her duties. DhA.i.382f. For an incident connected with Anandas visit to the palace, see Vin.iv.158f.
Mallikas knowledge of the Dhamma made her wiser than Pasenadi would have desired, and he once, in a moment of great affection, asked if anyone were dearer to her than her own self. No, Sire, was the answer; the king was evidently greatly disappointed, for he sought the Buddha, who explained to him that Mallika, in making that answer, had uttered a great truth (S.i.75; Ud.v.1). Mallika,
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. A king of Kosala, identified with Ananda. Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Mallikā (मल्लिका) refers to the Jasmine flower according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Of all the terrestrial flowers, jasmine (mallikā) is the most beautiful; of all the aquatic flowers, blue lotus (nīlotpala) is the most beautiful.
2) Mallikā (मल्लिका) is mentioned in the Mallikājātaka, according to chapter L.—Accordingly, “thus Mo-li-fou-jen (Mallikā), for an offering to Siu-p’ou-t’i (Subhūti), obtained a fruit of retribution (vipākaphala); she was the main wife of king Po-sseu-ni (Prasenajit), in the present lifetime (ihaloka)”.
In Jātaka no. 415, Mallikā was the daughter of a garland-maker at Sāvatthi. At sixteen years of age, she went into a flower garden, met the Buddha there and offered him three balls of barley gruel (kummāsapiṇḍa) which she had been carrying in a basket of flowers.
In Jātakamālā no. 3, Mallikā attributes her good fortune to an act of generosity she had performed in one of her previous lives: when she was a slave, she had given the remains of a meal (uddṛtabhakta) to a Muni whose impurities were destroyed.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Mallikā (मल्लिका) refers to a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.
The flowers (e.g., Mallikā) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees, creepers medicinal and flowering plants (e.g., Mallika) and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mallika, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
mallikā : (f.) the (Arabian), jasmine.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Mallikā, (f.) (cp. Epic Sk. mallikā, Halāyudha 2, 51; Daṇḍin 2, 214) Arabian jasmine Dh. 54 (tagara°); J. I, 62; III, 291; V, 420; Miln. 333, 338; DhsA. 14; KhA 44. mallika-makula opening bud of the jasmine Visni 251=VbhA. 234 (°saṇṭhāna, in descr, of shape of the 4 canine teeth).—See also mālikā. (Page 525)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mallika (मल्लिक) or Mallikā (मल्लिका).—
1) A kind of goose with brown legs and bill.
2) The month Māgha.
3) A shuttle.
4) Name of a musical instrument; L. D. B.
Derivable forms: mallikaḥ (मल्लिकः).
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1) A kind of jasmine; वनेषु सायंतनमल्लिकानां विजृम्भणोद्गन्धिषु कुड्मलेषु (vaneṣu sāyaṃtanamallikānāṃ vijṛmbhaṇodgandhiṣu kuḍmaleṣu) R.16.47; वनमल्लिकामतल्लिकोद्वेल्लितधमिल्लः (vanamallikāmatallikodvellitadhamillaḥ) Bhāratachampū मल्लिकाकुसुमदुण्डुभकेन (mallikākusumaduṇḍubhakena) N.21.43.
2) A flower of this jasmine; विन्यस्तसायंतनमल्लिकेषु (vinyastasāyaṃtanamallikeṣu) (keśeṣu) R.16. 5; Kāv.2.215.
3) A lamp-stand.
4) An earthen vessel of a particular form.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ) 1. A bird, said to be a sort of goose with brown legs and bill. 2. A shuttle. 3. The month Magha. f.
(-kā) 1. Arabian jasmine, (Jasminum zambac.) 2. A kind of fish. 3. An earthen vessel for holding oil, &c. 4. A goblet, a cup, a drinking vessel. 5. A river. E. kan added to malli .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mallika (मल्लिक).—I. m. 1. A sort of goose with brown legs and bill, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 20, 4 (rather mallikākhya) 2. A shuttle. 3. The month Māgha. Ii. f. kā (i. e. malli + ka). 1. Arabian jasmine, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 6. 2. A goblet. 3. A river. 4. See mallaka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mallikā (मल्लिका).—[feminine] a kind of jasmine.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mallikā (मल्लिका):—[from mallaka > malla] a f. Jasminum Zambac (both the plant and the flower; ifc. f(ikā). ), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] an earthenware vessel of a peculiar form, [Mṛcchakaṭikā]
3) [v.s. ...] a lamp-stand, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] a lamp, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] any vessel made out of a cocoa-nut shell, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] a species of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of two metres, [Colebrooke]
8) [from malla] b f. of mallaka, in [compound]
9) Mallika (मल्लिक):—m. a kind of goose with dark-coloured or brown legs and bill, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) a shuttle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) the month Māgha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) Mallikā (मल्लिका):—[from mallika] c f. See under mallaka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mallika (मल्लिक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A bird or goose with brown legs and bill; a shuttle; Māgha. f. (kā) Arabian jasmin, kind of fish; a cup; a river.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) eine Art Gans mit dunkelgefärbten (mallina) Beinen und eben solchem Schnabel [Amarakoṣa 2, 5, 24.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 37] (vgl. Corrigg.). [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 81.] [Medinīkoṣa k. 136.] [Halāyudha 2, 97.] —
2) Weberschiff. —
3) der Monat Māgha [ŚABDĀRTHAK.] bei [WILSON.] — Vgl. bharata .
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Mallikā (मल्लिका):—s. u. mallaka .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Mallika (मल्लिक):—m. —
1) eine Art Gans mit dunkelgefärbten Beinen und eben solchem Schnabel [Rājan 19,102.] —
2) Weberschiff. —
3) der Monat Māgha. — mallikā f. s.u. mallaka.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+4): Mallika Sutta, Mallikabuddhi, Mallikachad, Mallikachadana, Mallikachhad, Mallikachhadana, Mallikagandha, Mallikakhya, Mallikaksha, Mallikakshi, Mallikakusuma, Mallikakusumapriya, Mallikamala, Mallikamaruta, Mallikamoda, Mallikapida, Mallikapurva, Mallikapushpa, Mallikara, Mallikarama.
Ends with (+6): Bhadramallika, Bharatamallika, Durmallika, Gaurangamallika, Girimallika, Gudhamallika, Kalamallika, Kasturamallika, Kasturikamallika, Kasturimallika, Kottamallika, Krishnamallika, Navamallika, Nilamallika, Sayamtanamallika, Sayantanamallika, Shaivamallika, Shivamallika, Shuchimallika, Shucimallika.
Full-text (+125): Mallikarjuna, Navamallika, Girimallika, Durmallika, Mallikapushpa, Tripuramallika, Mallikakhya, Mallikapurva, Mallikaksha, Mallikagandha, Mallikachadana, Mallikamoda, Bhadramallika, Vanacandrika, Shucimallika, Trinashunya, Karunamalli, Vanamallika, Kasturimallika, Hasanti.
Search found 36 books and stories containing Mallika, Mallikā; (plurals include: Mallikas, Mallikās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 3 - The two Mallikās differentiated < [Chapter 38 - Buddha’s Brahmin Parents in His Previous Existence]
Part 2 - Last Rites for The Remains of The Buddha < [Chapter 41 - Utterings That Arouse Emotional Religious Awakening]
Part 2 - The Story of Viṭaṭūbha (son of King Pasenadi and Vāsabhakhattiyā) < [Chapter 38 - Buddha’s Brahmin Parents in His Previous Existence]
A Discourse on Paticcasamuppada (by Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw)
Chapter 20 - Attavadupadana < [Part 8]
Chapter 17 - Superstition And Evil Rebirth < [Part 8]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 7 - Superiority of Jāti Flower < [Section 5 - Mārgaśīrṣa-māhātmya]
Chapter 179 - The Greatness of Gautameśvara (gautama-īśvara-tīrtha) < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Puṣpādhyāya (Chapter on flowers) [Puṣpa-adhyāya] < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The Mallikā-Jātaka [notes] < [I. Puṇyakriyāvastu consisting of generosity]
Act 7.3: Description of Paranirmitavaśavartin < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]
Appendix 1 - Parable of the perfume of flowers (puṣpagandha) < [Chapter XXI - Discipline or Morality]
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)
Jataka 151: Rājovāda-jātaka < [Book II - Dukanipāta]
Jataka 306: Sujāta-jātaka < [Volume 3]
Jataka 504: Bhallāṭiya-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)