Marga, Mārga, Mārgā: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Marga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Mārga (मार्ग) refers to “road”. Medhatīthi names three different types of roads (Manubhāṣya v. 7.185):

  1. those passing through the open country,
  2. those passing through marshy ground,
  3. and those passing through forests.

The term is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Mārga (मार्ग).—Highways and byways; diśāmārga, grāmamārga, rājapatha, sākharathyas, gṛharathyas, uparathyas, ghaṇṭāpatha, grahāntaram, vṛttimārga and prāgvaṃśa with their respective measurements. Avaskaram and Parīvāham are other dispositions of open spaces.1

1. dik—20 dhanus in breadth.
2. Grāma 20 dhanus in breadth.
3. Sīma 10 dhanus in breadth.
4. Rājapatha 10 dhanus in breadth.
5. Śākhāratyas or streets 4 dhanus.
6. Rathyoparathyas 3 dhanus.
7. Upārathya rathas 2 dhanus.
8. Janghāpatha 4 feet
9. Gṛhāntaram (lanes) 3 feet.
10. Dhṛtimārga 6 feet and more.
11. Avaskāraparīvāra 1 ft. all round.

2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 118-22.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 112-16.

2) Mārgā (मार्गा).—A Brahmavādin.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 19.
Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Mārga (मार्ग) refers to “pathways” (in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] Pathways (mārga) covered with creepers and thorns, echoed with noise of wild cocks, are water-less and very difficult to enter. Hence dwelling in a forest is hardship’”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Mārga (मार्ग, “indication”) refers to ‘clear indication of the course of action’ one intends to follow. Mārga represents one of the thirteen garbhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Garbhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the development part (garbha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

(Description of Mārga): Speaking out one’s real intention (lit. reality) is called Indication (mārga).

2) Mārga (मार्ग) refers to one of the twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstrahapter chapter 28. In musical performance, tāla refers to any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. It is an important concept in ancient Indian musical theory (gāndharvaśāstra) traceable to the Vedic era.

3) Mārga (मार्ग) refers to a set of four rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the four mārgas relating to the strokes of the (covered) musical instruments are Aḍḍitā, Ālipta, Vitasta and Gomukha”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Mārga (मार्ग) refers to the “three courses of a disease”, and is mentioned in verse 1.31 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—The term mārga (~lam) alludes to the three courses a disease may take in attacking the body: the stages of the outer path being roughly extremities, elements, and skin; those of the inner path, stomach and bowels; and those of the middle path, vitals and joints. Cf. I 12.44 sqq.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mārga (मार्ग, “path”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VII).—“there are two types of path (mārga): that of the Śrāvakas (lesser vehicle) and that of the Bodhisattvas (greater vehicle). The four assemblies, bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka, upāsīkā, form the path of the Śrāvakas; the bodhisattva-mahāsattvas form the path of the Bodhisattvas”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Mārga (मार्ग, “path”) refers to the last of the “four noble truths” (caturāryasatya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 21). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., mārga). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Mārga or Mārgayajñāna refers to the “knowledge of path” and represents one of the “ten knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 93).

India history and geogprahy

Source: Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district

Marga is a term designating ‘road’, used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—These two appellations (marga and patha) are synonymous, standing for trade-communication routes or village roads. Understands pathaka as a term similar to a pargana of later days. Divisions with these appellations occur very rarely in Andhra Pradesh. Ane-marga was a division of the Kalyana Chalukyas and Ongeru-marga-vishaya was that of the Eastern Chalukyas. The Mayidavolu plates of the Pallava king Sivaskandavarman refer to Andhra-patha which might mean not an administrative unit, but the entire Andhra region ruled by the Pallavas. In Madhya Pradesh under the Vakatakas and the Sarabhapuriyas there were a large number of marga divisions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mārga.—(IE 8-1), abbreviation of Mārgaśīrṣa, Mārgaśira, etc. Note: mārga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mārga (मार्ग).—m (S) A road, path, way. 2 A religious order or persuasion. 3 fig. A manner, method, mode: also a fashion, custom, usage, practice. 4 A road unto or way of obtaining mōkṣa or svarga or some lōka or heaven or some future blessing. Three ways are enumerated:--karmamārga, upāsanā- mārga, jñānamārga. To these some add three others:--siddhāntamārga, yōgamārga, vairāgyamārga. mārga dharaṇēṃ To set out: to get on one's way. 2 To beset or infest the road; to sit waylaying. mārga phuṭaṇēṃ in. con. To find a way or an opening. Ex. khuṇṭalī samīrācī gati|| mārga na phuṭē cālāvayā||. mārga maḷaṇēṃ g. of o. To go to the village-boundary, and there, in fulfilment of some vow made to some divinity or idol, present offerings to it. This is done ordinarily in the name of dēvī, saṭhavī, kāḷikāī or kāḷēśvarī, jarīmarī (forms of dēvī), mhasōbā, and suchlike. 2 To journey to some country garden or grove, there to dine and make merry; to take a pic-nic-jaunt. mārgīṃ lāgaṇēṃ To get on the road (of one's proposed journey); to set out. 2 To be dying. 3 To get into the way (of doing or of understanding how to do): also to be entered upon or be begun--a work or matter.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mārga (मार्ग).—m A road Fig. A manner; a custom. A religious order. mārga dharaṇēṃ Set out. Sit way-laying. mārga phuṭaṇēṃ Find a way or an opening. mārgī lāgaṇēṃ Set out. Get into the way. Be dying.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārga (मार्ग).—[mṛj-śuddhau, mārg-anveṣaṇe ghañ vā]

1) A way, road, path (fig. also); मार्गो दशकरः प्रोक्तो ग्रामेषु नगरेषु च (mārgo daśakaraḥ prokto grāmeṣu nagareṣu ca) Śukra. 1.261; अग्निशरणमार्गमादेशय (agniśaraṇamārgamādeśaya) Ś.5; so विचारमार्गप्रहितेन चेतसा (vicāramārgaprahitena cetasā) Ku.5.42; R.2.72; U.3.37.

2) A course, passage, the tract passed over; वायोरिमं परिवहस्य वदन्ति मार्गम् (vāyorimaṃ parivahasya vadanti mārgam) Ś.7.6.

3) Reach, range; मार्गातीतायेन्द्रियाणां नमस्ते (mārgātītāyendriyāṇāṃ namaste) Ki.18. 4.

4) A scar, mark (left by a wound &c.); भोगिवेष्टन- मार्गेषु (bhogiveṣṭana- mārgeṣu) R.4.48; ते पुत्रयोर्नैर्ऋतशस्त्रमार्गानार्द्रानिवाङ्गे सदयं स्पृशन्त्यौ (te putrayornairṛtaśastramārgānārdrānivāṅge sadayaṃ spṛśantyau) 14.4.

5) The path or course of a planet.

6) Search, inquiry, investigation.

7) A canal, channel, passage.

8) A means, way.

9) The right way or course, proper course; सुमार्ग, अमार्ग (sumārga, amārga)

1) Mode, manner, method, course; शान्ति° (śānti°) R.7.71.

11) Style, direction; इति वैदर्भ- मार्गस्य प्राणा दश गुणाः स्मृताः (iti vaidarbha- mārgasya prāṇā daśa guṇāḥ smṛtāḥ) Kāv.1.42; वाचां विचित्रमार्गाणाम् (vācāṃ vicitramārgāṇām) 1.9.

12) Custom, usage, practice; कुल°, शास्त्र°, धर्म° (kula°, śāstra°, dharma°) &c.

13) Hunting or tracing out game.

14) A title or head in law, ground for litigation; अष्टादशसु मार्गेषु निबद्धानि पृथक् पृथक् (aṣṭādaśasu mārgeṣu nibaddhāni pṛthak pṛthak) Ms.8.3.

15) A high style of acting, dancing and singing; अगायतां मार्गविधानसंपदा (agāyatāṃ mārgavidhānasaṃpadā) Rām.1.4.36. (com. gānaṃ dvividham | mārgo deśī ceti | tatra prākṛtāvalambi gānaṃ deśī | saṃskṛtāvalambi tu gānaṃ mārgaḥ).

16) (In dramaturgy) Hinting or indicating how anything is to happen.

17) (In geom.) A section.

18) The anus.

19) Musk.

2) The constellation called मृगशिरस् (mṛgaśiras).

21) The month called मार्गशीर्ष (mārgaśīrṣa).

22) Name of Viṣṇu (as the way to final emancipation).

-rgam A herd of deer; मार्गमदन्या वीथ्या नागवनं प्रयातो भर्ता (mārgamadanyā vīthyā nāgavanaṃ prayāto bhartā) Pratijña Y.1.

Derivable forms: mārgaḥ (मार्गः).

--- OR ---

Mārga (मार्ग).—a. Belonging to a deer (mṛga); मार्गमायूरकौक्कुटैः (mārgamāyūrakaukkuṭaiḥ) (māṃsacayaiḥ) Rām.2.91.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mārga (मार्ग).—m. (Sanskrit id.; special uses, the first and third as in Pali magga), way; (1) aṣṭāṅga-m° (= Pali aṭṭhaṅga- magga), the (noble, ārya) 8-fold path: Mahāvyutpatti 996 etc.; the 8 steps (as in Pali) listed e.g. Mahāvyutpatti 997—1004, samyag- dṛṣṭi, -saṃkalpa, -vāc, -karmānta, -ājīva, -vyāyāma, smṛti, -samādhi; (2) daśāryagotra-mārgaṃ pratilabhate Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 222.4, according to Suzuki the ten paths of discipline which belong to the noble family (of the Tathāgatas); what does this mean? the ten kuśala-karmapatha? Tibetan renders literally, ḥphags paḥi rigs kyi lam; (3) four kinds of śramaṇa (as in Pali, Sn 83—89, where this is made clear, and the magga-jina, -desaka or -desin, -jīvin, and -dūsin are defined), Mahāvyutpatti 5127—30, mārga-jina, conqueror of the way (of religion), -deśika, teacher of the way, -jīvin, living in the way, -dūṣin, defiling the way (by hypocrisy and wickedness).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārga (मार्ग).—m.

(-rgaḥ) 1. A road, a path or way. 2. Search, seeking, inquiry. 3. The anus. 4. Musk. 5. A way, a means. 6. The path of a planet. 7. Mode, method, course, manner. 8. Style, diction. 9. The month in which the moon is full in the asterism Mrigaśirsha, (November-December.) 10. The censtellation Mrigaśirsha. 11. (In geometry,) A section. E. mṛg to inquire, aff. aṇ; or mṛj to clean, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārga (मार्ग).—i. e. A. mṛj + a (originally, the tracing out of game by a sporting dog), m. 1. Search. 2. Musk. 3. Trace, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 57, 12. 4. A road, [Pañcatantra] 122, 6; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 19, 18; way, [Pañcatantra] 98, 22; figuratively, [Pañcatantra] 167, 22; use, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 20, 18; title of law, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 3; mode. [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 11, 28. 5. The anus. B. mṛga + a, I. adj. Coming from deer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 100, 63 Gorr. Ii. m. 1. The name of a month, November

— December. 2. The constellation Mṛgaśīrṣa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārga (मार्ग).—[adjective] relating to game or deer. —[neuter] (±māṃsa) game, venison. [masculine] track, way, path, road, passage; mode, manner, [especially] right manner, proper course; custom, use; title or head ([jurisprudence]), stile, diction. mārgeṇa & mārgais through, along (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Marga (मर्ग):—[wrong reading] for mārga, [Āpastamba-gṛhya-sūtra]

2) Mārga (मार्ग):—[from mārg] m. (in most meanings [from] mṛga, of which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) seeking, search, tracing out, hunting, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] (exceptionally also n.; ifc. f(ā). ) the track of a wild animal, any track, road, path, way to ([locative case] or [compound]) or through ([compound]), course (also of the wind and the stars), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (mārgaṃ-√dā or yam, with [genitive case] of [person], to give up the way to, allow to pass; māgeṇa ifc. = by way of id est. through, across or along; with √, to go the way of id est. suffer the same fate as; mārgais ifc., through; mārgāya, with [genitive case], in order to make way for any one; mārge, by the wayside or on the way; with pra-√cal, to set out on one’s way; nijamārgaṃ-√gam, to go one’s way)

4) [v.s. ...] a walk, journey, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] reach, range, [Kirātārjunīya]

6) [v.s. ...] a scar, mark (left by a wound etc.), [Raghuvaṃśa]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [medicine]) a way, passage, channel (in any part of the body, [especially] the intestinal canal, anus)

8) [v.s. ...] a way, expedient, means, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Kathāsaritsāgara] (mārgeṇa, by means of [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā])

9) [v.s. ...] a way, manner method, custom, usage, [Upaniṣad; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] the right way, proper course, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] (cf. āmārga)

11) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) the way or path pointed out by Buddha for escape from the misery of existence (one of the 4 noble. truths), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 44] (cf. āryāṣṭāṅga-m)

12) [v.s. ...] a title or head in law, ground for litigation, [Manu-smṛti viii, 3, 9 etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a way of speaking or writing, diction, style, [Kāvyādarśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] a high (opp. to ‘vulgar’) style of acting or dancing or singing, [Inscriptions; Daśarūpa]

15) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) pointing out the way, indicating how anything is to take place, [Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 7th mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā]

17) [v.s. ...] (in [geometry]) a section, [Horace H. Wilson]

18) [v.s. ...] musk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. mṛga-mada)

19) [v.s. ...] the month Mārgaśīrṣa (November-December), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

20) [v.s. ...] the constellation Mṛga-śiras, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu (as ‘the way’, [scilicet] to final emancipation), [Mahābhārata]

22) [v.s. ...] mf(ī)n. belonging to or coming from game or deer, [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira; Suśruta]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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