The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes vishnu’s one thousand names (vishnusahasranama) which is chapter 71 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the seventy-first chapter of the Uttara-Khanda (Concluding Section) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 71 - Viṣṇu’s One Thousand Names (Viṣṇusahasranāma)

The sages said:

1-2. O Sūta, O good one, live long. You, of a kind heart, have told us the wonderful dialogue which took place between Nārada and Śiva.O preceptor, tell us who are listening devoutly, how the noble Nārada heard the importance of the lord’s names.

Sūta said:

3-5. O best brāhmaṇas, all you sages, listen. I am telling an old account, having heard which devotion to Kṛṣṇa enhances. Once Nārada, quite calm, went to see his father to the peak of (the mountain) Meru which was resorted to by siddhas and cāraṇas. O brāhmaṇas, Nārada, the best sage, having saluted Brahmā, the lord of the worlds, who was seated there, said to him:

Nārada said:

6-8. O lord of the universe, O master, tell me how much power there is in the name of him, and of what kind is the greatness of the name of the noble one, who, the lord of the universe, is actually Nārayaṇa Hari, the highest soul, Hṛṣīkeśa, united with all beings. All foolish men, being deluded by illusion, do not at all know lord Viṣṇu in this Kali age which is worthless.

Brahmā said:

9-22. O child, please listen, how in this Kali age worship is especially to be done by reciting (his) names. The recollection of Viṣṇu, the conqueror, with an effort, is seen to purify untold sins, and it destroys sins. Knowing everything (else) to be false, a man who recites and mutters Viṣṇu’s names, is freed from all sins, and goes to Viṣṇu’s highest position. There is no doubt that those men who always utter the two letters Ha-ri become free just by uttering them. All expiations consist in remembering Kṛṣṇa repeatedly. A man who remembers Kṛṣṇa in the morning, at night and at mid-day, etc. instantly reaches Nārāyaṇa, the destroyer of sins. When just by remembering Viṣṇu all the suffering perishes, he attains salvation; he obtains heaven due to his reciting Viṣṇu’s name. A man should know that it is an eternal (state for him) whose mind is (engaged) in muttering his names, sacrifices and (his) worship, and the state continues for (the periods of) fourteen Indras. What a great disparity is there between going to heaven which is characterised by returning (i.e. by rebirth), and muttering the names of Viṣṇu, the excellent seed (i.e. source) of salvation? That mouth is a great holy place where Prācī Sarasvatī filling the eddy (as it were) with the words Namo Nārāyaṇāya (salutation to Nārāyaṇa) appears. Therefore, the best man, by remembering Viṣṇu day and night, and with his sins in the Kali age destroyed, does not go to hell. O you of the best vow, I have told (you) the truth and the truth (only). Merely by uttering (Viṣṇu’s) name a man is free from a great sin. There is no doubt that even that cāṇḍāla who mutters ‘Rāma, Rāma, Rāma’ has his mind purified. Or he who mutters and recites ‘Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa’, has merely by the utterance of that name, visited all holy places like Kurukṣetra, Kāśī, Gayā and Dvārikā.

23-29a. O brāhmaṇa, he who always mutters or recites ‘Nṛsiṃha’ with joy, abandons this world and rejoices near Viṣṇu. A devotee of Viṣṇu is freed from a great sin in the Kali age. A man obtains by repeating the names of Viṣṇu in the Kali age, what he obtains by meditation in the Kṛta age, by performing sacrifices in the Tretā age, and by worshipping Viṣṇu in the Dvāpara age. Realising this men are plunged into Viṣṇu, the soul of the world. With all their sins destroyed they go to the highest position of Viṣṇu. Matsya, Kūrma, Varāha, Nṛsiṃha, Vāmana, so also (Paraśu-)rāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha, and after him is said to be (the incarnation of) Kalki. These ten are said to be (Viṣṇu’s) ten incarnations on the earth. Merely by (uttering) their names, (even) the killer of a brāhmaṇa is always purified. He, by reciting, muttering, meditating upon Viṣṇu’s name in any manner, is freed. There is no doubt that he would be Viṣṇu himself.

Sūta said:

29b-36a. Hearing this Nārada was greatly amazed. He then said to his father: “O best god, why is it said: ‘There are thousands of gods; there are thousands of Rudras. There are hundreds of manes, so also yakṣas and kinnaras. So also goblins, evil spirits, fiends, and those that belong to the species of deities. The greatness of their name is not heard or seen, as I have heard about the greatness of Viṣṇu’s name. There is no doubt that merely by uttering his name, one is freed.’ O god, what is the use of visiting the holy places or wandering over the earth? By (merely) hearing the greatness of his names, one would obtain salvation. That mouth is a great holy place, that mouth is a sacred place, in which the words ‘Rāma Rāma’ are (found). That mouth fulfils all desires. O you of a good vow, which are the names of him (i.e. of Viṣṇu) that should be recited? O grandsire, tell me all that in detail.”

Brahmā said:

36b-44. This Viṣṇu always pervades (everything), is the ancient, highest soul. He has no beginning or end. He is glorious, the soul of beings, the creator of beings. May this Viṣṇu, from whom I am born, always protect (you). This one is the death of death. He is my ancestor. He is imperishable, has lotus-like eyes, and is an intelligent, immutable (great) person. Viṣṇu always lies on Śeṣa. He has a thousand heads. He is a great lord. He occupies all beings and he, Viṣṇu, is actually of the form of the universe. This Viṣṇu is the enemy of Kaiṭabha, is the creator; (this) god is the lord of the world. O best man, I do not know his name, and (about) his family (also). O dear one, though I am the propounder of the Vedas, I never know (this). Therefore, O divine sage, go there where the lord of the universe is. O best sage, he will tell you the entire truth. He, the lord of Kailāsa, is alone the ever-prosperous person. He is the best among all the devotees of Viṣṇu. He is greater than the great. (This) lord of Umā has five faces, and he destroys all miseries. He is the lord of the universe; he is the master of everything; he always loves his devotees. O best among the gods, go there; (that best god) will tell you everything.

45-55. Hearing the words of his father, Nārada proceeded to go there, to the abode (of Śiva) on Kailāṣa, where that god, the granter of well-being, always stays, to learn the importance of Viṣṇu’s names. There Nārada saw the god honoured by deities, seated on the peak of Kailāsa, the god of gods, the preceptor of the world, having five faces, ten arms, and having the trident in his hand, having a skull, having a staff with a skull at the top,[1] holding a sharp spear and a sword, holding the trident, fearful, granting boons, and having the bull (i.e. Nandin) as his vehicle, with his body (smeared) with ash, having charm due to serpents, and having the (crescent-)moon on his head, resembling a dark cloud, and having the lustre of a crore of suns, and sporting there. (Prostrating himself) like a staff he (i.e. Nārada) saluted the lord of gods. Seeing him, the great god, the best among the devotees of Viṣṇu, and with his eyes dilated due to amazement, said to the best brāhmaṇa (i.e. Nārada): “O best among divine sages, why have you come here?”

Nārada said:

O god, some time I had approached Brahmā. There I heard about the excellent greatness of Viṣṇu. It was told there to me by Brahmā, O best of gods. I heard from Brahmā’s mouth how much the power of the names of him (i.e. Viṣṇu) is. Then I first asked about the thousand names of Viṣṇu [viz., Viṣṇusahasranāma]. Then Brahmā said to me: “O Nārada, I do not know (them). This great Rudra knows (them). He will tell you all.” Being very much amazed, I have come to you.

56-67a. In this terrible Kali age men are short-lived. They are engaged in impious acts. And they do not have faith in (Viṣṇu’s) name. Similarly brāhmaṇas are heretics and always engrossed in impious acts. They are void of (i.e. do not perform) the Sandhyā (prayer), have fallen from vows, are wicked, and of dirty figures. As are the brāhmaṇas, so are also the kṣatriyas and so also vaiśyas. So also are śūdras and others, but not Viṣṇu’s devotees. O lord, the śūdras are out of the fold of the twice-born in the Kali age. They do not know what is righteous, what is unrighteous, and what is beneficial and what is not. Realising this, O master, I have approached you. And I have also heard the importance of (Viṣṇu’s) names from Brahmā’s mouth. You are the god of all gods, and are always my lord. You are the enemy of Tripura, the universal soul and the creator, again and again. Favour me, and narrate the thousand names of Viṣṇu, which produces good fortune of men, and always produces great devotion in them. It gives Brahman (the Supreme Spirit or the Vedas) to the brāhmaṇas. It gives victory to the kṣatriyas. It gives wealth to vaiśyas and always gives happiness to śūdras. O Maheśvara, I desire to hear it from you. Among all the devotees of Keśava (i.e. Viṣṇu) you are the (most) capable. O you of a good vow, favour me, and tell it to me if it is not a secret. It is very pure. It is always full of all holy places. Therefore, I desire to hear it. O lord, O master of the universe, (please) tell it.

Hearing the words of Nārada, (Śiva) had his eyes dilated with wonder. He was horripilated while recollecting Viṣṇu’s names.

The lord said:

67b-68. These thousand names of Viṣṇu [viz., Viṣṇusahasranāma] are to be kept secret. Hearing these, O child, a man would never have a miserable position. Sometime in the past Pārvatī said to me:

Pārvatī said:

69-71. O lord of Kailāsa, O lord of gods, O you who are endowed with great prosperity, tell me truly what you are muttering. How is it that your body is always smeared with ash, you wear the hide (of an antelope)? How are you having matted hair? O master of the universe, O lord, tell it (to me). You are the god of all gods; you are the superintendent of all rites. You are the lord, O master of the universe, O lord of the universe, O lord of the world.

Mahādeva said:

72-75a. Thus, O brāhmaṇa, I was repeatedly asked by Pārvatī. Then I told everything especially to her. O Nārada, listen. I shall tell (you) what I told Pārvatī, and by which the lord, giving salvation, will be undoubtedly pleased. He is actually my father, and always my brother. I am always his devotee; and he is always my lord. Therefore, I shall tell (it) to you. Listen to me who am telling (it).

Sūta said:

75b-83. O brāhmaṇas, having thus spoken to Nārada, he told him the thousand names of Viṣṇu, which he had formerly told to Pārvatī. (Thus) they are received by Nārada on the Kailāsa (mountain). Sometime, by chance, he came from Kailāsa to the very wonderful holy place called Naimiṣāraṇya. All the sages residing there, seeing Nārada, the best sage, honoured the noble Nārada. Those best brāhmaṇas, Viṣṇu’s devotees, seeing Nārada to have come, had their eyes dilated due to amazement. They showered flowers on him. They offered him water for (washing) his feet, offered him respectful offering, so also waved light before him, offered him fruits and roots and prostrated on the ground like a staff. And they said: “O great sage, we are blessed, since in this region we have had your presence which is pure and which destroys sins. O lord of gods, by your favour we have heard the Purāṇas. O brāhmaṇa, in what way would all (one’s) sins perish? How is salvation obtained without giving (gifts), without austerities, without (visiting) holy places, without penance and sacrifices, without (giving) gifts, without meditations, and without curbing the senses, and without (studying) the groups of sacred texts?”

Nārada said:

84. Umā, having saluted (her) dear (lord), the god of gods, the preceptor of the world, i.e. Mahādeva, seated on the peak of Kailāsa (mountain) asked him:

Pārvatī said:

85-88. O highest god, you are the omniscient great lord, revered by all. Even gods like Indra and Sūrya very much adore you. All, having worshipped you, the giver of boons, obtain desired success. You are without birth and death. You are self-born, and are all-powerful. O lord, you, having the quarters as your garment (i.e. naked), the destroyer of Madana, what do you always meditate upon? Why do you having matted hair and dusty with ash, practise penance? O lord of gods, what are you muttering? I have a great curiosity (to know it). If I deserve your favour, then tell me (about) that good vow.

Mahādeva said:

89-109. I have not told this to anyone. It is to be kept secret by me. But O good one, I shall tell (to you since) you are devoted (to me) and dear to me. O goddess, formerly, in the Satya-yuga all had pure minds; and knowing Viṣṇu alone to be the lord of all gods, they worshipped him (alone). O dear one, they got great prosperity in this world and in the next. They who were indeed determined, secured that position which all gods and sages suffering pain, did not obtain. Even after having heard from my mouth, gods led by Viṣṇu, did not, through Vedas and various Purāṇic doctrines, understand for certain what the truth is, or which the highest position is, as their minds were confused. O dear one, by means of gold, jewels etc. equal to their weight (given to a brāhmaṇa as a gift), by means of sacrifices like the horse-sacrifice, and by means of bathing at holy places like Vārāṇaśī or Prayāga, so also by means of offering śrāddhas to their dead ancestors at Gayā etc., by means of Vedic recitals and mutterings, severe austeritiets, restraints and checks, by means of kindness etc., by means of serving the preceptors (and elders), by means of duties of the castes and stages of life that are to be observed, so also by means of knowledge, meditation etc. duly practised during crores of existences, they do not reach Viṣṇu, the god of all gods, the supreme bliss. Even all religious men do not reach that position which those mortals who with all their thoughts and having no other course resort to that ancient ‘best person’ Viṣṇu, who even enjoy themselves, who do not have knowledge or detachment, who are without celibacy etc., who have given up all (other) religious acts, but who mutter only Viṣṇu’s names, happily reach, O you who subdue your enemies. That Viṣṇu should always be remembered. He should never be forgotten. All sacred injunctions and prohibitions are his commandments. Nevertheless all gods like Brahmā and all innocent sages have, by means of (uttering fearlessly) Viṣṇu’s names, reached the position that was desired by them. I desiring greater than this, and being blessed, did not accept worship offered to me, but properly propitiated Viṣṇu. Then the lord of the world, to whom his devotees are dear, was actually pleased, and he, Keśava, worshipped these as his portions. He, full of pity (worshipped) deities, manes, brāhmaṇas with oblations offered to gods and dead ancestors. Since then in the three worlds with the mobile and the immobile all gods like Brahmā are worshipped by the favour of the holder of the Śārṅga bow. He also said to me: “You would be superior to and more venerable than me. O Śambhu, I shall also propitiate you and will always receive a boon from you. Being born in the ages like Dvāpara and among men in the Kali age make the people averse to me with the sacred texts prepared by you. So also censure me so that the world become better and better. I shall produce this delusion which will delude people. You too, O mighty-armed Rudra, produce sacred texts that would delude people. O you of great arms, produce (the texts) that are false and spurious. Manifest thyself and keep me hidden.”

110-116. Then having saluted the highest lord, I said: “How would the sin of the murder of thousand brāhmaṇas perish? Even after hundreds of crores of kalpas you cannot be forgotten. So I vied (with you). O Viṣṇu, how would I be pure? Therefore, O Govinda, tell me the expiation you desire.” Then the lord, being pleased, told the truth about himself, by which, O daughter of the (Himālaya) mountain, I became superior to him. Everyday I adore him with penance, I eulogise him and think of him. Viṣṇu alone is the highest one. Knowledge about him is the means of salvation. This is the verdict of the sacred texts. Anything other than that causes delusion. All that is said like: ‘salvation is attained without knowledge’, ‘my equivalence with Viṣṇu’, ‘knowledge is obtained by visiting holy places’, ‘my superiority over Viṣṇu’, or ‘identity of devotees like me with Viṣṇu’, leads to delusion (only and) to nothing else, O chaste lady. Due to that my greatness has become matchless, and I am honoured by the world, O Pārvatī.

Pārvatī said:

117. Then O Śaṅkara, O master, O lord of gods, tell me how I would be the ruler of all and matchless like you.

Mahādeva said:

118-139. O dear one, you have asked well. I shall tell you the principal names of lord Viṣṇu, which would bring about salvation from the three worlds. Of this hymn called Viṣṇusahasranāma (‘the thousand names of Viṣṇu’) Śrī Mahādeva is the poet; the metre is anuṣṭubh; the seed (the cause) is Hrīṃ; the power is Śrīṃ; the pin is Klīṃ. Its application is in the muttering of the names for the attainment of the four goals, viz. moral merit, sensual enjoyments, worldly prosperity and salvation: ‘Om, we know Vāsudeva. We think of (that) supreme Brahman; so that Viṣṇu should urge us (on).’ When the various assignments of (the parts of) the body, hands would be recited duly, the fruit of that is crore-fold. There is no doubt about it. He (should touch his) heart (saying), ‘Śrī Vāsudeva is the highest Brahman’. He (should touch his) head (saying), ‘(He) is the original source’. He (should touch) the tuft of hair on his head (saying), ‘(He) is Mahāvarāha’. He (should utter) the mystical syllable ‘Hūm-Hūm’ (saying), ‘He is the banner (i.e. the scion) of the solar dynasty’. He (should touch) his eyes (saying), ‘Infancy causing wonder to the world by means of the desired sports of Brahmā etc.’ He (should touch) the astra, (saying), ‘Yathārtha-khaṇḍita-aśeṣa.’ Saying, “Salutation to Nārāyaṇa the noble ‘man’,” he should have the nyāsa everywhere. ‘We think of the supreme Brahman, of a pure, good, abode. Om, hrāṃ, hrīṃ, hruṃ, hraiṃ, hroṃ, hraḥ; Klīṃ to Kṛṣṇa, to Viṣṇu. Hrīṃ to Rāma. We think of him, so that the god will urge us on. Kṣrauṃ, we know Nṛsiṃha. Śrīṃ, we think of Śrīkaṇṭha, so that Viṣṇu should prompt us. Om, we think of Devakī’s son, Vāsudeva, so that that Kṛṣṇa should urge us on. Om, hrāṃ, hrīṃ, hrūṃ, hraiṃ, hrauṃ, hraḥ. Kliṃ, svāhā (i.e. offering) to Kṛṣṇa, Govinda, dear to the cowherdesses.’ Reciting this hymn he should mutter (prayers in honour of) the immutable Viṣṇu, Śrīnivāsa and the lord of the world. The wise one should recite the hymn (in honour) of him. Om, Vāsudeva is the highest Brahman, he is the highest soul, he is greater than the great. He is a great lustre, a great light, the great first principle, the highest position. He (is) great Śiva, the great (object) to be pondered over. He is the highest knowledge and the best recourse. He is the highest truth, the highest bliss, the highest joy and rise. He is greater than the Invisible; he is the highest sky; he is the highest prosperity, the highest lord; he is full, immutable, admitting no alternative, and without a prop. He is unstained, free from fear, unsmeared, unrestrained. He is qualityless; he is whole; has no end; is fearless; is inconceivable; and is fit for the weak. He is beyond the scope of the senses; he is immeasurable; unlimited; he has no lord; has no desire; is immutable and indestructible. He is omniscient; omnipresent; he is everything; he gives everything; and creates everything. He is the ruler of all; he sees everything; he is adorable to all; and observes all things. He is all-powerful; has all the vigour; is the soul of all; and has faces on all sides. He stays everywhere; has all forms; is the source of all; and removes the misery of all. He has all the wealth; he is auspicious on all sides; he is the cause of all causes. He excels all; he is the head of all, is the lord of all gods. He is Ṣaḍviṃśaka (the twenty-sixth principle?); is Mahā Viṣṇu; a great secret; and a great ruler. He is always lofty; always diligent; he is always joy; he is ancient. He is the lord of illusion; the lord of abstract meditation; lord of beatitude; and self-born. He is beyond birth, death and old age. He is beyond time and has gone beyond the worldly existence. He is full. He is truth; he is of a pure and enlightened nature. He is always full of intelligence. Abstract meditation is dear to him. He can be known by abstract meditation. He alone frees (the beings) from the bonds of the worldly existence. He is the ancient soul, he is inwardly the spirit. He is Puruṣottama (highest person). He is to be known from the Upaniṣads. He is difficult to be known. He is free from the three kinds of miseries.[2] Knowledge of the Vedas is his resort. He is without a beginning. He is self-illumined and the master of himself. He can be approached by all. He is neutral. He is Oṃkāra. He is equal on all sides. He is the fourth state of the soul (i.e. Brahman). He is beyond darkness. He is the supreme soul. He has touched everything. He is beyond the scope of speech or mind. He is Saṃkarṣaṇa. He drags everything (unto him); he is death. He is fearful to all. He cannot be overcome. He has a wonderful gait. He is Mahā Rudra; he is unconquerable. He is the root cause (of the world). He is joy. He is Pradyumna. He deludes everyone. His divine power is great. He is the only place of happiness. He is desired by all. His pastimes are unending. He subjugates all beings. He is Aniruddha. He is the life of all. He is Hṛṣīkeśa. He is the lord of the mind. The guileless are dear to him. He is Brahman. He directs everything. He is the lord of the life of Brahmā. He supports all beings. He is the lord of the body. He is the soul. He is the origin. He is the lord. He is the Supreme Being. He holds all the threads (of the conduct of the universe). He is the internal soul. He has three abodes. He is the internal witness (i.e. the soul). He has three constituents (viz. sattva, rajas and tamas). He is the lord. He is known by meditating saints. He is Padmanābha (having a lotus arising from his navel). He lies on Śeṣa. He is the lord of Lakśmī [Lakṣmī?].

140-155. His lotus-like feet are always served by Lakṣmī. He always has Śrī (i.e. Lakṣmī or affluence). He is the abode of Śrī. Śrī (i.e. Lakṣmī) always rests on his chest. He is the treasure of Śrī. He is Śrīdhara (i.e. possesses Śrī). He is Hari (i.e. Viṣṇu). He controls Śrī. He is steady. He gives wealth. He is Viṣṇu (literally, one who enters). He has his abode in the Milky Ocean. His chest shines with the Kaustubha (gem). He is Mādhava (the husband of Mā, i.e. Lakṣmī). He removes the affiictions of the world. On his chest is the (mark of) Śrīvatsa. He is the abode of unbounded auspicious qualities. He wears a yellow garment. He is the lord of the world. He is the father of the world. He is the kinsman of the world. He is the supporter of the world. He is the treasure of the world. He is the only one of a sparkling vigour in the world. He is not an egotist. He is full of all wonders. He has accomplished all objects. He is entertained by all. His exertion is never unfailing. Brahmā, Śiva are his excellent consciousness. He is Śiva’s grand-father. He is Brahmā’s father. He is the superior lord of Indra and others. He is dear to all gods. He is the image of all gods. He is excellent. He is the only resort of all gods. He is the only deity of all gods. He enjoys the sacrifice. He is the creator of the sacrifice. He is the protector of the sacrifice. He is the (chief) man (i.e. deity) of the sacrifice. He wears the garland of wood-flowers. He is dear to brāhmaṇas. He alone honours brāhmaṇas. He is the family-deity of brāhmaṇas. He is the destroyer of the demons. He destroys all the wicked. He is the only protector of all good men. He is the only belly of the seven worlds. He is the only ornament of the seven worlds. He is the creator, the sustainer and the destroyer (of the world). He holds the disc. His bow is Śārṅga. He holds a mace. He holds a conch. He has the Nandaka (sword). He has a lotus in his hand. Garuḍa is his vehicle. His body cannot be pointed out. He is adored by all. He purifies the three worlds. His fame is endless. His virility is boundless. He is all-auspicious. He resembles crores of suns. He is unconquerable like crores of Yamas. He is the creator of the world like crores of Mayas. He is very powerful like crores of winds. He deligḥts the world like crores of moons. He is a great god like crores of Śambhus. His loveliness is like that of crores of Cupids. He is inaccessible and a destroyer of crores of enemies. He is deep like crores of oceans. He has the appellations of crores of holy places. He is ricḥ like crores of Kuberas. He has amorous pleasures like those of crores of Indras. He is steady like crores of Himalayas. His body contains crores of universes. He destroys sins like crores of horse-sacrifices. He is adorable like crores of sacrifices. He is the cause of satisfaction like crores of (i.e. very large quantity of) nectar. He grants desired objects like crores of desire-yielding cows. His form is of crores of Vedic lores. He is Śipiviṣṭa (i.e. is pervaded by rays). He is Śuciśravas (literally, of pure ears or hearing).

156-168. He supports the universe. His feet are like a holy place. Hearing and talking about him is meritorious. He is the first god. He is the conqueror of the world. He is the killer of Kālanemi. He is Vaikuṇṭha. His greatness is infinite. He is the great joy of the masters of abstract meditation. He is always content. He is of brigḥt thougḥts. He is fearless. He is the destroyer of Naraka. He is the only refuge of the poor and the helpless. He alone removes all calamities. He is always capable of favouring the world. He is kind. He is the resort of the good. He is the master of abstract meditation. He is ever grown. He is free from increase and decrease. He has controlled his senses. He is Viśvaretas (i.e. Brahmā). He is the lord of hundreds of the lords of created beings. His feet are worshipped by Indra and Brahmā. His lustre surpasses that of Śiva and Brahmā. The Sun and the Moon are his eyes. He enjoys everything. He has mastered everything. He has controlled illusion. He has controlled the universe. He is Viśvaksena (i.e. he, on seeing whom even the mighty army of gods retreats and scatters away). He is the best of gods. He is the lord of all bliss. He is adorned with divine, invaluable ornaments. He is characterised by all (good) characteristics. He has destroyed the pride of all demons. He is the all-in-all of all gods, and the leader of all deities. He is the armour of all gods. He is the crest-jewel of all gods. He is the fortress of all gods. He is the adamantine (protective) cage of all that have resorted to him. He is called ‘the remover of the fear of all’. He is Viṣṭaraśravas (i.e. of beautiful and efficient ears). He is the supreme ruler. He is the end of the good of all. He has killed (his) enemies. He gives (one) a position in heaven. He is the lord of the life of all deities. He appoints the brāhmaṇas etc. His life is longer by a parārdha than that of Brahmā and Śiva. He is older than Brahmā. He is a child. He is the supreme Being. He is Virāṭ (i.e. the first progeny of Brahmā). He is dependent on his devotees. He is fit to be praised. He accomplishes the object of (i.e. to be had by means of) a hymn. He obliges others. He knows what is fit to be done. He has always given up acts for his self-interest. He is always glad. He is always auspicious. He is always calm. He is always propitious. He is always dear. He is always content. He is always nourished. He is always adored.

169-188. He is always pure. He is the best among those that purify. He is (to be) concealed by the Vedas. He is Vṛṣākapi. He has a thousand names. He is the three yugas. He has four forms. He has four arms. He is the lord of the past, future and present. He is the ancestor of great men. He is Nārāyaṇa (i.e. having the water as his abode). His hair is like the muñja grass. He has spread out by means of all abstract meditation. He is the essence of the Vedas. He is the essence of sacrifices. He is the essence of Sāmans. He is the treasure of penance. He is a Sādhya (i.e. a celestial being). He is the highest. He is an ancient sage. He is solely devoted to steadiness and calmness. He is the destroyer of Śiva’s trident. He is the only giver of boons to Śiva. He is the ‘man’. He is Kṛṣṇa. He is Hari. He is delighted in righteousness. Righteousness is his life. He is the first agent. He is all-truth. He removes the pride of all women-gems. He has conquered Madana for all the three times. He is the chief of the sages who produced Urvaśī. He is the first poet. He is Hayagrīva. He is the lord of all the masters of speech. He is full of all gods, Brahmā, and Guru, and the lord of the goddess of speech. He is the source of endless lores. He is the destroyer of the root-ignorance. He knows and gives everything. He destroys the dullness of the world. He is the killer of (the demon) Madhu. He is the master of many crores of hymns. He alone has mastered the Vedas. He is the first learned (being). He is the author of the Vedas. He is the soul of the Vedas. He is the ocean of the holy texts. He has snatched the Vedas (from the demons) for Brahmā. He is the land of birth (i.e. the source) of all worldly knowledge. He is the king of lores. He is the form of knowledge. He is the ocean of knowledge. His intelligence is uninterrupted. He is the fish-god (i.e. the Matsyāvatāra). He has large horns. Being the seed of the world, he looks out. He has easily occupied the entire ocean. He is the propounder of the four Vedas. He is the first tortoise (i.e. the Kūrmāvatāra). He is the prop of everything. He has made the burden of the world (as light) as grass. He has made a stream of gods immortal. He is the cause of the production of ambrosia. He is the support of the soul. He is the support of the earth. He is not a portion of the sacrifice. He holds the earth. He destroyed Hiraṇyākṣa. He is the lord of the earth. He has fashioned śrāddha etc. He removes the fear of all dead ancestors. He is the life of all the dead ancestors. He alone enjoys the oblations offered to gods and dead ancestors; and he alone gives the fruit of the oblations offered to gods and to dead ancestors. The ocean is concealed in his bristles. He has agitated the entire ocean. He is the great Boar (incarnation). He is the destroyer of those who (try to) destroy the sacrifices. He is the refuge of those who perform sacrifices. He is Śrī Nṛsiṃha (incarnation). He is a divine lion. He destroys all undesired things and miseries. He is the only hero of a wonderful might. He alone destroys (evil) forces and charms. His lustre is unbearable (even) to Brahmā etc. He, the foremost in ending a yuga, is extremely fearful. His nails are (sharper) than crores of thunderbolts. He has a form which is unbearable for the world to see. He is the lord of the group of the great(divine) mothers. He is endowed with inconceivable and unfailing power. He is the destroyer of all demons. He is the destroyer of Hiraṇyakaśipu. He is Death. He is the lord of Saṃkarṣaṇī. He is unbearable even for Yama’s vehicle. He destroys all fears. He puts an end to all obstacles. He is the giver (of all kinds) of prosperity. He fulfils all (desires). He is the destroyer of all sins. He is called Siddhimantrādhika (i.e. superior to a hymn giving prosperity). He is the lord of Bhairava (i.e. Śiva). He removes the affliction of Śiva. He is inaccessible to crores of Deaths. He is called Daityagarbhasrāvin (i.e. one tearing asunder the demon-embryos). He roars like the bursting universe.

189-198. He protects everyone that just remembers him. He has a wonderful form. He is great Viṣṇu. He has a body with celibacy as the head. He is the ornament of the upper part of the bodies of the regents of the quarters. He has a string of twelve suns on his head. His anklet is just one head of Rudra. He is the protector of Pārvatī possessed by the Yoginīs (her attendants). He threatens Bhairava. He is the lord of the host of heroes. He is very fierce. He is the enemy of the ecliptic[3]. He is the death of Śambara. He is lord of anger. He is the devourer of the wicked (troubling) the retinue of Rudra and Caṇḍī. He is not (at all) agitated by any one. He is the death of death. He keeps off Kāla, the Death. He destroys all incurable diseases. He softens all evil Planets. He destroys the pride of crores of the chiefs of (Śiva’s) attendants. He is unbearable to every Indra. He is difficult to be looked at by gods and demons. He is terrible, causing fear to the world. He protects (beings) from all miseries. He devours the devourer of the world. He is Śiva. He is the cat in the form of the sky, the devourer of the rat in the form of Kāla (Time or Death). His staff-like arms hold endless weapons. He is Nṛsiṃha. He is the conqueror of Vīrabhadra. He is the lord of the secret bevy of witches. He is the eater of the flesh of Indra’s enemy. He is Rudra. He is Nārāyaṇa. He is the vechicle of Śaṅkara in the form of a goat. He is the protector of Śiva in the form of a goat. He enjoys a thousand wicked powers. He is dear to Tulasī (or Tulasī is dear to him). He is a hero. He is the giver of all desired objects to the Vāmācāra (devotees of Śiva). He is Mahāśiva. He has Śivā (i.e. Pārvatī) mounted upon him. He is having a bird. He is the master of the disc. He gives a divine and attractive form to Indra. He gives good fortune to Pārvatī. He is the treasure of illusion. He removes the fear due to illusion. He is full of the lustre of Brahman (or of Vedas). He is full of the glory of Brahman (or of Vedas). He is full of triad (of the Vedas).

199-212. He is Subrahmaṇya. He is Vāmana, the destroyer of Bali. He is Upendra, the remover of Diti’s grief. He is the King. He is Viṣṇu. He is the ornament of Kaśyapa’s family. He is the giver of his kingdom to Bali. He is the giver of food to all gods and brāhmaṇas. He is Acyuta (i.e. Imperishable). His strides are wide. The holy places are at his feet. He stays at Tripada (i.e. in heaven). He is Trivikrama (i.e. Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation). His feet are in the sky. He has purified the three worlds with the water (flowing) from his feet. His feet are fit to be saluted by Brahmā, Śiva etc. He runs quickly with the feet of Dharma. His expanse is inconceivable and wonderful. He is a very strong universal tree. He has cut the upper part of Rāhu’s head. He took off the head of Bhṛgu’s wife. He is afraid of sins. He is always meritorious. He always cuts off the hope of the demons. He has fulfilled the desires of all gods. He has descended (i.e. has had his incarnations) only for the (good of) the universe. He has always concealed his soul by means of his illusion. He is always the desire-yielding gem for his devotees. He, the sinless one and the giver of boons, has given kingdoms to kings like Kārtavīrya. His unlimited acts are fit to be praised by all. He is Dattātreya. He is the lord of sages. He is always in close contact with the highest power. He delights in abstract meditation. He is always furious. He has removed the lustre of all the enemies of Indra. He drinks the best nectar. He is the gem of an embryo of Anasūyā. He gives enjoyments and salvation. He is the sun to the family of Jamadagni. He produced wonderful power in Reṇukā. He is unstained by (the sin of) matricide. He is the conqueror of Skanda. He gives a kingdom (even) to a brāhmaṇa. He puts an end to all bodies. He destroys the pride of heroes. He is the conqueror of Kārtavīrya. He is the giver of (the earth consisting) of seven islands. He gives glory to Śiva’s worshipper. He is Bhīma. He is Paraśurāma. He is a good preceptor and the enjoyer of everything. He is the encyclopedia of all auspicious knowledge. He is Bhīṣmācārya. He is Agni’s deity. He is the preceptor of Droṇācārya. He has a bow that conquers the universe. He is the conqueror of Yama. He is a matchless form of penance. The present of (i.e. received by) him is celibacy only. He is the greatest Manu. He is a bridge for the good (to cross the mundane existence). He is great. He is a bull. He is Virāṭ. He is the first King. He is the father of the earth. He is the only one who has milked (i.e. taken) out all gems. He is great. He is exceptionally diligent from the beginning of his existence. He is Speech. He is Wealth. He is Fame. He is self-chosen. He gives courage to the world. He is the greatest among the sovereign emperors. He holds a unique weapon.

213-218. He is to be secured by sages like Sanaka and increases devotion for the lord. He is the author of the duties of the castes and the stages of life. He is a speaker. He is a propounder. He is the banner (i.e. the scion) of the solar dynasty i.e. Rāma, a descendant of Raghu, and the ocean of virtues, (so also) the descendant of Kakutstha, the king of heroes (or the heroic king), the king, and the leader in the kingly duties. He always has an independent abode. He accepts all auspicious things. He sees only auspicious things. He is a gem among men. He is the sea. He is the superintendent of Dharma. He is a great treasure. He is the abode of all the greatest. He has the vitality of the host of the truths of all sacred texts. The world is under his control. He is Daśaratha’s son. He is a king, the resort of all gems. He has produced all modes of conduct. He observes all ways of conduct. He destroys all sins. He is superior to Indra. He is beyond metaphysical and profane knowledge. He is the ocean of forgiveness. He is liked by all excellent, eminent people. He is not perturbed by joy or sorrow. He gave up his empire at the behest of his father. He is not afraid of the rise of his rivals. He gave wealth to the country of Guha. He wears matted hair in emulation of Śiva. He got the mountain of gems from Citrakūṭa. He is the lord of the world. He moves in the forest.

219-228. He performs a sacrifice as he likes. All his missiles are infallible. He destroyed the eyes of the son of the lord of gods. He is the lunar month of Pauṣa[4] having the days like Brahmā and Indra. He is the killer of Mārīca, and the destroyer of Virādha. He purified the entire Daṇḍakāraṇya that was harmed by the curse of Brahmā. He alone is the holder of the only arrow that killed fourteen thousand fierce demons. He is the enemy of Khara. He is the killer of Triśiras. He is the killer of Dūṣaṇa. He is Janārdana. He performed the last ceremonies of Jaṭāyus, and helped him obtain heaven. He is the king of the hymn which is the all-in-all of Agastya. He scattered away the great heap of the bones of Dundubhi with the end of his sportive bow. He destroyed the demon in the nether world dragging and striking him with a saptatāla (tree). He is the giver of the kingdom to Sugrīva. He grants fearlessness with a large mind. He takes up the form of all the monkeys with Hanūmat and Rudra as the chief lords. He agitated the ocean with one arrow, along with the serpents and the demons. He dried and parched the ocean with the tip of just one arrow along with mlecchas. Formerly he built a wonderful bridge over the sea. He is the treasure of glory. He accomplishes what is impossible to be accomplished. He is dexterous in pulling upwards Lankā along with its root. He cut off the family of Rāvaṇa, haughty due to a curse, and a cause of poignant grief to the world. He killed Rāvaṇa’s son. He cut off (i.e. killed) Prahasta. He pierced (i.e. killed) Kumbhakarṇa. He is the killer of the pierced ones. He is the only one to cut off Rāvaṇa’s head. He has given a kingdom free from fear to Indra. He cuts off (the difference between) what is heavenly and unheavenly. He removes the non-Indra-hood of Indra. He removes the godhead of the demons. He destroys unrighteousness. He is praised by many. He, the enemy of Rāvaṇa, gave the kingdom (of Lankā) to Bibhīṣaṇa by means of just being saluted.

229-243. He brought back to life his entire army that was dead by the shower of nectar. He is the only supporter, just by (means of) his name (being uttered), of gods and brāhmaṇas. He is honoured by all gods. He loves Satī offered by the host of Brahmā, Sūrya, Indra, Rudra etc. He is the all-ruler of the kingdom of Ayodhyā. He is charming to all the beings. He favours and punishes like a master. He loves only the good whether low or high. He shows (ways of) justice to those who belong to his side and others. He accomplishes more with a small object. He is the protector of him who behaved improperly under the pretext of a hunter. He does all equal (i.e. impartial) things. He is a free soul due to the superiority of Pārvatī. He is not abandoned by his dear ones. He is the conqueror of Madana’s enemy. He is actually the father of Indra etc. in the guise of Kuśa and Lava. He is never conquered. He is the lord of Kośala. His arms are like those of a hero. He abandoned his brothers for truth. He shook the bright globe of the earth by taking an aim with his arrow. He made the deities possessed of a guardian by his proximity desired by Brahmā and others. He has the host of all beings like the cāṇḍālas, who have reached Brahmā’s world. He himself led donkeys and horses. For a long time he protected Ayodhyā. He is Sumitrā’s son, Lakṣmaṇa, who was accompanied by Rāma and who killed Indrajit. He (i.e. Bharata) a devotee of Viṣṇu, was delighted with the kingdom on getting the sandals of Rāma’s feet. He is Bharata who killed a crore of the unbearable gandharvas. He is Śatrughna, the destroyer of Lavaṇa. He is the lord of physicians. He is the master of the herbs (mentioned) in Āyurveda. He always has the rays of nectar (or he always produces nectar). He is Dhanvantari. He is sacrifice. He uplifts the world. He kills Sūrya’s enemy. He supports the gods. He is the lord of Dakṣiṇā (south, or the fee given to a brāhmaṇa). He is dear to brāhmaṇas. With his head cut, he is the sun, the lord of those who give good fortune. He gives everything. His form is unhurt, though with the head cut off with a missile(?). He is the fire of the name of Vājapeya etc. He is intent upon following the practices laid down in the Veda. He is the lord of the Śveta Dvīpa. He is the propounder of the Sāṃkhya (system). He is the lord of all accomplishments. He has destroyed the darkness of delusion by the knowledge manifested in the universe. He is the son of Devahūtī. He is Siddha. He is Kapila and the son of Kardama. He is the master of abstract meditation. He reduced to ash Sagara’s sons, due to his meditation being disturbed (by them). He is Dharma. He is the lord of virtue. He is the lord of Surabhi. He is meditated upon by a pure soul. He is Śiva. He obtained stability only after burning Tripura, and carries the chariot of the universe. He is won over by his devotee Śambhu. He is like a well of nectar to the demons. He is penance.

244-264. He is the universe with the great deluge, and the second king of all serpents. He is god Śeṣa. He has a thousand eyes. He has a thousand mouths, heads and arms. He has joined with the drop-like gems of his hood the ocean, the clouds and the earth. He produces death like fire and Rudra. He has a pestle as his missile. He has a plough as his weapon. He has put on dark-blue garments. He looks charming with the spirituous liquor. He removes the blemishes of the speech and the body. He is discontent. He knocked down Rāvaṇa by merely casting a glance at him. He restrained Bali. He is fierce. He is Balarāma. He is the killer of Pralamba. He is the killer of Muṣṭika. He is the killer of Dvivida. He is Bala(-rāma) who dragged Yamunā. He is the husband of Revatī. Due to the lassitude in former devotion he is the elder brother of Acyuta (i.e. Viṣṇu). He is the son of Kaśyapa and Aditi, called Devakī and Vasudeva. He is (Kṛṣṇa) the descendant of Vṛṣṇi. He is the greatest among the Sātvatas. He is Śauri. He is the perpetuator of the Yadu family. He is of the form of a man. He is the Supreme Brahman. He is Savyasācin (i.e. Arjuna). He is the giver of boons. His grace is desired by Brahmā, etc. and his childhood is a wonder to the world. He killed Pūtanā. He broke Śakaṭa, Yamala and Arjuna. He is the enemy of Vātāsura. He is the killer of Keśin. He is the enemy of Dhenuka. He is the lord of cows. He is Dāmodara. He is the god of the cowherds. He is the giver of joy to Yaśodā. He crushed Kāliya. He is dear to all the cowherds and cowherdesses. He easily held the Govardhana (mountain). He is Govinda. He is a joy to Gokula. He is the destroyer of Ariṣṭa. He is the giver of salvation to the cowherdesses mad with lust. He instantly kills him who hurts the earth. He crushed Cāṇūra. He is Kaṃsa’s enemy. He is the great one who put Ugrasena on the throne. He made the earth characterised by auspiciousness. He put an end to Jarāsandha’s power (or army). He threw and broke Jarāsandha. He gave glory to Bhīmasena. He gave (back making it alive) Sāndīpani’s child. He is the conqueror of Kālāntaka and others. He is the emancipator of all hellish beings. He is the conqueror of crores of all kings. He is the husband of Rukmiṇī. He punished Rukmi. He killed Naraka. He is loved by all beautiful women. He is the enemy of Mura. He is Garuḍa-bannered. He, the lord of all, all alone conquered Rudra, Arka (the Sun), Maruts and others. He removed the pride of the lord of gods. He has adorned the earth with the desire-yielding trees. He is the conqueror of the crores of attendants (of Śiva) like Nandin, pierced along with Bāṇa’s arms. He easily conquered Śiva. He is worshipped by Śiva only. He is the giver of victory of Arjuna from a total fall, for Indra. He has cut off the head of Kāśirāja. He is the only one who crushed Rudra’s power. He, the lord of the universe, casts a favourable glance. He troubled the son of Kāśirāja. He broke the pledge of Śambhu. He is the leader who totally burnt Kāśirāja. He is the killer of the crores of the attendants of the lord of Kāśī. He honours brāhmaṇas instructing the world. He is subjugated by bevies of young women. Formerly he granted a boon to Śiva. He is the only giver of stability to Śaṅkara. He worships Śiva, his portion. He is the lord of the vow of lucky maidens. He, in the form of Kṛṣṇa, is the killer of Śiva’s enemies. He has the body of Mahālakṣmī. He is the protector of Gaurī. He is the killer of Vaidala Vṛtra. His lustre alone is Mucukunda. He did a desired thing for Kālayavana. He is the lord of Yamunā. He is a brāhmaṇa’s son led near and devoted.

265-278. He brought down to the earth Indra’s splendour for his poor devotee Śrīdāman. He is the only one giving salvation to the wicked Śiśupāla. He is the lord of Dvārakā. He fashioned the crores of treasures at Dvārakā to be reached by (everyone up to) a cāṇḍāla. He alone gave, as he willed, salvation to his principal devotees Akrūra and Uddhava. He turned the ocean into a well of nectar while sporting (there) with children and women. He gave life to Parīkṣit who while in the womb was burnt by Brahmā’s missile. He led the daughter of the brāhmaṇa devoted to him. He removed Arjuna’s pride. He seized all Kauravas like Bhīṣma with a mysterious figure. He duly cut off all the divine missiles and removed Arjuna’s delusion. He removed the fear of the gods and the earth under the guise of a curse to be conceived. He is the enemy of old age and physical diseases, and gives a good condition (to his devotee). He gives everything that is desired merely when he is remembered. He is god Madana, the lord of Rati. He is Manmatha, and the destroyer of Śambara. He is bodyless (i.e. Madana). He conquered Gaurī’s lord (i.e. Śiva). He is the husband of Rati, and is always desired. His arrows are made of flowers. He is Smara (i.e. Madana) who vanquishes everyone. He is dear to Kāmeśvarī (i.e. Rati). He is Uṣā’s lord. He is Viśvaketu (i.e. Aniruddha). He is proud everywhere. He is a superior ‘man’. He has four souls. He has four modes. He is the author of the four ages. He is the only universal soul of all the four Vedas. He is in crores the portion of everything that is excellent. He is the ancient sage Vyāsa, the author of a thousand branches (Vedic knowledge). He is the creator (i.e. the author) of the Mahābhārata. He is the lord ofpoets. He is Bādarāyaṇa. He is Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana (i.e. Vyāsa) who is the only teacher of all the (four) goals (of human life). He is the author of the Vedānta. He alone has manifested Brahman. He is the cause of the Puru race. He is Buddha (literally, enlightened). He has won over through meditation the god of all gods. He is without a weapon. He has conquered the world. He is Śrīdhara. He deludes the wicked. He has outcast the demons from the Vedic (fold). He has preserved the meaning of the Vedas and the sacred texts. He is the son of Śuddhodana (i.e. he is Buddha). He is seen and shown. He gives happiness. He is the lord of the assembly. He shows favour to all as they deserve it. He is all void. He gives all that is desired. He has four crores of various principles. He is the lord who has gone beyond intelligence. He is the lord showing the path of the Veda to the heretics. He is the preserver of the texts sacred to the heretics.

279-293. He is Kalki. He is the child of Viṣṇu’s glory. He ends the Kali age. He kills all the wicked mlecchas. He has fashioned all the distinguished brāhmaṇas. He propounds the truth. He removes the prolonged hunger of gods and brāhmaṇas. He is Aśvavārādirevanta(?). He destroys the bad condition of the earth. He instantly gives unending glory to the earth. He knows all the ways of life that have perished. Due to his contact with unending gold he is the only brāhmaṇa with entire gold. He is the only ruler of the world that cannot be controlled. He is adorable to the world. He is the banner of victory. He is the lord of the principle of soul. He is the best doer. He is Brahmā. He is (Śiva) the lord of Umā. He is the best lord. He is the first among the lords of beings. He is Marīci. He is a leader like Janaka. He is Kaśyapa. He is the chief lord of gods. He is Prahlāda, the king of demons. He is the Moon, the lord of stars. He is the Sun, best in lustre. He is Śukra, the lord of the wise. He is the chief of great sages, i.e. Bhṛgu. He is Viṣṇu, the chief among the Suns. He is Bali, and the Supreme Being. He is Vāyu. He is pure fire. He is the greatest. He is Śaṅkara, the chief of the Rudras, and the preceptor. He is the wisest one. He is the chief gandharva, Citraratha. He is the excellent Indestructible (one). He is the first caste. By means of power she is Gaurī, the first lady. He is the best blessing. He is Nārada, the chief divine sage. He is the chief Pāṇḍava, Arjuna. He is the chief discussion and discourse. He is Pavana (Wind). He is the lord of Pavana. He is Varuṇa, the lord of the aquatic animals. He is the best of the sacred places on the Gaṅgā. He plays with dice, the principal among tricks. He is food, the excellent medicine. He is Sudarśana, the best among the missiles. He is the thunderbolt, the best weapon. He is Uccaiḥśravas, the lord of horses; Airāvata, the lord of elephants. He is the lord of those having a wife like Arundhatī. He is Aśvattha, the chief among trees. He is metaphysical knowledge, the chief among the lores. He is Om, the best of the sacred texts of the Vedic hymns. He is Meru, the chief of the mountains. He is the month of Mārgaśīrṣa, the first among the months. He is the best of times. He is the soul, accomplished in ancient times, of a day etc. He is Kapila. He is the master of Sāma Veda. He is Garuḍa, the first among the birds. He is the desire-yielding cow. He is the best friend, removing affliction. He is the desire-yielding gem. He is the best preceptor. He is the mother. He is the most kind father. He is the lion, the lord of beasts. He is Vāsuki, the lord of serpents, and the king, best among men. He is brāhmaṇa, the chief of the castes. He is the mind, best due to compassion. Repeated salutation (to him). These are the thousand names of Vāsudeva, Viṣṇu. It (i.e. Viṣṇusahasranāma) puts an end to all faults.

294-312. It very much enhances devotion. It is an inexhaustible means of the worlds like those of Brahmā, and the only means to heaven. It is the only staircase to Viṣṇu world. It destroys all griefs. It gives all pleasures. It instantly gives the highest salvation. It fully purifies the dirt of the mind like lust and anger. It gives peace. It purifies even men with great sins. It gives all the desired fruits to all beings. It removes all obstacles. It destroys all evils. It destroys terrible pain. It destroys acute poverty. It removes the three debts. It is a secret. It gives wealth, grains and glory. It gives all affluence. It gives all (kinds of) success. It gives all kinds of auspiciousness. It gives the fruit of a crore of (visits to) holy places, sacrifices, austerities, gifts and vows. It puts an end to the dullness of the world. It is the promoter of all lores. It gives a kingdom to those who are deprived of their kingdom. It removes all the diseases of the sick persons. It gives a son to the barren women. It gives life to those whose (span of) life is diminished. It destroys the (ill effect of) being possessed by ghosts and of poison. It destroys the oppression caused by a Planet. It is auspicious. It is meritorious. It enhances (the span of) life by means of being listened to, being recited and being muttered. The religious merit of him (is as much) as all the Vedas with the Vedāṅgas, crores of hymns, the Purāṇas, sacred texts, Smṛtis (would give) when heard and recited. O dear one, if a man mutters or recites a letter, a verse or a line every day, then all one’s desired objects are soon achieved. Then (what would be obtained by listening to or reciting) the entire (text)? Such certainty is not seen in all (other) acts. O good one, this is to be secretly preserved by you and is to be recited only for your own interest. It is not to be given to a non-devotee of Viṣṇu, whose mind is overcome with doubts, who lacks devotion and faith and who looks upon Viṣṇu as an ordinary (deity). It should be given to the son, to a disciple, to a friend with a desire of their good. Those of a dull intellect will not grasp it without my favour. It gives instant fruit in the Kali age. Nārada will take it to the community in (the various) kalpas, by which the misery of unfortunate persons will come to an end. In the Āryāvarta it will live with two or three devotees of Viṣṇu. There is no better abode than Viṣṇu. There is no greater penance than Viṣṇu. There is no greater religious merit than Viṣṇu. There is no hymn that does not pertain to Viṣṇu. There is no greater truth than Viṣṇu. There is no greater sacrifice than Viṣṇu. There is no greater meditation than Viṣṇu. There is no better recourse than Viṣṇu. For him who has devotion to Viṣṇu, what is the use of many hymns, and very extensive sacred texts and thousands of Vājapeya sacrifices? Viṣṇu is full of all sacred places. The lord is full of all sacred texts. Viṣṇu is full of all sacrifices. I am telling the truth and the truth (only). I have told (you) this which is the full essence of everything up to Brahman.

Pārvatī said:

313-330. I am lucky. I am favoured. I am blessed, O lord of the world, since I heard from you this hymn, this secret which is very difficult to be secured. Oh! how very painful it is that the fools suffer in the mundane existence, when Viṣṇu, the destroyer of all miseries and the lord of gods is present (everywhere), and due to dedication to whom Śiva is seen by people to be naked, having matted hair, with his body smeared with ash and an ascetic. Which (other) god is there who is superior to (Viṣṇu) the lord of Lakṣmi and the enemy of Madhu? Which better position is there than that Viṣṇu, that principle which is every day thought of by you the lord of abstract meditation? Whom, ignoring him, do the fools, proud of their knowledge, worship? O lord, you have for a long time deprived me, that you have not manifested to me this lord, having the divine powers like you. Oh, Viṣṇu, the lord of all, the best among all excellent gods, the first preceptor of you, is looked upon as an ordinary god! The greatness of the great is that they worship those who deserve worship. Those having forgiveness ignore even those who have become their enemies without any cause. I too, in my childhood saw my father’s starving subjects. Unable to nourish them due to difficulty they were supported after having propitiated Lakṣmī. Gods like you, Indra and others with kind-hearted friends and kinsmen shine, due to the subjects in whose proximity she stays. Without her where can godhead remain? Where can glory and possessions remain? All living beings live in anguish. Without her there can be no righteousness, no worldly desires, no (satisfaction of) lust. (Then) salvation too is (far) away. How can the hungry and the unfortunate ones have concentration through abstract meditation? He who controls Lakṣmī is alone the essence of the worldly existence, and the only leader of the entire world. Śaṅkara even abandoned her. He, the magnanimous one, is full with humility, purity, handsomeness, wealth, of uprightness and valour surpassing that of all (others). Who can equal that Viṣṇu, god of gods, without whose partial incarnation all this world gets dissolved? But the deluded ones call this to be a fault. He has no birth, no death. Nor has he any desired object to be obtained. But, O lord due to my mind attached to lust etc., due to my having been one with you, due to an error, if I am unable to recite every day these thousand names of Viṣṇu [viz., Viṣṇusahasranāma], then tell me, O bull-bannered god, that name, by which I shall get that fruit (obtained by the recital of Viṣṇu’s thousand names).

Mahādeva said:

331. O you beautiful one, O you charming one, (recite) ‘Rāma, Rāma, Rāma’. The thousand names are equal to that.[5]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Khaṭvāṅga—A club or staff with a skull at the top considered as the weapon of Śiva and carried by ascetics and yogins.

[2]:

Tāpatraya—The three kinds of torments: caused by the mind (Ādhyātmika), caused by fate (Ādhidaivika), and caused by animals (Ādhibhautika).

[3]:

Apama—ecliptic (the sun’s apparent orbit).

[4]:

Taiṣī—The lunar month of Pauṣa.

[5]:

Verses like 219b, 239, 260, 261a, 264 are not sufficiently clear.

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