Vritra, Vṛtra: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vritra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vṛtra can be transliterated into English as Vrtra or Vritra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Vṛtra (वृत्र) or Vṛtragītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Vṛtra-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vṛtra (वृत्र).—(VṚTRĀSURA). A mighty and fierce asura. Reason for his birth. Vṛtra was the rebirth of emperor Citraketu. Citraketu and his wife Kṛtadyuti prayed to Aṅgiras, as a result of which a son was born to them. That son died in his infancy. But Aṅgiras brought him to life again. Brahmā and Nārada taught Citraketu theosophy. Citraketu sat in contemplation for eight days and changing himself to a Gandharva he flew through the sky. As he was flying, he saw Pārvatī sitting on the thigh of Śiva and laughed aloud. Knowing this Pārvatī cursed him to become an asura. Vṛtrāsura was the rebirth of the emperor according to this curse. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 6). (See full article at Story of Vṛtra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Vṛtra (वृत्र).—A son of Tvaṣṭri, created out of a sacrificial offering with an ugly appearance to avenge Indra, the murderer of Viśvarūpa. Hari advised Indra on the means to end Vṛtra. In the battle Vṛtra encouraged his soldiers and uttered words of heroism. Ran towards Indra as Kaiṭabha against Hari and had one hand cut off. But in the contest the Vajra of Indra slipped and Vṛka asked him to take up the weapon and fight. He had his other arm cut off. But Vṛka swallowed Indra into his stomach from which Indra escaped and cut off his head. Vṛtra attained Aloka due to his faith in Hari having been born as Citraketu (s.v.) in his previous birth.1 Attained release by satsaṅga. His greed for more territory.2 Killed by Hālāphala avatār. An account of the death in the bhāgavata; an Asura of Kṛtayuga.3 Brought forth sons from his terrible breathing during his fight with Indra in thousands. All followers of Mahendra, those who have realised Brahmā, are happy, dharmic and live in small bodies.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. chh. 9-12 (whole); ch. 14 (whole); 17. 38-39; X. 77. 36; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 83.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 12. 5; XII. 3. 11.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 47. 51; 53. 20; 249. 67.
  • 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 34-6.

1b) A son of Anāyuṣa. Father of Bakas in hundreds who followed Mahendra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 31.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Vṛtra (वृत्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.32, I.65, I.61.41) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vṛtra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Vritra is the son of Tvashta. When Vishwarupa, the son of Tvashta, was slain by Indra, Tvashta performed a sacrifice with the intention of obtaining a son who could slay the King of Gods. Due to a mispronounciation, he instead obtained a son who would be slain by Indra instead. This son was Vritra.

According to the Srimad Bhagavata Purana, Vritra was a King named Chitraketu in his previous birth. While coursing the skies in his chariot, he saw the half-woman (Ardha-Nari) form of Lord Shiva and made a disparaging comment on it. For this sin, he was cursed to be born as a demon in his next birth.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Vritra (वृत्र): Means "the enveloper". Vritra, was an Asura and also a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi ("snake"), cognate with Azhi Dahaka of Zoroastrian mythology and he is said to have had three heads. He was son of Twashta who was defeated by Indra's weapons Vajrayudha. He was born out of his father's sacrificial flames and became Indra's mortal enemy.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vṛtra (वृत्र).—[vṛt-rak]

1) Name of a demon killed by Indra; (he is supposed to be a personification of darkness); see इन्द्र (indra).

2) A cloud.

3) Darkness.

4) An enemy.

5) Sound.

6) A wheel.

7) Name of Indra.

8) A mountain.

-tram Leather.

Derivable forms: vṛtraḥ (वृत्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtra (वृत्र).—m.

(-traḥ) 1. An enemy. 2. Darkness. 3. A demon slain by Indra. 4. A cloud. 5. A name of Indra. 6. The name of a mountain. 7. Sound, noise. E. vṛt to be or abide, Unadi aff. rak .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtra (वृत्र).—m. 1. The name of a demon slain by Indra, Chr. 292, 9 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 9; Chr. 18, 41. 2. An enemy. 3. Darkness. 4. A cloud. 5. A mountain. 6. Sound. 7. A wheel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtra (वृत्र).—[masculine] coverer, besetter, encloser, [Name] of a demon, the chief enemy of Indra; [neuter] ([masculine]) i.[grammar] foe or host of foes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vṛtra (वृत्र):—[from vṛ] m. (only once in [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]) or n. (mostly in [plural]) ‘coverer, investor, restrainer’, an enemy, foe, hostile host, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of the Vedic personification of an imaginary malignant influence or demon of darkness and drought (supposed to take possession of the clouds, causing them to obstruct the clearness of the sky and keep back the waters; Indra is represented as battling with this evil influence in the pent up clouds poetically pictured as mountains or castles which are shattered by his thunderbolt and made to open their receptacles cf. [especially] [Ṛg-veda i, 31]; as a Dānava, Vṛtra is a son of Tvaṣṭṛ, or of Danu q.v., and is often identified with Ahi, the serpent of the sky, and associated with other evil spirits, such as Śuṣṇa, Namuci, Pipru, Śambara, Uraṇa, whose malignant influences are generally exercised in producing darkness or drought), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a thunder-cloud, [Ṛg-veda iv, 10, 5] (cf. [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 10])

4) [v.s. ...] darkness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a wheel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a mountain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] mountain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a stone, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Indra (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] n. wealth (= dhana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([varia lectio] vitta)

11) [v.s. ...] sound, noise (= dhvani), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtra (वृत्र):—(traḥ) 1. m. An enemy; darkness; cloud; mountain; noise; Indra; a demon killed by him.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vṛtra (वृत्र):—(von 1. var) [Uṇādisūtra 2, 13.]

1) Bedränger, Feind, feindliches Heer: a) n. gew. pl.: indreṇa yu.ā taruṣema vṛ.ram [Ṛgveda 7, 48, 2. 8, 9, 4.] yujaṃ vṛ.reṣu va.riṇam [1, 7, 5.] yatkā.ave.daśa vṛ.rāṇyapra.i ni sa.asrāṇi ba.hayaḥ [1, 53, 6. 48, 13. 3, 49, 1. 4, 17, 19. 22, 9. 24, 10.] sa hanti vṛ.rā sami.heṣu.śatrūn [41, 2.] u.hayāni [6, 19, 3. 26, 2.] vṛ.rā, dasyūn [29, 6.] vṛ.rā, a.itrān [33, 1.] u.hayāṃ2 a.itrā.dāsā vṛ.rāṇyāryā ca [3. 46, 1. 7, 83, 1.] vṛ.reṣu.śūrā.maṃsata u.rāḥ [34, 3. 92, 4.] [Vālakhilya 1, 2.] — b) m. = ari, ripu [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 25, 166.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 459.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 86.] [Halāyudha 5, 60.] [VIŚVA] bei [UJJVAL.] vṛtrāṃghnaṃścaret [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 2, 4, 13, 1.] —

2) m. Name eines von Indra bekämpften und erschlagenen Dämons, der die himmlischen Wasser raubt; häufig Vṛtra Ahi genannt; ein Sohn Tvaṣṭar’s von der Danāyus (Anāyuṣā) [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 25, 166. 31, 240.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 22.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 174.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha] [VIŚVA a. a. O.] [Ṛgveda 1, 32, 5. 7. 51, 4. 80, 2. fgg. 121, 11. 2, 11, 9. 18.] a.o vavri.āṃsaṃ vṛ.ram [14, 2. 30, 2.] pa.i.hiṃ na.īnām [3, 33, 6.] na.ī.ṛtam [8, 12, 26.] vṛ.reṇa.yadahinā.bibhra.āyudhā sa.asthithāḥ [10, 113, 3. 6.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 6, 85, 3. 134, 1. 8, 5, 3. 12, 1, 37. 20, 128, 13.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 1, 3, 4.] [Mahābhārata 1, 2541. 2680.] valavṛtrau [3, 12073. 5, 7024. 12, 3660] (fehlerhaft vṛtta ed. Calc.). [Harivaṃśa 2286. 7302. 12503. 13185.] valo vṛtrabhrātā [13187.] vṛtrāsura [13589. 14289.] nāśa [Rāmāyaṇa.2,25,30.] [Oxforder Handschriften 59,b,25. 71,b,31.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.6,9,17.] nāthāḥ [?10, 27. Mancherlei Legenden über ihn, z. B. Taittirīyasaṃhitā 2, 1, 4, 5. 4, 12, 2. 6, 1, 1, 5. 5, 1, 1. Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 3, 15. The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 6, 3, 17. 4, 1. 4, 1, 4, 8. Śāṅkhāyana’s Brāhmaṇa 15, 3. Pañcaviṃśabrāhmaṇa 18, 5, 2. Mahābhārata 5, 275. fgg. 12, 10002. fgg. 14, 298. fgg. Harivaṃśa 13587. fgg. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 6, 9, 11. fgg.] —

3) m. Gewitterwolke [das 1, 10.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [VIŚVA a. a. O.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 3, 21, 2.] vṛ.rājjā.o divāka.aḥ [4, 10, 5.] —

4) m. Finsterniss [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 25, 166.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 2, 2.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 19.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha] [VIŚVA a. a. O.] —

5) n. so v. a. dhana [das 2, 10.] vitta v. l. —

6) m. Rad (cakra) [VIŚVA.] —

7) m. Berg [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [VIŚVA]; ein best. Berg [Medinīkoṣa] —

8) m. ein N. Indra's [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —

9) n. = dhvani Comm. zu [Uṇādisūtra] in [Siddhāntakaumudī] dhvanau fehlerhaft für ghane . — Vgl. valavṛtraghna, valavṛtranisūdana, valavṛtrahan .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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