Matsya, Mātsya: 46 definitions


Matsya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Matsy.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Matsya (मत्स्य):—One of the sons of Uparicara Vasu (son of Kṛtī, who was the son of Cyavana). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.6)

Source: The Garuda puranam

A Matsya stone is of the shape of a long lotus and has marks of lines at the mouth.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Matsya (मत्स्य).—The first and foremost incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu. (See under Avatāra).

2) Matsya (मत्स्य).—An ancient country of Purāṇic fame. The people of this country are called Matsyas. The details available regarding Matsyadeśa from the Mahābhārata are given below:

2) The Pāṇḍavas wandering through the forests came to Matsyadeśa. (Śloka 2, Chapter 155, Ādi Parva).

2) The people of Matsyadeśa in fear of Jarāsandha migrated from the north to the south. (Śloka 28, Chapter 14, Sabhā Parva).

2) Bhīmasena during his victory march to the east conquered this country. (Śloka 8, Chapter 30, Sabhā Parva).

2) Sahadeva during his victory march to the south conquered the people of Matsyadeśa. (Śloka 4, Chapter 31, Sabhā Parva).

2) Matsyadeśa was one of the countries suggested by Arjuna to spend their life incognito. (Śloka 12, Chapter 1, Virāṭa Parva).

2) Virāṭa was the chief of Matsyadeśa during the time of Mahābhārata. (Śloka 17, Chapter 1, Virāṭa Parva).

2) In the Kurukṣetra battle Virāṭa, King of Matsyadeśa, came to the help of Yudhiṣṭhira with an Akṣauhiṇī (army). (Śloka 12, Chapter 18, Udyoga Parva).

2) The Pāṇḍavas spent a year of their life incognito at the palace of Virāṭa, king of Matsyadeśa. (Chapter 7, Virāṭa Parva).

2) Matsyarājya was one of the prominent kingdoms of ancient Bhārata. (Śloka 40, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).

2) Bhīṣma slaughtered many soldiers from Matsyadeśa.

2) Droṇācārya killed at a stretch five hundred Matsyas in the great battle. (Śloka 31 Chapter 190, Droṇa Parva).

2) Karṇa once conquered Matsyadeśa. (Śloka 18, Chapter 8, Karṇa Parva).

2) The people of Matsyadeśa were honest and charitable. (Chapter 45, Śloka 28, Karṇa Parva).

2) Those who were left out among the Matsyas in the great battle were killed by Aśvatthāmā. (Śloka 158, Chapter 8, Sauptika Parva).

3) Matsya (मत्स्य).—A King. He was the brother of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa. Satyavatī and Matsya were both found in a fish by the same fisherman. (See under Adri.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Matsya (मत्स्य).——(c)—in the Madhyadeśa, on the way from Dvārakā to Hastināpura;1 visited by Vidura;2 king of, vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 34; X. 71. 22; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 41; 18. 51; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 50.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 24.
  • 3) Ib. II. 7. 35.

1b) An avatār of Viṣṇu;1 once during a Pralaya an Asura, Hayagrīva, carried off the Vedas when Hari took the form of a fish with one horn and fell into the palm of the Draviḍa king Satyavrata, performing ablutions; finding that it outgrew the size of his palm he took it to a pond; it outgrew the size of the pond when it was taken to a lake; it was also too small to hold it; hence after many trials it was taken to the sea; addressed by the king the fish revealed to him his true form and warned him of the Pralaya coming in a week and prepared him to get into a boat to be sent by him and have it tied to its horn; the deluge came and Satyavrata did as was directed; when they were all floating on the sea, Matsya Hari narrated to him the matsya purāṇa; after the deluge Matsya killed the demon, Hayagrīva and recovered the Vedas; through his blessings Satyavrata became Vaivasvata Manu;2 appeared to Vaivasvata Manu during deluge; protected Manu and others;3 the form of Viṣṇu worshipped in Ramyaka.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 15. 35; X. 2. 40; XI. 4. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 433; 22. 66; 57. 61; IV. 4. 22; 29. 136; Matsya-purāṇa 260. 39; 285. 6; 290. 23; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 4. 8.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. ch. 24 (whole).
  • 3) Ib. II. 7. 12; XI. 4. 18; Matsya-purāṇa 22. 92.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 18. 24.

1c) A Vasu; a son of Uparicara and a Cedipa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 6; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 28.

1d) Gift of a silver one during the ceremonial relating to the digging of tanks.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 19.

1e) The image of.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 259. 2.

1f) The disciple of Śākalya.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 60. 64.

1g) Also matsya purāṇa; a mahā purāṇa consisting of 14000 ślokas,1 styled as Purāṇa Samhita with details of Sānkhya, Yoga and Karma narrated by Matsya Hari to king Satyavrata during the deluge.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 23; Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 7. 24; 13. 8.
  • 2) Ib. VIII. 24. 54-5.

1h) A trible; country of the;1 placed on the East of the Gomanta hill by Jarāsandha;2 enlisted by Jarāsandha against the Yadus;3 followed Bhīma in his conquests;4 rose against Śiśupāla;5 heard of Kṛṣṇa going to Mithilā and met him with presents;6 their king was Virāṭa;7 he went to Syamantapañcaka for the solar eclipse.8

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 35.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 11[7].
  • 3) Ib. X. 52. 50 (V) 2.
  • 4) Ib. X. 72. 13.
  • 5) Ib. X. 74. 41.
  • 6) Ib. X. 86. 20.
  • 7) Ib. X. 52. 11[7].
  • 8) Ib. X. 82. 13.

2a) Mātsya (मात्स्य).—A son of Vasu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 81.

2b) A tribe.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 48.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Matsya (मत्स्य) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.144.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Matsya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to an ancient country where dharma is practiced, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—It regards Madhyadeśa i.e. the tract of land between the rivers Gaṅgā and the Yamunā, as the birth place of Sadācāra. It looks upon Kurukṣetra, Matsya, Pāñcāla and Surasena as holy countries where Dharma is practiced.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Matsya (fish): Patāka hands face downwards, the thumbs and little fingers extended. Usage: fish.

Note: The palm of one hand on the back of the other, the fingers along the fingers, and the two little fingers and thumbs moved to and fro.

2) One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Matsya: the Matsya hand is shown, then both hands Tripatāka level at the shoulders.

Source: Natya Shastra

Matsya (मत्स्य).—Description of a women of fish (matsya) type;—A woman who has long, large and high breasts, is fickle and without any twinkle in her eyes, has many servants and offsprings, is fond of water, is said to have the nature of a fish (matsya or mīna).

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Matsya (मत्स्य) or Matsyāvatāra refers to one of the Daśāvatāra (“ten incarnations”) (of Lord Viṣṇu) to which are assign various hand gestures (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Hindu scriptures, different stories are found, related to lord Viṣṇu, where we find the magnanimity of different incarnations of lord Viṣṇu. Moreover, a great influence of these ten incarnations of lord Viṣṇu (e.g., Matsya-avatāra) seems to fall in the field of Dance also.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Mātsya (मात्स्य) refers to “[foodstuffs] made of fish”, as mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., mātsya (made of fish)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., cūtaphala (mango fruit)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to the “fish”, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the 12h adhyāya, Kāśyapasaṃhita adds external and internal antidotes for poisons of various animals and insects [e.g., fishes (matsya)]. [...] Accordingly, “Fish poison (matsya-viṣa) is cured with a mixture of ghee,Vyoṣa and root of Piṇḍī”.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to a “fish”, which is used in certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “If a seed is cultured in the oil of Alangium salviifolium, fish [e.g., Matsya], Gangetic porpoise, human being, hog and crocodile and then dried up, sown in a good soil and nourished by coconut water (gale water?) the tree thereof produced flowers and fruits at once”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Matsya (मत्स्य) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “fish”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Matsya is part of the sub-group named Vāriśaya, refering to animals “living in waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

The meat of fish (matsya) is heavy, hot, sweet, tonic, bulk-promoting, vāta-alleviating, unctuous, aphrodisiac and has plenty of demerits. Among them, Rohita, because of eating algae and grass and also avoidance of sleep, is appetiser, laghupāka (light in digestion) and strength-promoting.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Matsya (मत्स्य):—Fish

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Matsya is long and lotus-bud-shaped; golden-hued; line at the opening; three spots (bindu-traya). Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Matsya stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

1) Matsya (मत्स्य, “fish”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The representations of certain animals and birds are generally found in the hands of images. They are, for example, Matsya.

2) Matsya (मत्स्य, “fish”) or Matsyāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. When the matsya-hasta is held at the level of the shoulders, it is considered matsya-avatāra-hasta. In iconography, Viṣṇu in this form has four arms where the upper left hand holds a conch and upper right hand holds a discus in kartarīmukha-hasta. The lower right hand holds a sword and the lower left hand holds a shield in muṣṭi-hasta. There is no similarity in dance posture and images while depicting Viṣṇu in the matsya-avatāra.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.

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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to:—Śrī Viṣṇu’s form as a giant fish who appeared to save the Vedas from the ocean of devastation; one the daśāvatāras, ten famous incarnations of the Lord. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to “name of the figure formed by the intersection of two circles § 2.22.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to a country belonging to “Madhyadeśa (central division)” classified under the constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa represent the Madhyadeśa or central division consisting of the countries of [i.e., Matsya] [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to the incarnation of the Fish, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: [...] For the welfare of the world, there [manifested the incarnations of] the Fish [Matsya], the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-Lion, One who had a Short Stature, Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalkin. I bow to Govinda, the god of gods, who in this manner assumed diverse forms, diverse shapes and diverse names, and who is meditated upon by sage”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to a “fish” and represents one of the animals associated with the Dūtīs associated with Tumburu, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] However, those who are Dūtīs bear a form adorned with one face, two arms, and three eyes. Adorning [them is] hair, shorn with scissors. They sit on a fish (matsya), a turtle, a makara, and a frog. The servants are two-armed and hold a sword and a hide, [faces bent] in a crooked frown [on their] single faces, [which is adorned with] three eyes. [When] meditated on, [they] burst forth with white, etc., colors, giving the fruits of siddhis. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to “fish” (which were commonly the victim of hunting), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “That is called hunting by snares in which animals are killed by tricking, and in which men capture fish (matsya), conches, otters, and oysters. Infinite are the means resorted to in this sort of hunting. It is used by low people, by the Niṣādas and others. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Matsya (मत्स्य, “fish”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the satyayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).

Source: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Matsya (मत्स्य) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (two types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Matsya] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Avatar of Viṣnu. Matsya, the fish, from the Satya Yuga. Lord Vishnu takes the form of a fish to save Manu from apocalypse, after which he takes his boat to the new world along with one of every species of plant and animal, gathered in a massive cyclone.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to a “fish”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a parasol, lotus, banner, muraja drum, flagpole, ornament, a woman of the court, fish (matsya), milk, the best curd, wine, blazing fire, and fruits [are seen], then there are victory, extraordinary increase of grain, property, [the number of] sons, and other [merits], and the completion of duties. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to “fish”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Oṃ an offering of eatables all combined, full of food to be enjoyed, Provided with drink to be enjoyed, an acceptable offering from her, Five kinds of virtuous conduct, completely full of egg-born fish (matsya-aṇḍaja-samanvita), Of one mind with the Nirvikalpa, eat and enjoy Hūṃ”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to the “fishes” (situated in the lotus-lake near Aḍakavatī), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] That lotus lake was covered by various blue lotuses, lotuses, white water-lilies and white lotuses. It contained various fish (matsya), Makaras, Timiṅgilas, alligators, bees and various other water-born beings. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Matsya (मत्स्य) or “fish” (prakrit: maccha) was an important food of a large section of the people. The canonical texts, however, highly condemn the killing of fishes and other living creatures and lay down that one should not kill any creature himself nor should induce others to do so, nor consent to such act of others. Similar restrictions have been placed on its consumption.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Matsya (मत्स्य) (distinguished by the city Vairāṭa) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Matsya), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Vairāṭa) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Matsya (मत्स्य) refers to one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—The Matsya country comprises the modern territory of Jaipur; it included the whole of the present territory of Alwar with a portion of Bharatpur. From the Aṅguttara Nikāya we know that the Matsya country was included in the traditional list of the sixteen Mahājanapadas. The country of the Matsyas lay to the south or south west of Indraprastha and to the south of Sūrasena. The capital of the Matsya country was Virāṭanagara or Vairat, so called because it was the capital of Virāṭa, King of the Matsyas.

The Janavasabha Suttanta tells us of the Matsyas or Macchas in connection with the account of the Buddha’s stay at Nādika. In the Vidhura Paṇḍita Jātaka we read that the Macchas witnessed the dice-play of the King of the Kurus with the Yakkha Puṇṇaka.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

matsya (मत्स्य).—m (S) A fish. 2 fig. The ellipsis formed by the intersection of two circles. 3 A figure formed by the lines on the palm or sole; supposed to betoken good fortune. 4 A mole (on the body &c.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

matsya (मत्स्य).—m A fish. matsyāvatāra m The first of the ten incarnations of viṣṇu.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य).—[mad-syan; Uṇādi-sūtra 4.2]

1) A fish; शूले मत्स्यानिवापक्ष्यन् दुर्बलान् बलवत्तराः (śūle matsyānivāpakṣyan durbalān balavattarāḥ) Manusmṛti 7.2.

2) A particular variety of fish.

3) A king of the Matsyas.

-tsyau (dual) The sign Pisces of the zodiac.

-tsyāḥ (pl.) Name of a country and its inhabitants, the country of Virāṭa q. v.; Ms. 2.19.

Derivable forms: matsyaḥ (मत्स्यः).

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Mātsya (मात्स्य).—a. Relating to or coming from fish; यदर्थमदधाद्रूपं मात्स्यं लोकजुगुप्सितम् (yadarthamadadhādrūpaṃ mātsyaṃ lokajugupsitam) Bhāgavata 8.24.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य).—mf. (-tsya-tsī) A fish in general. m.

(-tsyaḥ) 1. A particular fish probably the Saphari, or fish in which Vishnu was incarnate in his Matsya Avatar. 2. A name of Vishnu, from his incarnation as a fish. 3. A country, enumerated amongst the midland divisions of India, (Dinajpur and Rangpur.) 4. One of the Puranas. E. madi to be pleased, Unadi aff. syat .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य).—i. e. 1. mad + sya, 1. m. A fish, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 39. 2. A particular fish, probably the Sapharī. 3. A name of Viṣṇu. 4. The name of a country, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 19; 7, 193.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य).—[masculine] ā [feminine] fish.

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Mātsya (मात्स्य).—[adjective] fishy or fish-like.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Mātsya (मात्स्य) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—i. e. Matsyapurāṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Matsya (मत्स्य):—[from matsa] a m. (cf. matsa and maccha) a fish, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (personified as a prince with the [patronymic] sāmmada, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa])

2) [v.s. ...] a [particular] species of f°, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) the figure of a f° (= timi), [Sūryasiddhānta]

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] luminous appearance, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] ([dual number]) the 12th sign of the zodiac (Pisces), [Jyotiṣa]

6) [v.s. ...] a [particular] figure (= svastikamadhyākṛti), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

7) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of a people and country (which [according to] to [Manu-smṛti ii, 19] forms part of Brahmarṣi), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

8) [v.s. ...] a king of the [Matsyasūkta’s Śabdakalpadruma] (cf. matsa)

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Virāṭa (as having been found by fishermen, along with his sister Matsyā or Satya-vatī, in the body of the Apsaras Adrikā, metamorphosed into a fish), [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a pupil of Deva-mitra Śākalya, [Catalogue(s)]

11) Matsyā (मत्स्या):—[from matsya > matsa] f. a female fish, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 104 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of the sister of king Virāṭa (cf. above), [Mahābhārata]

13) Matsya (मत्स्य):—b etc. See p. 776, col. 3.

14) Mātsya (मात्स्य):—[from mātsika] mfn. relating to or coming from a fish, fish-like, fishy, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Yājñavalkya] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] m. a king of the [Matsyasūkta’s Śabdakalpadruma; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of a Ṛṣi, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] n. = matsya-purāṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य):—[(tsyaḥ-tsyī)] 1. m. 3. f. A fish; Vishnu as the fish avatār; a midland country of India; a Purān.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Matsya (मत्स्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maccha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Matsya in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Matsya (मत्स्य) [Also spelled matsy]:—(nm) a fish; -[udyoga] fishery; fishing industry; -[kṣatra] fishery; ~[jīvī] one who lives on fishing, fisherman; ~[pālana] pisc culture; ~[bhakṣī/bhojī] fish-eater, piscivorous -[vijñāna/śāstra] ichthyology.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Matsya (ಮತ್ಸ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] any of various cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates, having gills, commonly fins, and typically an elongated body; a fish.

2) [noun] the first of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu, in which he had taken the form of a fish.

3) [noun] name of one of the eighteen major Purāṇas.

4) [noun] the twelfth sign of the zodiac; Pisces.

5) [noun] (dance.) one of the gestures of the hands, in which both the hands are used.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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