Nandaka, aka: Ṇandaka; 8 Definition(s)
Nandaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
1) Nandaka (नन्दक).—A tabor. Whenever the flag of Yudhiṣṭhira was hoisted, two tabors called Nandaka and Upanandaka used to be beaten. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 27, Stanza 7).
2) Nandaka (नन्दक).—A sword of Mahāviṣṇu. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 147, Stanza 15).
2) There is a story explaining how Mahāviṣṇu came by this sword Nandaka. In days of old Brahmā performed a sacrifice on the banks of the heavenly Gaṅgā on a peak of mount Mahāmeru. While Brahmā was sitting in deep meditation in the sacrifice Lohāsura was seen coming to cause disturbance to the sacrifice. Immediately a male being came into existence from the meditation of Brahmā. The male being paid homage to Brahmā and the devas (gods) became glad and they encouraged the male being. Because the gods greeted the male one, he was changed to a sword called Nandaka (that which is greeted or thanked for). That sword was received by Mahāviṣṇu at the request of the gods. When Mahāviṣṇu slowly took it Lohāsura came near. He was an asura of blue complexion, with thousand hands of adamantine fists. By wielding his club he drove away the gods. Mahāviṣṇu cut down his limbs one by one and those organs became metals by the touch of the sword. Then Mahāviṣṇu killed the asura. Then Mahāviṣṇu granted Nandaka a pure body and various boons. Afterwards Nandaka became the deity of weapons on the earth. Thus Brahmā, who got rid of the disturbance by the aid of Viṣṇu, completed the sacrifice. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 245).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Nandaka (नन्दक).—Viṣṇu's sword; reached Kṛṣṇa during Jarāsandha's siege of Mathurā.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 50. 11. .
1b) A Nāga chief with his city in the third Talam.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 30.
1c) A son of Vṛkadevī and Vasudeva.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 18.
1d) A disciple of Brahmā.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 16.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Nandaka (नन्दक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.5) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Nandaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Nandaka (v.l. Nanda) Thera
A householder of Savatthi. (The Apadana (ii.499) says he belonged to a rich clan of merchants and that he entered the Order at the ceremony of dedication of Jetavana.)
Having entered the Order after hearing a sermon of the Buddha, he developed insight and soon attained arahantship. Once, at the Buddhas request, he preached a sermon to the nuns; on the first day they became sotapannas, and, on the second, five hundred of them attained arahantship. From that time the Buddha declared him foremost among exhorters of the nuns. (A.i.25. The sermon he preached is known as the Nandakovada Sutta (q.v.). The Anguttara Commentary (i.173) says that the nuns were Sakyan maidens who had entered the Order with Pajapati. At first Nandaka was reluctant to preach to them, they having been his wives in a previous birth when he was king, and he feared the calumny of his colleagues who might suggest that he wished to see his former companions. He, therefore, sent another monk in his place; but the Buddha, knowing that only Nandas preaching would effect the nuns release, insisted on his going.)
The Theragatha (vs.279 82) contains several verses uttered by him to a woman to whom he was once married. She met him begging alms in Savatthi and smiled to him with sinful heart.
His aspiration after eminence was formed in the time of Padumuttara Buddha, when he heard a disciple of that Buddha declared foremost among exhorters of nuns. He offered the Buddha a very costly robe and illuminated his bodhi tree. In the time of Kakusandha Buddha he was a karavika bird and delighted the Buddha with his song. Later, he was a peacock, and sang three times daily at the door of a Pacceka Buddhas cell. (ThagA. i.384f. The Apadana verses given in this context differ from those given in the Apadana itself (ii 499 f.).
The Anguttara Nikaya attributes two discourses to Nandaka. The first (A.i.193f. See sv., Salha) was preached at the Migaramatupasada and takes the form of a discussion with Salha, Migaras grandson, and Rohana, Pekkhuniyas grandson on greed, covetousness, malice and delusion, and the benefits following their destruction. The second discourse is a sermon addressed to the monks at the waiting hall at Jetavana. It is said that the Buddha was attracted to the spot by the sound of Nandakas preaching, and, finding the door locked, stood fur a long time outside, listening (A.iv.358ff.; throughout the three watches of the night says the Commentary, AA.ii.794; also MA.i.348). When his back began to ache he knocked at the door, and, having entered, told Nandaka that he had been waiting until the end of his discourse to speak to him. Nandaka expressed. his regret that he should have kept the Buddha waiting and pleaded ignorance of his presence. The Buddha, conscious of Nandakas remorse, went on to praise his sermon,(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Ṇandaka (णन्दक) is a Prakrit technical term referring to a ending for names in general as well as friendly names, representing a rule when deriving personal names as mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning ṇandaka) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.(Source): archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
nandaka : (adj.) rejoicing.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Nandaka, (adj.) (Sk. nandikā) giving pleasure, pleasing, full of joy; f. nandikā J. IV, 396 (+khiḍḍā), either as adj. or f. abstr. pleasure, rejoicing (=abhindandanā Com.). (Page 346)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Nandaka (नन्दक).—a. [nand-ṇvul]
1) Rejoicing, making happy, gladdening.
2) Delighting or rejoicing in.
3) Gladdening a family.
-kaḥ 1 A frog.
2) Name of the sword of Viṣṇu; नित्यानन्दाय भूयान्मधुमथनमनोनन्दको नन्दको नः । विष्णु- पादादिकेशान्तवर्णनस्तोत्रम् (nityānandāya bhūyānmadhumathanamanonandako nandako naḥ | viṣṇu- pādādikeśāntavarṇanastotram) 4.
3) A sword in general.
5) Nanda, the foster-father of Kṛṣṇa.
6) Name of a gem. Kau. A.2.11.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 17 books and stories containing Nandaka or Ṇandaka. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Letters from Nina (by Nina van Gorkom)
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Guide to Tipitaka (by U Ko Lay)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)