Margashirsha, Mārgaśīrṣa, Marga-shirsha: 21 definitions


Margashirsha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Mārgaśīrṣa can be transliterated into English as Margasirsa or Margashirsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Purana glossary
Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) or “Mārgaśīrṣa Paurṇamāsī” is the name of a festival that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Mārgaśīrṣa Paurṇamāsī proceeds as follows: On this day, a fast to be broken at night after the worship of the moon with white garlands, grains, eatable offerings etc., and the worship of the Brāhmaṇas is prescribed. The Brāhmaṇa lady, the sister, the aunt and the wife of a friend, each is to be honoured with a pair of red clothes.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Ayurveda glossary

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Mārgaśirṣa (मार्गशिर्ष) is the first month of the “winter season” (hemanta) in the traditional Indian calendar, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The physician (bhiṣaj) should pay attention to the seasonal (ṛtu) factor in the use of medicinal drugs. Accordingly, “the bulbous roots in winter season (viz., Mārgaśirṣa), other roots in cold season and flowers during spring season are supposed to contain better properties. The new leaves or shoots in summer and the drugs, which grow in mud, like Lotus etc., should be used in autumn season”.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) refers to the “month of Mārgaśīrṣa”, as taught in the Nāgajanman (“birth of the Snakes”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—Those snakes born in the months of Kārtikā, Mṛgaśīrṣa and Pauṣa are respectively idle, powerful and longest and extremely poisonous.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Vaishnavism glossary
Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) refers to “november–December; the best of months because grains are collected from the field at this time”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष), corresponding to “November-December”, refers to one of the months (māsa) in the Vedic calendar.—There are twelve months in a Vedic lunar calendar, and approximately every three years, there is a thirteenth month. Each month has a predominating deity and approximately corresponds with the solar christian months. [...] In accordance with the month of the year, one would utter the Vedic month, for example, mārgaśīrṣa-māsi.

The presiding deity of Mārgaśīrṣa is Keśava.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) or Mṛga refers to the lunar month identified with November-December (when the full moon is in the asterism of Mṛgaśīrṣa), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of Mārgaśīrṣa [i.e., Mṛga], the people of Kāśmīra, of Audha and of Puṇdra will suffer miseries; quadrupeds will perish, men of the western countries and Somayajīs will suffer calamities; there will be good rain and prosperity and plenty throughout the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) refers to the months “December/January” during which certain vows may be observed, as discussed in chapter 15 (Caryāpāda) of the Padmasaṃhitā: the most widely followed of Saṃhitā covering the entire range of concerns of Pāñcarātra doctrine and practice (i.e., the four-fold formulation of subject matter—jñāna, yoga, kriyā and caryā) consisting of roughly 9000 verses.—According to the chapter [vrata-anuṣṭhānakrama]: This chapter is divided into sections corresponding to the various months, and in each section the supererogatory activities customary to that month are given. [...] In mārgaśīrṣa month (December/January), the eleventh day and twelfth day fast-and-feast are to be observed (25-46). [...]

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Hinduism glossary
Source: Internation Vaishnavas Portal: Hinduism

During the month of Margasirsha, every day early in the morning the young daughters of the cowherds would take one another’s hands and, singing of Krishna’s transcendental qualities, go to the Yamuna to bathe. Desiring to obtain Krishna as their husband, they would then worship the goddess Katyayani with incense, flowers and other items.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Grammatically, Mārgaśīrṣa means "of Mṛgaśira" or "related to Mṛgaśira". Mārgaśīrṣa is the name of the month related to Mṛgaśira, i.e., the month in which moon will be in conjuncture with the Mṛgaśira nakṣatra.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) (presided over by Rudra) is the ninth of twelve months, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Accordingly, there are altogether twelve months [viz., Mārgaśīrṣa] having twelve deities as given in the kālacakra-maṇḍala.—“here they are all accompanied with their Śaktis, mostly four-armed and have their distinctive vehicles”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mārgaśīrṣā (मार्गशीर्षा).—a Relating to the month mārgaśīrṣa.

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mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष).—m (S) pop. mārgaśīra or mārgēśvara m The ninth Hindu, month, November-December.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) [-śīra, -शीर].—m The ninth Hindu month.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष).—m., [mārgaśīrṣaḥ] Name of the ninth month of the Hindu year (corresponding to NovemberDecember) in which the full moon is in the constellation मृगशिरस् (mṛgaśiras); शुक्ले मार्गशिरे पक्षे (śukle mārgaśire pakṣe) Bhāgavata 6.19.2; मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहम् (māsānāṃ mārgaśīrṣo'ham) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.35.

Derivable forms: mārgaśīrṣaḥ (मार्गशीर्षः).

See also (synonyms): mārgaśira, mārgaśiras.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष).—m.

(-rṣaḥ) The month Margaśirsha: see the last.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष).—[masculine] [Name] of a month.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष):—[=mārga-śīrṣa] [from mārga > mārg] mf(ī)n. born under the constellation Mṛga-śiras, [Pāṇini 4-3, 37 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

2) [v.s. ...] m. (also with māsa) Name of the month in which the full moon enters the const° Mṛga-śiras, the 10th or (in later times) the 1st month in the year = November-December, [Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] f(ī or ā). (with or without paurṇamāsī) the day on which the full moon enters the const° Mṛga-śiras, the 15th d° of the first half of the month Mārgaśīrṣa, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष):—[mārga-śīrṣa] (rṣaḥ) 1. m. Idem.

[Sanskrit to German]

Margashirsha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Margashirsha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mārgaśīrṣa (ಮಾರ್ಗಶೀರ್ಷ):—[noun] = ಮಾರ್ಗಶಿರ [margashira].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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