Virabhadra, Vira-bhadra, Vīrabhadra: 24 definitions
Virabhadra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Kāmākhya (corresponding to the eastern face of Bhairava), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Śaṃkhapāla, Kaṃkāla, Viśālaka, Ajaya, Vijaya, Vīrabhadra, Raktākṣa, Kasmāla.
2) Vīrabhadrā (वीरभद्रा) refers to one of the eight Yoginīs (yoginī-aṣṭaka) associated with Nādapīṭha (identified with Kulūta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Yoginīs (yoginyaṣṭaka): Vīrabhadrā, Kālī, Kapālī, Vikṛtā, Kroṣṭāṅgī, Vāmabhadrā, Vāyuvegā, Hayānanā.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) is the name of a gaṇa (attendant of Śiva), mentioned in the Skandapurāṇa 4.2.53. In this chapter, Śiva (Giriśa) summons his attendants (gaṇas) and ask them to venture towards the city Vārāṇasī (Kāśī) in order to find out what the yoginīs, the sun-god, Vidhi (Brahmā) were doing there.
While the gaṇas such as Vīrabhadra were staying at Kāśī, they were desirous but unable of finding a weakness in king Divodaśa who was ruling there. Kāśī is described as a fascinating place beyond the range of Giriśa’s vision, and as a place where yoginīs become ayoginīs, after having come in contact with it. Kāśī is described as having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
The Skandapurāṇa narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is the largest Mahāpurāṇa composed of over 81,000 metrical verses, with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र).—One of the guards of Śiva. Origin. There are two different opinions in the Purāṇas, regarding the origin of Vīrabhadra. There is no doubt that his birth was due to the anger of Śiva. When Śiva knew that his wife Pārvatī jumped into the fire and died at the sacrifice of Dakṣa, he struck his matted hair on the ground and from that, Vīrabhadra and Bhadrakālī came into being. This is the version given in Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 7. According to Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 284, Vīrabhadra was born from the mouth of Śiva. From each of the hairpores of Vīrabhadra, who was born from the mouth of Śiva to destroy the sacrifice of Dakṣa a fearful monster was born, all of whom, formed a group of ghosts called the Raumyas. (See full article at Story of Vīrabhadra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) was created by Śiva in order to destroy Dakṣa’s sacrifice, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.1.—“[...] On hearing that, lord Śiva became unbearably furious and pulling at his matted hair he created Vīrabhadra. When he was created along with attendants he began asking ‘what shall I do?’. The entire annihilation of Dakṣa’s sacrifice and the disgrace of every one present there was the order issued by Śiva. The lord of the Gaṇas (Vīrabhadra) accompanied by his soldiers reached the place immediately after receiving the orders. They worked a great havoc there. Vīrabhadra chastised everyone and spared none”.
Vīrabhadra is described as Śiva’s son, produced from Śiva’s matted locks or mouth or a drop of Śiva’s sweat, in order to spoil the sacrifice of Dakṣa. He is represented as having a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet and a thousand clubs. Clothed in a tiger’s skin dripping with blood, bearing a blazing bow and a battle-axe he is described as very fierce and terrific.
2) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) refers to an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] obeisance to Vīra, Vīrabhadra, the protector of heroes, the trident-holder, the great lord of mankind. Obeisance to Him of the heroic soul of perfect learning, Śrīkaṇṭha, Pinākin, the endless, the subtle, the one whose anger is the cause of death”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र).—Created out of anger of Śiva on his hearing of Satī's self-sacrifice to destroy Dakṣa's yajña; seized Dakṣa, cut off his head and offered it to Dakṣiṇāgni, and then set out for Kailāsa. After reconciliation with Śiva, Viṣṇu was propitiated with Puroḍāśa to get rid of pollution due to Vīrabhadra's interference in the Yajña;1 after destroying the sacrifice was about to destroy the world; Śiva stopped him and blessed him to be the first of all grahas by name Aṅgāraka;2 hearing that he came out of the wrath of Paśupati Dakṣa appeased him by prayers. Śiva rose from the fire altar and granted him his request that his sacrifice be fruitful when Dakṣa praised him with 1008 names.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. ch. 5 (whole); 7. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 130-160; 101. 299.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 72. 13-6; 192. 6.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 161-180.
1b) One of the Śiva's attendants; the head of a Śiva gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 32. 23; 41. 28; IV. 14. 8.
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) was mentally created by Śiva in order to destroy Dakṣa’s sacrifice, as mentioned in chapter 3 of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Śrīdevī informed Lord Śaṅkara about the sacrifice of Dakṣa in which the later is not invited. She could not tolerate the insult of Siva and requested the latter to destroy the sacrifice. Immediately Śiva created Vīrabhadra of fierce appearance. The dreadful Bhadrakālī was born from the wrath of Śrīdevī. Lord Śiva then ordered Vīrabhadra with Bhadrakālī to destroy the sacrifice of Dakṣa. Vīrabhadra reached there and destroyed the sacrifice in no time. Seeing this Dakṣa was panic-striken and immediately sought refuge in Vīrabhadra. Then Vīrabhadra advised Dakṣa to go to Vārāṇasī and worship Śaṅkara by whose grace all his vices would be destroyed.
Note: Vīrabhadra is an aspect of Śiva and sometimes regarded as his son. In the Mahābhārata 12.285.34f. Vīrabhadra and other spirits were born of divas hair-pits.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र).—Though Vīrabhadra is known since the Purāṇic period, the cult of Vīrabhadra became popular only during the Vijayanagara period. Therefore Vīrabhadra is adopted into worship in later temples. Iconographically, Vīrabhadra is supposed to hold bow and arrow and khadga and kheṭaka. But in the example from Thiruchengodu temple, Vīrabhadra holds, in his upper right hand, an unidentified lump-like object.
Vīrabhadra, in his ferocious fighting, is killing Dakṣa lying on ground. He is trampling him with his right foot and has pierced his chest with his sword. The ornaments of the god are the jaṭāmukuta, fillet, necklace, udarabandha, keyūra, kaṅkaṇa, upavītamāla, etc. The high-soled sandals Vīrabhadra wears are a regular feature of all the Vīrabhadra sculptures.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) is the name of a deity who received the Vimalāgama from Sarvātmaka through the mahānsambandha relation, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The vimala-āgama, being part of the eighteen Rudrabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.
Vīrabhadra obtained the Vimalāgama from Sarvātmaka who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha. Vīrabhadra in turn, transmitted it to through divya-sambandha to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Vimalāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shilpa)
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) or Vīrabhadramūrti refers to one of the twenty-eighth forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Vātulāgama: twenty-eighth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgama. The forms of Śiva (e.g., Vīrabhadra) are established through a process known as Sādākhya, described as a five-fold process of creation.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) is the name of a Gaṇa (attendant of Śiva and/or Pārvatī), who intervened as the Devas and the Asuras were about to join the war between Śrutaśarman and Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 50. Accordingly: “... then a Gaṇa named Vīrabhadra, sent by Śiva, came and delivered this order of his to Indra and the other gods: ‘You came to look on, so what right have you to fight here? Moreover, your overstepping the bounds of propriety will produce other bad results’.”.
The story of Vīrabhadra was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vīrabhadra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र): Vīrabhadra was a demon that sprang from Shiva's lock of hair. Shiva burnt with anger when not invited in a sacrifice by Daksha and his wife Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Shiva burned with anger, and tore from his head a lock of hair, glowing with energy, and cast upon the earth. The terrible demon Vīrabhadra sprang from it. On the direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head.Source: Shodhganga: Historical setting of the vaisnava divyaksetras in the southern pandya country
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) is a terrific manifestation of Śiva. He was created from the matted locks of the Lord to destroy the sacrilegious sacrifice of Dakṣa. The Śrītattvanidhi presents this iconographical features under the heads Aghoramūrti and Vīrabhadra. The temples in the region around Śrīvilliputtūr accommodate a number of images in their sculptural-pillars and intere stingly many of these are in dancing mode.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) is the son of Ṛṣabhadatta from Tāmralipti, according to chapter 6.2 [aranātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Sāgaradatta said to Kumbha:—“[...]. One day he [i.e., Ṛṣabhadatta] came to my house for some reason and looks at my daughter Priyadarśanā for a long time. He asked me, ‘Whose daughter is she?’ and I replied, ‘She is my daughter. Why do you look at her for a long time?’ Ṛṣabhadatta said: ‘Sheth, I have a son, named Vīrabhadra, grown-up, well-behaved. He surpasses Kandarpa in beauty, Kavi (Śukra) in skill in poetry, Vācaspati in eloquence, Vardhaki (Tvaṣṭṛ) in skill in crafts, Hūhū in song, Tumbaru on the lute, Bharata in drama, Nārada in sports. He changes his form like a god by the use of pills, et cetera. What is the use of saying more? [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Painting: A Survey (h)
Virabhadra temple (at Lepakshi) is an archaeologically important site containing ancient Indian mural paintings, from the Vijayanagara period.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vīrabhadra.—(SITI), also called Vīramuṣṭi; member of a militant class of temple servants who diligently protected the properties and rights of the temples. Cf. Vīrakośa. Note: vīrabhadra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र).—m S One of a class of attendants upon Shiva. 2 A particular dīkṣā of the Lingait-people. 3 Applied angrily to an obstinate and incorrigible boy.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Name of a powerful hero created by Śiva from his matted hair; see दक्ष (dakṣa); महावीरोऽपि रे भद्र मम सर्वगणेष्विह । वीरभद्राख्यया हि त्वं प्रथितिं परमं व्रज । कुरु मे सत्वरं कर्म दक्षयज्ञं क्षयं नय (mahāvīro'pi re bhadra mama sarvagaṇeṣviha | vīrabhadrākhyayā hi tvaṃ prathitiṃ paramaṃ vraja | kuru me satvaraṃ karma dakṣayajñaṃ kṣayaṃ naya) || Kāśīkhaṇḍa.
2) a distinguished hero.
3) a horse fit for the Aśvamedha sacrifice.
4) a kind of fragrant grass.
Derivable forms: vīrabhadraḥ (वीरभद्रः).
Vīrabhadra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vīra and bhadra (भद्र).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-draḥ) 1. A horse fit for the Aśwamed'ha sacrifice. 2. A distinguished hero. 3. A fragrant grass, “vīraṇa” 4. One of Siva'S attendants. 5. One of the Rudras. E. vīra a hero, bhadra auspicious.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—king, son of Bhadrendra, patron of Koṇḍabhaṭṭa (Tarkapradīpa). Hall. p. 79.
2) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—an author. Quoted in Tantrasāra Oxf. 95^b.
3) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]
4) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—astronomer. Quoted by Utpala on Bṛhatsaṃ-hitā, by Lakṣmīdāsa Cambr. 54.
5) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—a medical author. Quoted in Ṭoḍarānanda W. p. 290.
6) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—Nīlakaṇṭhastotra.
7) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—king of Rājakoṭa, patron of Vidyādhara (Grahavidyādhara 1639).
8) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—Karpūrastava.
9) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—Vaiṣṇavasārasaṃgraha or Pāṣaṇḍadalana.
10) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—Tantrakośa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—[=vīra-bhadra] [from vīra > vīr] m. a distinguished hero, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) [v.s. ...] a horse fit for the Aśva-medha sacrifice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] Andropogon Muricatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rudra, [Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]
5) [v.s. ...] of an incarnation or form of Śiva (sometimes regarded as his son, and worshipped [especially] in the Marāṭha country; in the Vāyu-Purāṇa he is said to have been created from Śiva’s mouth in order to spoil the sacrifice of Dakṣa, and is described as having a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, and wielding a thousand clubs; his appearance is fierce and terrific, he is clothed in a tiger’s skin dripping with blood, and he bears a blazing bow and battle-axe; in another Purāṇa he is described as produced from a drop of Śiva’s sweat), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc. ([Religious Thought and Life in India 79; 82])
6) [v.s. ...] of a warrior on the side of the Pāṇḍavas, [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] of a king and various authors, [Catalogue(s)]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vīrabhadra (वीरभद्र):—[vīra-bhadra] (draḥ) 1. m. Horse fit for sacrifice; a hero; fragrant grass.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Vīrabhadra (ವೀರಭದ್ರ):—[noun] name of a son of Śiva, who is the valour personified.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Virabhadra tridandivanaprastha, Virabhadrabadavanala, Virabhadrabhraka, Virabhadracampu, Virabhadradeva, Virabhadradevacampu, Virabhadrajit, Virabhadraka, Virabhadrakalikakavaca, Virabhadrakalikavacana, Virabhadramantra, Virabhadramurti, Virabhadrasahasranaman, Virabhadrasana, Virabhadrashtaka, Virabhadrastotra, Virabhadrasuta, Virabhadratantra, Virabhadravijaya, Virabhadravijrimbhana.
Full-text (+333): Vireshvara, Bhadrakali, Virabhadrasuta, Virabhadrakalikavacana, Virabhadrastotra, Virabhadramantra, Virabhadravijaya, Virabhadratantra, Virabhadracampu, Virabhadravijrimbhana, Virabhadrajit, Virabhadradevacampu, Virabhadradeva, Virabhadrasana, Viresha, Jannavageya, Ekaviriyan, Virabhadra tridandivanaprastha, Viravatara, Trishikha.
Search found 48 books and stories containing Virabhadra, Vīra-bhadra, Vira-bhadra, Vira-vira-bhadra, Vīra-vīra-bhadra, Vīrabhadra, Viravirabhadra, Vīravīrabhadra; (plurals include: Virabhadras, bhadras, Vīrabhadras, Viravirabhadras, Vīravīrabhadras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 8.13.87 < [Chapter 13 - A Thousand Names of Lord Balarāma]
Verse 6.10.21 < [Chapter 10 - In the Description of the Gomatī River, the Glories of Cakra-tīrtha]
Rudra-Shiva concept (Study) (by Maumita Bhattacharjee)
6. Destruction of Dakṣa yajña < [Chapter 5 - Rudra-Śiva in the Purāṇic Literature]
5. Epithets of Rudra-Śiva tracked in the Upaniṣadic literature < [Chapter 6b - Epithets (References)]
2. Rudra-Śiva in the Upaniṣadic Literature < [Chapter 4 - Rudra-Śiva in the Post-Brāhmaṇic Literature]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 8 - Greatness of Three-eyed in the Pond of Bhadrakarṇa < [Section 3 - Arbuda-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 4 - A Fight between Vīrabhadra and Viṣṇu and Others < [Section 1 - Kedāra-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 19 - The Fail of Vīrabhadra < [Section 4 - Kārttikamāsa-māhātmya]
Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study) (by G. D. Jayalakshmi)
Analysis of Lord Parameśvara < [Chapter 6 - Dramatic aspects of the Jīvanandana Nāṭaka]
Analysis of Adbhuta-rasa < [Chapter 6 - Dramatic aspects of the Jīvanandana Nāṭaka]
Analysis of Raudra-rasa < [Chapter 6 - Dramatic aspects of the Jīvanandana Nāṭaka]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 111 - The Sinner Vidhṛta Goes to Śiva’s Abode < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 107 - Vīrabhadra’s Heroic Deed < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 101 - The Fight Goes On < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 51 - Virabhadra (husband of Rudrama) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
Part 49 - Mahadeva I alias Vishnuvardhana (A.D. 1266-1300) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
Part 23 - Anuguraja (A.D. 1134-1147) < [Chapter II - The Haihayas]