Yuga: 25 definitions
Yuga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Manblunder: Viṣṇu-sahasranāma > detail page
There are four yuga's, 1. Kṛta or Satya, 2. Tretā, 3. Dvāpara, 4. Kali, of which the first three have already elapsed, while the Kali, which began at midnight between the 17th and 18th of Feb. 3102 BC. The duration of each yuga is said to be respectively 1,728,000, 1,296,000, 864,000, and 432,000 years of humanity, the descending numbers representing a similar physical and moral deterioration of men in each age. (excerpt from nāma 154)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Yuga (युग) refers to “one age within the cycle of the universal four ages, named Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Yuga (युग) refers to:—One of the four ages described in the Vedas: Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yuga. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Yuga (युग) is a Sanskrit technical term referring a “piece of wooden pole”, of a chariot (yāna). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.291-292)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Yuga (युग).—See under Manvantara.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Yuga (युग).—The intervening time between one yuga-sandhyapūrva and sandhyāṃśa; four in number; Kṛta, Treta, Dvāpara and Kali. The extent is of 12,000 years of celestial measure; the duration of the yugas includes sandhya, 12,000 divine years, 1,000 caturyugas make a day of Brahmā.1 A yugam of five years, commencing with śravaṇa and ending with dhaniṣṭhā nakṣatra—the five years are respectively Agni, Sūrya, Soma, Vāyu and Rudra; consists of Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara; revolves like the wheel owing to the movement of the Sun.2 Social conditions in;3 of Śaptaṛṣis.4
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 8. 17; III. 11. 18; XII. Ch. 4 (whole) ; Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 22; 23. 83; 24. 1; 31. 21; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 11-15.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 115, 147; 21. 131; 24. 57 and 144; 28. 22; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 28, 49; 32. 57-65; 50. 182; 53. 116; 56. 21; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 72.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa Ch. 165.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 419.
1b) A measurement equal to four hastas or dhanus; equal to a dhanurdaṇḍa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 100; Vāyu-purāṇa 8. 106; 101. 125.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Yuga (युग).—1. A calendar intercalation cycle. 2. A cosmological time interval, especially a mahāyuga. 3. A period of 4,320,000 years. Note: Yuga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
1) Yuga (युग) in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘yoke’. Cf. Ratha.
2) Yuga (युग) in the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yitge applied to Dīrghatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life.
Yuga (युग) in Hindu philosophy is the name of an epoch or era within a four age cycle. According to Hindu cosmology, life in the universe is created and destroyed once every 4.1 to 8.2 billion years, which is one full day (day and night) for Brahma. The lifetime of a Brahma himself may be 311 trillion and 40 billion years. The cycles are said to repeat like the seasons, waxing and waning within a greater time-cycle of the creation and destruction of the universe. Like Summer, Spring, Winter and Autumn, each yuga involves stages or gradual changes which the earth and the consciousness of mankind goes through as a whole. A complete yuga cycle from a high Golden Age, called the Satya Yuga to a Dark Age, Kali Yuga and back again is said to be caused by the solar system's motion around another star.
The ages see a gradual decline of dharma, wisdom, knowledge, intellectual capability, life span, emotional and physical strength.
- Satya Yuga (Virtue reigns supreme),
- Treta Yuga (3 quarter virtue & 1 quarter sin),
- Dwapar Yuga (1 half virtue & 1 half sin),
- Kali Yuga (1 quarter virtue & 3 quarter sin).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Yuga (युग) or Caturyuga refers to the “four ages” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 88):
- kṛta-yuga (the accomplished age),
- tretā-yuga (the threefold-life age),
- dvāpara-yuga (the twofold age),
- kali-yuga (the dark age).
The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., yuga). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
India history and geogprahySource: archive.org: Shiva Purana (history)
Yuga (युग) refers to the tradition where historical time is divided into four ages (yuga), viz. the Kṛta (or Satya), Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali. This system is the peculiarity of India alone. Kṛta age ended with the destruction of the Haihayas by Rāma Jāmadagnya; Tretā began with Sagara and ended with Rāma Dāśarathi’s consecration at Ayodhyā and closed with the Bhārata war; the Kali began immediately after the passing away of the great heroes of the Bharata war, Kṛṣṇa and the Pāṇḍavas and with the changes in the political condition of Northern India that ensued.Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)
Yuga is the name of a land granted by king Subhikṣa (for the merit and fame of his parents and himself) as recorded in the “Plate of Subhikṣarājadeva” (10th century A.D.). It measured one Droṇavāpa. Yuga was dedicated to the goddess Nārāyaṇa-bhaṭṭāraka (Nārāyaṇa) who is said to have been installed on the bank of the Viṣṇugaṅgā.
This inscribed copper plate (mentioning Yuga) is preserved in the temple of Yogabadarī (one of the Pañcabadarī) at Pāṇḍukeśvar (Pāṇḍukeśvara). It records the grant of many pieces of land, situated in the viṣayas (districts) of Ṭaṅgaṇāpura and Antaraṅga made by king Subhikṣa in favour of three deities.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Yuga.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘four’; rarely, 2 or 12. Note: yuga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Yuga or Yugā.—(EI 1), meaning doubtful; cf. yugā in the sense of ‘a voucher’. Note: yuga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Yugā.—(CII 4), a voucher. Note: yugā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
yuga : (nt.) a yoke; a pair; a couple; an age or generation.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Yuga, (nt.) (fr. yuj; Vedic yuga (to which also yoga)= Gr. zugόn; Lat. jugum=Goth. juk; Ohg. juh; E. yoke; Lith. jungas) 1. the yoke of a plough (usually) or a carriage DhA. I, 24 (yugaṃ gīvaṃ bādhati presses on the neck); PvA. 127 (ratha°); Sdhp. 468 (of a carriage). Also at Sn. 834 in phrase dhonena yugaṃ samāgamā which Bdhgh. (SnA 542) explains as “dhuta-kilesena buddhena saddhiṃ yugaggāhaṃ samāpanno, ” i.e. having attained mastery together with the pure Buddha. Neumann, Sn. translation not exactly: “weil abgeschüttelt ist das Joch” (but dhona means “pure”). See also below °naṅgala.—2. (what is yoked or fits under one yoke) a pair, couple; applied to objects, as —°: dussa° a pair of robes S. V, 71.; DhA. IV, 11; PvA. 53; sāṭaka° id. J. I, 8, 9; PvA. 46; vattha° id. J. IV, 172.—tapassi° a pair of ascetics Vv 2210; dūta° a pair of messengers S. IV, 194; sāvaka° of disciples D. II, 4; S. I, 155; II, 191; V, 164; in general: purisa° (cattāri p.—yugāni) (4) pairs of men S. IV, 272 sq. =It. 88; in verse at Vv 4421 and 533; explained at Vism. 219 as follows: yugaḷa-vasena paṭhamamagga-ṭṭho phala-ṭṭho ti idam ekaṃ yugaḷan ti evaṃ cattāri purisa-yugaḷāni honti. Practically the same as “aṭṭha purisa-puggalā. ” Referring to “pairs of sins” (so the C.) in a somewhat doubtful passage at J. I, 374: sa maṅgala-dosa-vītivatto yuga-yog’âdhigato na jātum eti; where C. explains yugā as kilesā mentioned in pairs (like kodho ca upanāho, or makkho ca paḷāso), and yoga as the 4 yojanas or yogas (oghas?), viz. kāma°, bhava°, diṭṭhi°, avijjā°.—Also used like an adj. num. in meaning “two, ” e.g. yugaṃ vā nāvaṃ two boats Dpvs. I, 76.—3. (connected by descent) generation, an age D. I, 113 (yāva sattamā pitāmahā-yugā “back through seven generations. ” Cp. DA. I, 281: āyuppamāṇa); KhA 141 (id.); J. I, 345 (purisa°). There are also 5 ages (or stages) in the (life of the) sāsana (see Brethren, p. 339): vimutti, samādhi, sīla, suta, dāna.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
yuga (युग).—n (S) An age, one of the four ages kṛta, trētā, dvāpāra, kali. 2 The period comprising the four ages. 3 A couple, brace, pair. 4 A yoke.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
yuga (युग).—n An age; the period comprising the four ages. A yoke. A pair.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Yuga (युग).—1 A yoke (m. also in this sense); युगव्यायतबाहुः (yugavyāyatabāhuḥ) R.3.34;1.87; Śi.3.68.
2) A pair, couple, brace; कुचयोर्युगेन तरसा कलिता (kucayoryugena tarasā kalitā) Śi.9.72; स्तनयुग (stanayuga) Ś.1.19.
3) A couple of stanzas forming one sentence; see युग्म (yugma).
4) An age of the world; (the Yugas are four:-kṛta or satya, tretā, dvāpara and kali; the duration of each is said to be respectively 1,728,; 1,296,; 864.; and 432, years of men, the four together comprising 4,32, years of men which is equal to one Mahāyuga q. v.; it is also supposed that the regularly descending length of the Yugas represents a corresponding physical and moral deterioration in the people who live during each age, Krita being called the 'golden' and Kali or the present age the 'iron' age); धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय संभवामि युगे युगे (dharmasaṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge) Bg.4.8; युगशतपरिवर्तान् (yugaśataparivartān) Ś7.34.
5) (Hence) A long period of years (kālacakra); युगं वा परिवर्तेत यद्येवं स्याद् यथाऽऽत्थ माम् (yugaṃ vā parivarteta yadyevaṃ syād yathā''ttha mām) Mb.5.16.99.
6) A generation, life; आ सप्तमाद् युगात् (ā saptamād yugāt) Ms.1.64; जात्युत्कर्षो युगे ज्ञेयः पञ्चमे सप्तमेऽपि वा (jātyutkarṣo yuge jñeyaḥ pañcame saptame'pi vā) Y.1.96. (yuge = janmani Mit.).
7) An expression for the number 'four', rarely for 'twelve',
8) A period of five years.
9) A measure of length equal to four Hastas.
1) A part of a chariot or plough.
11) Name of a particular configuration of the moon.
Derivable forms: yugam (युगम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Yuga (युग).—nt. (Pali id., I believe, in Sn 834 dhonena yugaṃ samāgamā, you have come under subjugation by the Pure, i.e. by Buddha; otherwise [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], Chalmers), yoke, in fig. sense of subjugation: yuga-m-antarasmi (for yugāntare) sthita māru Lalitavistara 338.11 (verse), Māra, abiding under (lit. in the middle of) the yoke (being subjugated).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-gaṃ) 1. A pair, a couple, a brace. 2. An age, as the Satya or Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali. 3. A lustre, or period of five years. m.
(-gaḥ) 1. A yoke. 2. A measure of four cubits. 3. An expression for the numbers “four and “twelve”. 4. Life, birth. 5. A drug, commonly Ridd'hi. E. yuj to join, aff. aca, the final changed.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Yuga (युग).—i. e. yuj + a, I. m. (in epic poetry also n.,
Yuga (युग).—[neuter] ([masculine]) yoke, team; couple, pair, race or generation of men, age of the world (4) a cert. measure of length.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Yuga (युग):—a yugma, yugya etc. See p.854.
2) [from yuj] b n. a yoke, team (exceptionally m.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
3) [v.s. ...] (ifc. f(ā). ) a pair, couple, brace, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] (also with mānuṣa or manuṣya) a race of men, generation (exceptionally m.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
5) [v.s. ...] a period or astronomical cycle of 5 (rarely 6) years, a lustrum ([especially] in the cycle of Jupiter), [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira; Suśruta]
6) [v.s. ...] an age of the world, long mundane period of years (of which there are four, viz. 1. Kṛta or Satya, 2. Tretā, 3. Dvāpara, 4. Kali, of which the first three have already elapsed, while the Kali, which began at midnight between the 17th and 18th of Feb. 3102 B.C. [O. S.], is that in which we live; the duration of each is said to be respectively 1,728,000, 1,296,000, 864,000, and 432,000 years of men, the descending numbers representing a similar physical and moral deterioration of men in each age; the four Yugas comprise an aggregate of 4,320,000 years and constitute a ‘great Yuga’ or Mahā-yuga; cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 178]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
7) [v.s. ...] a measure of length = 86 Aṅgulas, [Śulba-sūtra] (= 4 Hastas or cubits, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])
8) [v.s. ...] a symbolical Name for the number ‘four’ [Sūryasiddhānta]
9) [v.s. ...] for the number ‘twelve’ [Jyotiṣa]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] position or configuration of the moon, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
11) [v.s. ...] of a [particular] Nābhasa constellation (of the class called Sāṃkhya-yoga, when all the planets are situated in two houses), [ib.]
12) [v.s. ...] of a double Śloka or two Ślokas so connected that the sense is only completed by the two together, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+85): Yuga Dharma, Yugabahu, Yugabhanga, Yugacarman, Yugacchidda, Yugacchidra, Yugada, Yugadatta, Yugadhana, Yugadhara, Yugadharma, Yugadhur, Yugadhyaksha, Yugadi, Yugadi-parvan, Yugadi-tithi, Yugadideva, Yugadijina, Yugadikrit, Yugadinatha.
Ends with (+40): Adhiprashtiyuga, Ambarayuga, Antyayuga, Anuyuga, Ashvagoyuga, Ayuga, Bhaddayuga, Bhagnayuga, Brahmayuga, Cakkayuga, Caranayuga, Caturyuga, Charanayuga, Chaturyuga, Daityayuga, Daivayuga, Devayuga, Dharmayuga, Duryuga, Dussayuga.
Full-text (+400): Tretayuga, Caturyuga, Kaliyuga, Mahayuga, Satyayuga, Kalpa, Yuganta, Dvaparayuga, Treta, Dvapara, Yugadi, Kritayuga, Ambarayuga, Yugakshaya, Kunkuma, Ayuga, Yugadhur, Yugakilaka, Yugamshaka, Meshanatha.
Search found 81 books and stories containing Yuga, Yugā; (plurals include: Yugas, Yugās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Brihaddharma Purana (abridged) (by Syama Charan Banerji)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CXLVIII < [Tirtha-yatra Parva]
Section X < [Jambukhanda Nirmana Parva]
Section CLXXXVII < [Markandeya-Samasya Parva]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 29 - Cycle of Yugas: characteristics of Yugas < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 31 - Narration of the four Yugas: castes and stages of life < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 35 - The legend of Yājñavalkya’s receiving the Veda from the Sun-God < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Harivamsha Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter 8 - Division of Time < [Book 1 - Harivamsa Parva]
Chapter 8 - The Duration and Characteristics of Yoga < [Book 3 - Bhavishya Parva]
Chapter 11 - The Creation of a lotus After Dissolution < [Book 3 - Bhavishya Parva]
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
Chapter LXXXIII < [Book XII - Śaśāṅkavatī]
Chapter CXX < [Book XVIII - Viṣamaśīla]