Sharnga, Śārṅga: 14 definitions



Sharnga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śārṅga can be transliterated into English as Sarnga or Sharnga, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग, “bow”):—One of the nine symbols representing the cosmic principles of the universe, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These nine weapons and ornaments symbolize the principles which they represent as the presiding deity. The Bow (śārṅga) represents tāmasic ahaṃkāra (‘the mind’).

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग) is another name for Śṛṅgavera, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Zingiber officinale (fresh ginger). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.24-28), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s bow. The following facts about the bow are gathered from the Mahābhārata.

(i) When Kṛṣṇa exhibited his Viśvarūpa (cosmic form) in the assembly of the Kauravas he had held in one hand this bow. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 10).

(ii) Kṛṣṇa’s Śārṅga is on a par with Indra’s bow called Vijaya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 4).

(iii) Śārṅga is one of the three divine bows. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 5).

(iv) Śārṅga was made by Brahmā and presented to Kṛṣṇa. (Mahābhārata Southern text, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 141).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—The bow of Hari, reached Kṛṣṇa during Jarāsandha's siege of Mathurā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 6. 39; X. 50. 11 [13], 23; XII. 11. 15.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग) refers to the bow of Viṣṇu. It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग) is a Sanskrit word referring to the bow of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग) refers to a divine bow and represents one of the nine gifts of the Gods given to Tripṛṣṭha, according to chapter 4.1 [śreyāṃsanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“[...] The Vidyādharas, Jvalanajaṭin and others, mounted their chariots like lions a mountain-plateau. Then drawn by merit, the Gods gave Tripṛṣṭha a divine bow named Śārṅga, a club Kaumodakī, a conch Pāñcajanya, and a jewel named Kaustubha, a sword Nandaka, and a garland Vanamālā. They gave Balabhadra a plough named Saṃvartaka, a pestle named Saumanda, and a club named Candrikā. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—a.

1) Made of horn, horny.

2) Having a bow, armed with a bow; Bk.8.123.

-rṅgaḥ, -rṅgam 1 A bow (in general); शार्ङ्गाकर्षावमुक्तप्रशिथिलकविका प्रग्रहेणात्र देशे (śārṅgākarṣāvamuktapraśithilakavikā pragraheṇātra deśe) Mu. 6.9; Bk.8.123.

2) The bow of Viṣṇu; शार्ङ्गं पुनर्धनुर्दिव्यं विष्णोः परममायुधम् (śārṅgaṃ punardhanurdivyaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramamāyudham) Dhanur.44; शार्ङ्गं धनुर्मित्रमिव द्रढीयः (śārṅgaṃ dhanurmitramiva draḍhīyaḥ) Śi. 3.2.

-śārṅgaḥ [śṛṇāteḥ gaṇ śakunau Uṇ.1.118] A bird; also शार्ङ्गकः (śārṅgakaḥ); तस्मिन् वने दह्यमाने षडग्निर्न ददाह च । अश्वसेनं मयं चैव चतुरः शार्ङ्गकांस्तथा (tasmin vane dahyamāne ṣaḍagnirna dadāha ca | aśvasenaṃ mayaṃ caiva caturaḥ śārṅgakāṃstathā) || Mb.1.228.47.

-rṅgam Wet ginger.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—mfn.

(-rṅgaḥ-rṅgī-rṅgaṃ) 1. Horny, made of horn, &c. 2. Holding a bow. n.

(-rṅgaṃ) 1. A bow in general. 2. The bow of Vishnu. E. śṛṅga a horn, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—i. e. śṛṅga + a, I. adj. Horny, made of horn, etc. Ii. m. (n.?), 1. A bow, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 94, 2. 2. The bow of Viṣṇu. 3. The name of a bird.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग).—[adjective] made of horn or coming from the Cṛṅga-tree. [masculine] a cert. bird ([feminine] ī); [neuter] bow ([especially] that of Viṣṇu).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग):—mf(ī)n. ([from] śṛṅga) made of horn, horny, corneous, [Suśruta]

2) derived or taken from the plant Śṛṅga (as poison), [Yājñavalkya]

3) armed with a bow, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

4) m. a kind of bird, [Mahābhārata] (cf. śārga)

5) [patronymic] of various Vedic Ṛṣis, [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

6) n. a bow ([especially] that of Viṣṇu), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

7) fresh ginger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Name of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग):—[(rṅgaḥ-rṅgī-rṅgaṃ) m.] A bow; a horn. a. Made of horn.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग):—

1) adj. a) hörnen (von śṛṅga) [Suśruta 2, 49, 3. 353, 7.] — b) vom Baum Śṛṅga kommend: viṣa [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 111.] — c) mit einem Bogen (śārṅga) bewaffnet [Bhaṭṭikavya 8, 123.] —

2) m. ein best. Vogel (vgl. śārga) [Mahābhārata 1, 8375. 8402.] pakṣin [7, 1036.] śārṅgī das Weibchen [1, 404. 8401.] —

3) n. a) Bogen [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 71.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 49.] [Medinīkoṣa g. 24.] [Śākuntala 93, 16. 94, 2.] insbes. Viṣṇu’s oder Kṛṣṇa’s Bogen [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 222.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] (hier fälschlich m.). [Halāyudha 1, 26.] [Oxforder Handschriften 183], b, [1. v. u. 190], b, [17.] [Mahābhārata 2,34.3,843. 850.] [Harivaṃśa 5035. 7329.] [Rāmāyaṇa 7,7,7. 13.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 88,17.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8,20,30.] [Oxforder Handschriften 77,a,] [No. 131.] — b) frischer Ingwer [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) Name eines Sāman [LĀṬY. 1, 6, 23.] śārga [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 240],a. aindraṃ śārgam [211],b. añjo vyañjataḥ samañjata iti kākṣīvatāṃ trīṇi sāmāni oder śārgāṇi [202],a.

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Śārṅga (शार्ङ्ग):—m. patron. verschiedener Männer [Ṛgveda] [Anukramaṇikā]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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