Purushottama, Puruṣottama, Purusha-uttama: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Purushottama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Puruṣottama can be transliterated into English as Purusottama or Purushottama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Pancaratra glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम, “The Supreme being”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Vasudhā.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He got this name because of his Pūraṇa (filling) and Sadana (sitting) (Chapter 70, Udyoga Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—A name of Bhāgavata;1 of Kṛṣṇa.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 4. 2.
  • 2) Ib. X. 58. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 4. 42 and 45.

1b) A tīrtha sacred to Vimalā and the Pitṛs;^1 temple of; Kaṇḍu offered prayers and got rid of the sin of living with the Apsaras, Pramlocā by the Japa, Brahmapāra.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35; 22. 38; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 52; V. 17. 6 and 33; 38. 45, 78-82.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Puruṣottama has openings on the four sides and also on top. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Puruṣottama stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Rasashastra glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 2, dealing with jvara: fever). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). However, as an ayurveda treatment, it should be taken twith caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (e.g., puruṣottama-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Vaishnavism glossary
Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) refers to “supreme enjoyer”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Purushottama (पुरुषोत्तम): An epithet of Sri Krishna. It is one of the names of Vishnu and means the Supreme Being.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara traditions. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.

The deities such as the Puruṣottamas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

2) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) is the name of the third Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The parents of as Puruṣottama are known as king Rudra and queen Sitá whose stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

The nine Vāsudevas (such as Puruṣottama) are also known as Nārāyaṇas or Viṣṇus and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Vāsudeva is described as follows: their body is of a dark-blue complexion, they wear a yellow robe made of silk, and they bear the śrīvatsa on their chest.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) is the name of the chowrie-bearer accompanying Anantanātha: the fourteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The symbolic mark which distinguishes Anantanātha from all other Tīrthaṃkaras is the hawk according to Śvetāmbaras and the bear according to the Digambaras. The Yakṣa and Yakṣiṇī, the goblins, serving him are named Pātāla and Anantamatī (Śvetāmbara Aṃkuśā) respectively. The Chowri-waver, in his case, was king Puruṣottama-Vāsudeva by name. The tree associated with his enlightenment is Aśvattha (Ficus religioso).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature (history)

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) or Puruṣottama Vājapeyi is the name of a preceptor of Kumāramaṇi (1703 C.E.): an author of prosody who belonged to the family of Harivaṃśa, was the son of Harivallabha, grandson of Kaṇṭhamaṇi, and great grandson of Rudraṇa, great great grandson of Caturbhuja. Kumāramaṇi was also the cousin of Vedamaṇi and elder brother of Vāsudeva. He belonged to Śrīvatsagotra. He was also the disciple of Jayagovinda Vājapeyi and Puruṣottama Vājapeyi (both brothers), Kavicārāḍana, Mādhavapaṇḍitarāja, Rudraṇa (probably his great grand father), Madhusūdanakavipaṇḍita. Kumāramaṇi mentions about his family and preceptors in the beginning of his work.

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Puruṣottama is one of the Brāhmaṇa donees mentioned in the “Asankhali plates of Narasiṃha II” (1302 A.D.). When a grant was made to a large number of Brāhmaṇas, the chief amongst the donees seems to have been called Pānīyagrāhin especially. In the present record, though all the donees (e.g., Puruṣottama) are referred to as Pāṇigrāhi-mahājana, their list is headed by a Brāhmaṇa with Pāṇigrahī as his surname.

These copper plates (mentioning Puruṣottama) were discovered from the house of a Santal inhabitant of Pargana Asankhali in the Mayurbhanj State (Orissa). It was made when king Vīra-Narasiṃhadeva was staying at the Bhairavapura-kaṭaka (city, camp or residence).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Purushottama in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—

1) an excellent man.

2) the highest or Supreme Being, an epithet of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa; यस्मात् क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः । अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः (yasmāt kṣaramatīto'hamakṣarādapi cottamaḥ | ato'smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ) || Bg.15.18.

3) a best attendant.

4) a Jaina.

5) Name of a district in Orissa sacred to Viṣṇu.

Derivable forms: puruṣottamaḥ (पुरुषोत्तमः).

Puruṣottama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms puruṣa and uttama (उत्तम).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—m.

(-maḥ) An excellent or superior man. 2. Vishnu. 3. A Jina, one of the generic terms for a deified chief of the Jaina sect. 4. The fourth of the nine Vasudevas of the jainas, the son of So4Ma. E. puruṣa mankind, uttama best.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—m. 1. an excellent man, an excellent servant. 2. a name of Viṣṇu. 3. a proper name.

Puruṣottama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms puruṣa and uttama (उत्तम).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—[masculine] the best of men or of servants; the supreme spirit (Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—guru of Gaṅgādāsa (Chandomañjarī). Oxf. 198^b.

2) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—father of Janārdana, grandfather of Rāmacandra (Rādhāvinoda).

3) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—father of Mukunda, father of Śambhu, father of Viśvanāthadeva (Kuṇḍakaumudī). Oxf. 341^b.

4) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—father of Viśvanātha (Viśvaprakāśapaddhati).

5) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—father of Kṛṣṇadāsa, Dāmodara, Nārāyaṇa, Haridāsa (Prastāvaratnākara 1557). Bp. 359.

6) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—See Puruṣottamadeva.

7) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] See Puruṣottamadeva.

8) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—wrote on Alaṃkāra. Quoted in Sāhityadarpaṇa p. 254, by Kavicandra Oxf. 211^b.

9) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Āvirbhāvatirobhāvavādārtha. Prahastavāda. Bimbapratibimbavāda. Svavṛttivāda.

10) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Utsavapratāna.

11) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Gāyatrīkārikābhāṣya. B. 4, 50. Called Gāyatryādyarthaprakāśakārikāvivaraṇa P. 12, Vivaraṇakārikāṭīkā P. 13.

12) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Tattvadīpaprakāśāvaraṇabhaṅga. K. 24. See Bhāgavata^0 by Pītāmbara.

13) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Nirodhalakṣaṇaṭīkā.

14) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Nṛsiṃhatāpanīyopaniṣaṭṭīkā.

15) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Paṇḍitakarabhiṇḍipāla.

16) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Prasthānaratnākara.

17) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—(?): Bhagavadbhaktiratnāvalī.

18) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Bhāgavatanibandhayojanā. Bhāgavatapurāṇasvarūpaviṣayakaśaṅkānirāsa.

19) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Mukticintāmaṇi and—[commentary].

20) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Vedāntamālā.

21) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Śaṅkhacakradhāraṇavāda.

22) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Saṃnyāsanirṇaya.

23) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Subhāṣitamuktāvalī.

24) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Pītāmbara, pupil of Vallabhācārya: Avatāravādāvah. He mentions Viṭṭhaleśvara. Dravyaśuddhi and Dīpikā. Navaratnaṭippaṇī. Pattrāvalambanaṭīkā. Vallabhāṣṭakaṭīkā. Vidvanmaṇḍanaṭīkā Suvarṇasūtra. Siddhāntarahasyavivaraṇa. Siddhāntavāṅmālā. Sevāphalastotraṭīkā.

25) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Viṣṇu: Viṣṇukalpalatā and its
—[commentary] Viṣṇukalpalatāprabodha.

26) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—puruṣottama, son of Rāmakṛṣṇa, father of Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (Kuṇḍakalpalatā).

27) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Adhyātmakārikāvaliṭīkā.

28) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Makarandaṭīkā.

29) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—author of Mukticintāmaṇi. In Haug.'s Ms. 327 (of 1628) he is called Gajapatiśrīpuruṣottamadeva.

30) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Saṃvatsaranirṇayapratāna.

31) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Devarāja: Agniṣṭomakratukḷipti.

32) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Pītāmbara: Vallabhāṣṭakavivṛtiprakāśa (not Vallabhāṣṭakaṭikā).

33) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Mādhava, son of Cakradatta, son of Śrīkaṇṭhadatta: Dravyaguṇa med.

34) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Audgātraprayoga. Puṇyāhavācanaprayoga.

35) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—Bhāgavatapurāṇasvarūpaśaṅkānirāsa.

36) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—son of Pītāmbara: Bhāgavatatattvadīpaṭīkā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम):—[from puruṣa] a See below.

2) [from puruṣa] b m. the best of men, an excellent or superior man, [Harivaṃśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] the best of servants, a good attendant, [Kāvya literature]

4) [v.s. ...] the highest being, Supreme Spirit, Name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. ([Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 91 n. 3 etc.])

5) [v.s. ...] = -kṣetra, [Catalogue(s)]

6) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) an Arhat

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the fourth black Vāsudeva

8) [v.s. ...] a Jina (one of the generic terms for a deified teacher of the Jaina sect)

9) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce authors and various men (also -dāsa, -dīkṣita, -deva, -deva-śarman, -paṇḍita, -prasāda, -bhaṭṭa, -bhaṭṭātmaja, -bhāraty-ācārya, -miśra, -manu-sudhīndra, -sarasvatī mācāya, mānanda-tīrtha, mānanda-yati, māśrama).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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