Purushottama, aka: Puruṣottama, Purusha-uttama; 10 Definition(s)
Purushottama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Puruṣottama can be transliterated into English as Purusottama or Purushottama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम).—Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He got this name because of his Pūraṇa (filling) and Sadana (sitting) (Chapter 70, Udyoga Parva).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1b) A tīrtha sacred to Vimalā and the Pitṛs;^1 temple of; Kaṇḍu offered prayers and got rid of the sin of living with the Apsaras, Pramlocā by the Japa, Brahmapāra.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35; 22. 38; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 52; V. 17. 6 and 33; 38. 45, 78-82.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम, “The Supreme being”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Vasudhā.(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Puruṣottama has openings on the four sides and also on top. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (eg., Puruṣottama stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.(Source): archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 2, dealing with jvara: fever). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). Pārvatīśaṅkara is an ayurveda treatment and should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.
Accordingly, when using such recipes (eg., puruṣottama-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Purushottama (पुरुषोत्तम): An epithet of Sri Krishna. It is one of the names of Vishnu and means the Supreme Being.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara traditions. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.
The deities such as the Puruṣottamas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.
2) Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) is the name of the third Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The parents of as Puruṣottama are known as king Rudra and queen Sitá whose stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.
The nine Vāsudevas (such as Puruṣottama) are also known as Nārāyaṇas or Viṣṇus and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Vāsudeva is described as follows: their body is of a dark-blue complexion, they wear a yellow robe made of silk, and they bear the śrīvatsa on their chest.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Puruṣottama (पुरुषोत्तम) or Puruṣottama Vājapeyi is the name of a preceptor of Kumāramaṇi (1703 C.E.): an author of prosody who belonged to the family of Harivaṃśa, was the son of Harivallabha, grandson of Kaṇṭhamaṇi, and great grandson of Rudraṇa, great great grandson of Caturbhuja. Kumāramaṇi was also the cousin of Vedamaṇi and elder brother of Vāsudeva. He belonged to Śrīvatsagotra. He was also the disciple of Jayagovinda Vājapeyi and Puruṣottama Vājapeyi (both brothers), Kavicārāḍana, Mādhavapaṇḍitarāja, Rudraṇa (probably his great grand father), Madhusūdanakavipaṇḍita. Kumāramaṇi mentions about his family and preceptors in the beginning of his work.(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature (history)
Puruṣottama is one of the Brāhmaṇa donees mentioned in the “Asankhali plates of Narasiṃha II” (1302 A.D.). When a grant was made to a large number of Brāhmaṇas, the chief amongst the donees seems to have been called Pānīyagrāhin especially. In the present record, though all the donees (eg., Puruṣottama) are referred to as Pāṇigrāhi-mahājana, their list is headed by a Brāhmaṇa with Pāṇigrahī as his surname.
These copper plates (mentioning Puruṣottama) were discovered from the house of a Santal inhabitant of Pargana Asankhali in the Mayurbhanj State (Orissa). It was made when king Vīra-Narasiṃhadeva was staying at the Bhairavapura-kaṭaka (city, camp or residence).(Source): What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
1) an excellent man.
2) the highest or Supreme Being, an epithet of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa; यस्मात् क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः । अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः (yasmāt kṣaramatīto'hamakṣarādapi cottamaḥ | ato'smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ) || Bg.15.18.
3) a best attendant.
4) a Jaina.
5) Name of a district in Orissa sacred to Viṣṇu.
Derivable forms: puruṣottamaḥ (पुरुषोत्तमः).
Puruṣottama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms puruṣa and uttama (उत्तम).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष) refers to one of the five faces of Sadāśiva that revealed the Āgamas (sacr...
Puruṣārtha (पुरुषार्थ, “renunciation”) refers to the concept of “four ends of life”.—These four...
Tilottamā (तिलोत्तमा).—A prominent celestial maiden. Birth. Tilottamā was born to Pradhā, wife ...
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Purāṇapuruṣa (पुराणपुरुष) refers to “eternal being” and is explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 1...
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Search found 32 books and stories containing Purushottama, Puruṣottama or Purusha-uttama. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 19 - Purushottama (A.D. 1308-1348) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Part 36 - Purushottama (A.D. 1277-1307) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
Part 38 - Purushottama (A.D. 1309-1318) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 29 - Madhusūdana Sarasvatī (a.d. 1500) < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 28 - Prakāśānanda (a.d. 1550—1600) < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 4 - Sāṃkhya Philosophy in the Gītā < [Chapter XIV - The Philosophy of the Bhagavad-gītā]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter XIII - The prayer of Vishnu Panjaram < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter LXVI - Description of the specific marks of Salagrama < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter XLV - Characteristic marks of Shalagrama Stones (Shaligram) < [Agastya Samhita]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)