Naraka, Nāraka: 34 definitions


Naraka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Narak.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Naraka (नरक).—(NARAKĀSURA). A valiant Asura. Birth. Once the Asura Hiraṇyākṣa was amusing himself by wading through the ocean and beating at the waves with his club. Varuṇa, the god of water, was alarmed at this and ran to Mahāviṣṇu and told him every thing. Hearing this Mahāviṣṇu got up to kill Hiraṇyākṣa. Hiraṇyākṣa who had assumed the form of a Boar carried the earth on his tusks and ran to Pātāla. As the goddess earth had come into contact with the tusks of Hiraṇyākṣa she became pregnant and gave birth to an asura infant of immense might and power. That infant was Narakāsura. (See full article at Story of Naraka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Naraka (नरक).—Mention is made about another Narakāsura who was born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Danu, in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 28. Once Indra defeated this Narakāsura. It is seen in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9 that this asura after his death, stayed in the palace of Varuṇa worshipping him.

3) Naraka (नरक).—Bhagadatta the son of Narakāsura ruled over the part of Pātāla called Naraka, and being the ruler of Naraka, Bhagadatta seems to have been known by the name of Naraka also.

4) Naraka (नरक).—See under Kāla I.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Naraka (नरक) refers to “hell”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.31 (“Description of Śiva’s magic”).—Accordingly, as Bṛhaspati said to the Gods: “All of you gods seem to be selfish in nature. You want to destroy other’s interests. Indeed I will go to hell (naraka) by disparaging Śiva. O gods, one of you shall go to the mountain. Let him urge the lord of the mountains and achieve the desired object. Let him stay in Bhārata after giving his daughter without willingness. It is certain he will attain salvation if he gives his daughter with devotion. [...]”.

Source: Sacred Texts: The Vishnu Purana

Naraka (नरक) refers to the hells which are situated beneath the earth and beneath the waters, and into which sinners are finally sent.

The names of the different narakas are as follows:

  1. Raurava,
  2. Śūkara,
  3. Rodha,
  4. Tāla,
  5. Viśasana,
  6. Mahājvāla,
  7. Taptakumbha,
  8. Lavaṇa,
  9. Vimohana,
  10. Rudhirāndha,
  11. Vaitaranī,
  12. Krimīśa,
  13. Krimibhojana,
  14. Asipatravana,
  15. Kṛṣṇa,
  16. Lālābhakṣa,
  17. Dāruṇa,
  18. Pūyavāha,
  19. Pāpa,
  20. Vahnijvāla,
  21. Adhośiras,
  22. Sandansa,
  23. Kālasūtra,
  24. Tamas,
  25. Avīchi,
  26. Śvabhojana,
  27. Apratiṣṭha,
  28. Avīchi.

These and many other fearful hells are the awful provinces of the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture and with fire; into which are hurled all those who are addicted when alive to sinful practices

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Naraka (नरक).—A son of Anṛta; another name of Raurava.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 64; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 39.

1b) A nephew of Hiraṇyakaśipu and son of the Earth and Vipracitti; lived in Prāgjyotiṣa;1 took away a number of women belonging to sages and kings to his palace, robbed Mandara of its crest jewel, Aditi of her earrings and Varuṇa of his umbrella; demanded the Airāvata from Indra; at Indra's request was cut in twain by Kṛṣṇa in his own city Prāgjyotiṣa;2 spoils distributed among his followers while all women were appropriated to Kṛṣṇa's harem.3 Friend of Vānara Dvivida who was killed by Baladeva.4

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 27; 161. 78; 163. 81-2; 245. 12. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 128; V. 1. 24; 12. 21.
  • 2) Ib. V. 29. 8-21.
  • 3) Ib. V. 31. 14-15.
  • 4) Ib. V. 36. 2-21.

1c) A Dānava with manuṣya dharma;1 a Saimhikeya;2 killed by Kṛṣṇa.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 15.
  • 2) Ib. 68. 19.
  • 3) Ib. 98. 102.

1d) Is bhaumam (earth).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 39. 4, 7-8; 41. 6.

1e) 27 hells under Yama; to them go the unrighteous according to their respective sins; after a certain period they are born as low beings according to their karma.1 Seven under the earth below the Śeṣaloka— Raurava, Śītastapa, Kālasūtu, Apratiṣṭha, Avīcī, Lohapṛṣṭha, and Avidhya.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 146-150.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 144-92; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 1. (whole).
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Naraka (नरक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.28, I.65, II.9.12, II.13.13) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Naraka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Naraka (नरक) refers to the “hells” mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.

There are variously twenty-one or twenty-eight hells described. The following is a list of thirty:

  1. Tāmisra,
  2. Andha-tāmisra,
  3. Raurava,
  4. Mahāraurava,
  5. Kumbhīpāka,
  6. Kālasūtra,
  7. Asipatrakānana,
  8. Śūkaramukha,
  9. Andhakūpa,
  10. Krimibhojana,
  11. Taptamūrti,
  12. Saṃdaṃśa,
  13. Vajrakaṇṭaka,
  14. Śālmalī,
  15. Vaitaraṇī,
  16. Pūyoda,
  17. Prāṇarodha,
  18. Viśasana,
  19. Lālābhakṣa,
  20. Sārameyādana,
  21. Avīci,
  22. Apahpāna,
  23. Kṣārakardama,
  24. Rakṣogaṇa,
  25. Saṃbhoja,
  26. Śūlaprota,
  27. Dandaśūka,
  28. Avaṭārodha,
  29. Paryāvartanaka,
  30. Sūcimukha.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (weapons)

Nāraka refers to a kind of weapon employed in warfare by the soldiers, according to Śrīnātha’s 15th century Palanāṭivīra-caritra. Nāraka refers to the instrument used for wounding the infernal regions. The Vardhmānapuram inscription states that the king should be proficient in dealing several varieties of weapons.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Naraka (नरक) means “hell”. Similarly, everyone who exists in this material world is called Nāraka because this material existence itself is known as a hellish condition of life.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Naraka (नरक) refers to “hell”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] If one torments the body with rain, cold and heat, …, devoted to recitation and meditation, this is called the Great Observance. A woman skilled in the pleasures of love-making, endowed with beauty and youth; such a woman one should procure, holding one’s senses back from the objects of the senses, and one should kiss and embrace [her], placing the penis upon her sex while remaining focussed upon recitation and meditation—one performs [thus] the Sword-Blade Observance. If one should succumb to the control of desire, then one certainly falls into hell (naraka). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Naraka (नरक) refers to the “hell”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “If the immoral man takes the monastic robes, these are like burning brass for him, like an iron ring around his body; his alms bowl is like a jar filled with melted copper; when he takes his food, it is as if he were swallowing balls of burning iron or drinking boiling brass; the people paying homage to him with their offerings are like the guardians of hell (naraka-pāla) watching over him; when he enters the monastery, it is as though he were entering the great hell; when he sits on the monastic benches, it is as if he were taking his place on a bed of burning iron”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Naraka (नरक) refers to the “inhabitants of hell”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “Then the Bodhisattva Apāyajaha addressed himself to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, please pacify three evil existences’. Immediately after that, a bright light shone from the open space, and the inhabitants of hell (naraka), animals, and the inhabitants of Yāma’s world, all those who were touched by the light were filled with happiness, and so all beings in the three evil existences were pacified. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Naraka (नरक) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Naraka).

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Naraka (नरक) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘maṇḍala’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., naraka) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Nāraka (नारक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Nārakī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Nāraka] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Naraka (नरक, “hell”) refers to one of the “six destinations” (gata) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 57). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., naraka). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Naraka also refers to one of the “seven lower regions” (pātāla ) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 123).

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

Naraka or Niraya (Tib: is the name given to one of the worlds of greatest suffering, usually translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". As with the other realms, a being is born into one of these worlds as a result of his karma, and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result, after which he will be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened. The mentality of a being in the hells corresponds to states of extreme fear and helpless anguish in humans.

Physically, Naraka is thought of as a series of layers extending below Jambudvipa into the earth. There are several schemes for counting these Narakas and enumerating their torments. One of the more common is that of the Eight Cold Narakas and Eight Hot Narakas.

Cold Narakas

  • Arbuda and – the "blister" Naraka
  • Nirarbuda and – the "burst blister" Naraka
  • Atata and – the Naraka of shivering
  • Hahava and – the Naraka of lamentation
  • Huhuva and – the Naraka of chattering teeth
  • Utpala and – the "blue lotus" Naraka
  • Padma and – the "lotus" Naraka
  • Mahapadma and – the "great lotus" Naraka

Each lifetime in these Narakas is twenty times the length of the one before it.

Hot Narakas

  • Sanjiva and – the "reviving" Naraka.
  • Kalasutra and – the "black thread" Naraka.
  • Samghata and – the "crushing" Naraka.
  • Raurava and – the "screaming" Naraka.
  • Maharaurava and – the "great screaming" Naraka.
  • Tapana and – the "heating" Naraka.
  • Pratapana and – the "great heating" Naraka.
  • Avici and – the "uninterrupted" Naraka.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Nāraka (नारक) refers to “infernal beings”: those living beings that cannot be happy in any state or moment (i.e. naraka), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.3. The infernal beings have incessantly more and more inauspicious / impure thought-colouration (leśyā), environment (pariṇāma), body (śarīra), suffering (vedanā), and shape of body or deeds (vikriyā) in successive lands (bhumī). The infernal beings think of undertaking auspicious activities but always end up performing inauspicious activities i.e. they transform their bodies as deformed. Similarly they think of happiness but only end up being unhappy.

Infernal beings (nāraka) cause misery and suffering to each other. Extreme environment (heat and cold) are some of the other examples of causes of their sufferings. How do the infernal beings cause misery and sufferings to each others? As they are able to foresee the causes of sufferings by their wrong clairvoyant knowledge (ku-avadhi) by birth, they change their body in the form of lethal weapons, sharp objects, frightening animals, etc to cause misery to others. The infernal beings suffer miserys also inflicted by the wicked demons (malevolent / mean demons / (asurakumaras). Infernal beings have to live full life determined by their life-span-karma and suffer miserys all through (i.e. miserys and sufferings cannot cause death to infernal beings).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

1) Nāraka (नारक) or Nārakāyu refers to “infernal /hellish realms or states of existence” and represents one of the four divisions of Āyu, or “life determining (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by life in hell or hellish life (naraka-āyu)? The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in the infernal realm to suffer intense miserys due to heat, cold, hunger, thurst etc is life in hell.

2) Nāraka (नारक) refers to “infernal state of existence body-making karma” and represents one of the four types of Gati (state of existence), which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by infernal (nāraka) state of existence (gati) body-making (nāma) karmas? The karmas, rise of which causes birth in the hellish realm are called infernal state of existence body-making karma.

3) Nāraka (नारक, “infernal”) or Nārakānupūrvī refers to the “infernal migratory form” and represents one of the four types of Ānupūrvī (migratory form), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is the migratory form (ānupūrvī) body-making (nāma) karma for movement to infernal existence (nāraka)? When a human or sub human dies and heads towards infernal existence in his next birth, the soul retains its old form during the transitory period (i.e. from previous existence to infernal existence). This is due to the rise of infernal migratory form body-making karma. 

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Naraka (नरक) refers to “hells”, according to the commentary on the 11th century Jñānārṇava (verse 2.1), a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Is one not disturbed by [family] attachments? Is this body not cut down by diseases? Does death not open its mouth? Do calamities not do harm every day? Are hells [com.—naraka—narakāḥ] not dreadful? Are not sensual pleasures deceiving like a dream? Because of which, having discarded one’s own benefit, you have a desire for the world which is like a city of Kiṃnaras”.

Synonyms: Śvabhra.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

naraka : purgatory; the hell.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Naraka, (Sk. naraka; etym. doubtful, problematic whether to Gr. nέrteros (=inferus), Ags. nord=north as region of the underworld) 1. a pit D. I, 234; Th. 1, 869; J. IV, 268 (°āvāṭa PvA. 225).—2. a name for Niraya, i.e. purgatory; a place of torment for the deceased (see niraya & cp. list of narakas at Divy 67) S. I, 209; Sn. 706; PvA. 52; Sdhp. 492 (saṃsāraghora°), 612.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naraka (नरक).—m (S) Hell; a hell or a division of the infernal regions; of which there are eighty-four. 2 fig. A mass or heap of ordure and filth. na0 aṅgāvara ghēṇēṃ To take up any bad business of another. na0 upasaṇēṃ To stir any disgusting question or foul affair. na0 tōṇḍānta sāṇṭhaviṇēṃ To be very scurrilous or obscene. narakācī vāṭa dākhaviṇēṃ To exhibit (the road to hell) a bad example. narakānta dhōṇḍā ṭākūna śintōḍā ghēṇēṃ-uḍaviṇēṃ To delight one's self in dirty doings. narakānta jībha ghālaṇēṃ To tell lies: also to promise something disgusting in the performance. narakānta pacaṇēṃ To lie soaking or lingering in any bad place, case, or condition. narakānēṃ aṅga bharaṇēṃ To be deeply in debt. narakāsārakhā ghāṇērā or ghāṇaṇēṃ Used of a spirit-drinker or other stinkard, of a dun, taskmaster, disagreeable business &c. narakīṃ dhajā lāvaṇēṃ To achieve exploits leading to eminence in hell. lōkācyā narakānta buḍaṇēṃ To be extensively involved in debt.

--- OR ---

nāraka (नारक).—, or nārakīya a S Relating to naraka the infernal regions.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naraka (नरक).—m Hell. A mass or heap of ordure and filth. naraka aṅgāvara ghēṇēṃ To take up any bad business of another. naraka upasaṇēṃ To stir any disgusting question or foul affair. naraka tōṇḍānta sāṇṭhaviṇēṃ To be very scur- rilous or obscene. narakācī vāṭa dākhaviṇēṃ To exhibit (the road to hell) a bad ex- ample. narakānta dhōṇḍā ṭākūna śintōḍā ghēṇēṃ-uḍaviṇēṃ. To delight one's self in dirty doings. narakānta jībha ghālaṇēṃ To tell lies: also to pro- mise something disgusting in the performance. narakānta pacaṇēṃ To lie soak- ing or lingering in any bad place, case or condition. narakānēṃ aṅga bharaṇēṃ To be deeply in debt. narakīṃ dhvajā lāvaṇēṃ To

--- OR ---

nāraka (नारक).—a Relating to naraka the infernal regions.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naraka (नरक).—

1) Hell, infernal regions (corresponding to the realm of Pluto; there are said to be 21 different parts of these regions where different kinds of tortures are inflicted upon sinners tāmisra, andhatāmisra, mahāraurava, raurava, naraka, kālasūtra, mahānaraka, saṃjīvana, māhavīci, tapana, saṃpratāpana, saṃhāta, kākola, kuḍmala, pratimūrtika, lohaśaṅku, ṛjīṣa, panthā, śālmalī, asitapatravana, lohadāraka are the 21 Narakas; cf. Manusmṛti 4. 88-9).

2) A liquor-vessel; नरकं मद्यभाजने (narakaṃ madyabhājane) Nm.

-kaḥ Name of a demon, king of Prāgjyotiṣa. [According to one account he carried off Aditi's ear-rings and Kṛṣna at the request of the gods killed him in a single combat and recovered the jewels. According to another account, Naraka assumed the form of an elephant and carried off the daughter of Viśvakarman and outraged her. He also seized the daughters of Gandharvas, gods, men and the nymphs themselves, and collected more than 16 damsels in his harem. These, it is related, were transferred by Kṛṣṇa to his own harem after he had slain Naraka. The demon was born of earth, and hence called 'Bhauma']

Derivable forms: narakaḥ (नरकः), narakam (नरकम्).

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Nāraka (नारक).—a. (- f.) [नरक एव प्रज्ञा° अण् नरकस्येदम् अण् वा (naraka eva prajñā° aṇ narakasyedam aṇ vā)] Hellish, relating to hell, infernal.

-kaḥ 1 The infernal regions, hell; कुभ्मीपाकं गुरुमपि हरे नारकं नापनेतुम् (kubhmīpākaṃ gurumapi hare nārakaṃ nāpanetum) Mukundamālā 6.

2) An inhabitant of hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naraka (नरक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) Hell, the infernal regions, including a number of places of torture of various descriptions. m.

(-kaḥ) The name of a Daitya or demon. E. nṛ to guide or lead, affix vun, whither the wicked are conducted: It is sometimes read nāraka .

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Nāraka (नारक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) Infernal, hellish. m.

(-kaḥ) Hell or the infernal regions. E. naraka hell. aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naraka (नरक).—m. 1. Hell, the infernal regions, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 116. 2. The name of a demon, Mahābhārata 1, 2537. 3. The name of a country, Mahābhārata 2, 578.

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Nāraka (नारक).—i. e. naraka + a, I. adj., f. , Infernal, hellish, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 30, 30. Ii. m. 1. An inhabitant of the infernal regions, 2, 10, 41. 2. Hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naraka (नरक).—[masculine] ([neuter]) the lower world, hell (also personif.); [masculine] [Name] of a demon killed by Kṛṣṇa.

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Naraka (नरक).—[masculine] ([neuter]) the lower world, hell (also personif.); [masculine] [Name] of a demon killed by Kṛṣṇa.

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Nāraka (नारक).—1. [feminine] ī hellish, infernal; [masculine] inhabitant or lord of the infernal regions.

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Nāraka (नारक).—2. [masculine] hell or the infernal regions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naraka (नरक):—mn. ([Nirukta, by Yāska]; naraka, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]) hell, place of torment, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) (distinguished from pātāla q.v.; personified as a son of Anṛta and Nirṛti or Nirkṛti, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]; there are many different hells, generally 21 [Manu-smṛti iv, 88-90; Yājñavalkya; Purāṇa] etc.)

3) m. Name of a demon (son of Viṣṇu and Bhūmi or the Earth, and therefore called Bhauma, haunting Prāg-jyotiṣa and slain by Kṛṣṇa), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.

4) of a son of Vipra-citti, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

5) = deva-rātriprabheda (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) mn. Name of a place of pilgrimage, [Mahābhārata] ([varia lectio] anaraka)

7) Nāraka (नारक):—mf(ī)n. ([from] naraka) relating to hell, hellish, infernal

8) m. (with loka) hell, [Atharva-veda] (also nāraka m., [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā])

9) m. inhabitant of hell, [Purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naraka (नरक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Hell. m. A demon.

2) Nāraka (नारक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Hell. a. Hellish.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Naraka (नरक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇaraga, Ṇaraya, Ṇāraya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Naraka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Naraka (नरक) [Also spelled narak]:—(nm) the hell, inferno; a place of great torture or agony; a place unfit for human habitation; —[kuṃḍa] an inferno; a hell-pool (wherein evil souls are supposed to be dipped or dropped for torture); ~[gāmī] hell-going, heading for the hell; ~[pāla] Yamraj—Lord of the hell; -[yātanā] infernal agony, damnation; ~[vāsa] living in hell, infernal stay, a stay involving great torture and agony; —[kā kīḍā] a hellish creature, low sinful man; —[bhoganā] to suffer (the agonies of) hell, to undergo immense suffering; —[meṃ paḍanā] to go to hell.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Naraka (ನರಕ):—

1) [noun] (myth.) the place or state of punishment of the wicked after death; the abode of evil and condemned spirits; hell.

2) [noun] punishment awarded to the wicked in the hell.

3) [noun] (myth.) a daemon, slain by Křṣṇa.

4) [noun] (jain.) a class of beings that are condemned in the hell.

5) [noun] (Jain.) one of the seven hells.

6) [noun] (fig.) waste matter from the bowels; faeces; excrement.

7) [noun] (fig.) a very miserable, deeply distressed condition; a wretched state.

8) [noun] ನಗರದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದರೂ ನರಕದ ಭಯ ತಪ್ಪದು [nagaradalliddaru narakada bhaya tappadu] nagaradalliddarū narakada bhaya tappadu (prov.) your current position can never save you from being punished after death (if you are a sinner); ನರಕಕ್ಕೆ ನವದ್ವಾರ, ನಾಕಕ್ಕೆ ಏಕದ್ವಾರ [narakakke navadvara, nakakke ekadvara] narakakke navadvāra, nākakke ēkadvāra (prov.) there are lot ways that lead to hell, while virtuousness is the only path for heaven; ನರಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಕರುಣವಿಲ್ಲ, ಸ್ವರ್ಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರಣವಿಲ್ಲ [narakadalli karunavilla, svargadalli maranavilla] narakadalli karuṇavilla, svargadalli maraṇavilla (prov.) (said as a warning) once committed to hell, one cannot expect sympathy; ನರಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಬಿದ್ದವನಿಗೆ ಹರುಕು ಬಟ್ಟೆಯಾದರೇನು [narakadalli biddavanige haruku batteyadarenu]? narakadalli biddavanige haruku baṭṭeyādarēnu (prov.) rags do not deepen the completely wretched state of life one is in; ನರಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಬೀಳುವವನು ಹರಕೆ ಹೊತ್ತರೆ ತಪ್ಪೀತೆ [narakadalli biluvavanu harake hottare tappite]? narakadalli bīḷuvavanu harake hottare tappīte (prov.) a vow in propitiation can never be a perfect expiation for a sinner; one has to pay the price for one’s own sins; ನರಕದಲ್ಲಿ ಭೇದವಿಲ್ಲ, ಸ್ವರ್ಗದಲ್ಲಿ ರೋಗವಿಲ್ಲ [narakadalli bhedavilla, svargadalli rogavilla] narakadalli bhēdavilla, svargadalli rōgavilla (prov.) once committed to hell, no discrimination can be expected; ನರಕದಲ್ಲಿರುವವರು ನಾಕವನ್ನು ಬಯಸಿದ ಹಾಗೆ [narakadalliruvavaru nakavannu bayasida hage] narakadalliruvavaru nākavannu bayasida hāge (prov.) committed to hell, one cannot imagine going to heaven without undergoing the punishment ordained; ನರಕವುಂಟು ಎಂದು ಅಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೆ, ತಪ್ಪೀತೆ [narakavumtu emdu aluttiddare, tappite]? narakavuṇṭu endu aḷuttiddare tappīte (prov.) dead sure are the repercussions that one’s sins bring, however one grieves; ನಾ ಅಂದರೆ ನರಕ, ನೀ ಅಂದರೆ ನಾಕ [na amdare naraka, ni amdare naka] nā andare naraka, nī andare nāka (prov.) egoism hatches sins, while renunciation brings heaven.

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Nāraka (ನಾರಕ):—[adjective] of, from or like hell; hellish.

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Nāraka (ನಾರಕ):—

1) [noun] (myth.) the world believed to be below the earth, where wicked and condemned are punished after death; hell.

2) [noun] a person suffering punishment in the hell for the wicked acts committed during one’s life-time.

3) [noun] a wicked act; sin.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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