Rati, aka: Ratī, Rāti, Rāṭi; 24 Definition(s)

Introduction

Rati means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Rati (रति, “pleasure, enjoyment”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ रत्यै नमः
oṃ ratyai namaḥ.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Rati (रति, “sexual-pleasure”):—One of the twenty-four emanations of Lakṣmī accompanying Nārāyaṇa. This particular manifestation couples with his counterpart form called Aniruddha and together they form the sixteenth celestial couple. Lakṣmī represents a form of the Goddess (Devī) as the wife of Viṣṇu, while Nārāyaṇa represents the personification of his creative energy, according to the Pāñcarātra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Rati (रति, “power of lust”).—The agency of Śiva’s procreation is the Goddess known as Rati — the wife of Kāma-deva. Without sexual desire no conception takes place. She appears to be the very opposite of the power of destruction — Kālī (“the power of time”).

The Goddess Rati is the libido — the ubiquitous force of lust, of enjoyment, but strangely enough also the power of liberation — for liberation from the bonds of material nature is not a passive or a neutral state but indeed an very pro-active struggle.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi

Rati (रति) is found as a sculpture on the eastern wall of the outer maṇḍapa of the temple of Pāpanātha.—In the south portion after the eastern entrance a pilaster bears the image of Kāma and Rati. The male figure of a standing couple holds a bouquet of flowers in his right hand and a sugarcane in the left. The presence of flowers and sugarcane in his hands makes us to think of Kāma and his consort Rati, but there is no guarantee for our interpretation.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Rati (रति, “love”).—One of the eight ‘permanent states’ (sthāyibhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31. These ‘permanent states’ are called ‘the source of delight’ and are not interfered with by other States. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.43-44)

Rati, which has pleasure as its basis, is caused by determinants (vibhāva) like seasons, garlands, unguent, ornaments, dear ones, enjoyment of a superior residential house, and absence of opposition [from any one]. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as a smiling face, sweet words, motion of eyebrows, and glances and the like.

2) Rati (रति) is the name of a meter belonging to the Drutā class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“The metre which has in its feet, the sixth, the tenth, the thirteenth, the sixteenth and the last long, is rati”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Rati (रति) refers to permanent mood of Śṛṅgāra-rasa. Dhanañjaya holds that when a pair of young man and woman feels mutual longing due to favourable place, time, dress, sports etc., that feeling is called rati or love and this rati, being fully experienced through various graceful actions, attains the status of the sentiment called Śṛṅgāra.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Rati (रति, “love”) as defined by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).Cirañjīva defines bhāva as follows:—“when rati is related to the gods etc. it is called bhāva”. According to Sanskrit rhetoricians rati (love) is not always sufficiently developed into śṛṅgāra-rasa. When rati (passion) is related to man and woman it develops into śṛṅgāra-rasa. But when this rati exists in the form of devotion to gods or when this rati is in between the son and the mother or two brothers it can not be developed into śṛṅgāra. Then it is simply known as bhāva (emotion) as distinguished from the so called rati.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

1) Rati (रति).—Wife of Kāmadeva and some Purāṇas hold the view that Kāma was the son of Dharma whose father was Brahmā. But, the story of Kāma and Rati is described in the Kālikāpurāṇa as follows.

Brahmā created ten prajāpatis. A beautiful lady called Sandhyā was his next creation. As soon as she was born, seeing her exquisite beauty Brahmā and the prajāpatis jumped to their feet. All of them thought in the same way. While the court of Brahmā was in such a perplexed confusion, an extremly handsome person emerged from his mind. Fish was the symbol on his flag, and he aked Brahmā thus: "Oh father, what should I do? Give me a suitable name and you should also decide upon a place and position and also a wife for me." Brahmā told him as follows:—"You be moving about everywhere in this world (full of men andwomen) engaged in the eternal function of creation with the five arrows of flower in your hands and thus multiply the population. Your arrows will go everywhere and no one, not even the Devas will dare to obstruct your arrows. Everyone will yield to your behests. Viṣṇu, Śiva and I also will yield before your arrows. You will enter the hearts of living beings in invisible form and giving them happiness engage yourself in eternal creation. The chief aim and object of your arrows of flower will be the hearts of living beings. You will be given a suitable name just now." (See full article at Story of Rati from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Rati (रति).—An apsarā woman of Alakāpurī. She danced on the occasion of Kubera welcoming Aṣṭāvakramuni. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).

3) Rati (रति).—Wife of Vibhu born in the dynasty of King Ṛṣabhadeva of Ajanābhavarṣa. Pṛthuṣeṇā was her daughter. (Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Rati (रति).—A name of Śatarūpā; wife of Svāyambhuva Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 13.

1b) The consort of Kāma. Hearing that he was burnt by Śiva, she clad herself in sorrowful clothes. Śyāmalā restored him back to life, and in her presence both were married again;1 a śakti;2 mother of Harṣa;3 Prīti became her co-wife; after the burning of Kāma, was Māyāvatī in Śambara's house and brought up Pradyumna (an incarnation of Kāma);4 Image of, with swan.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 30. 37-51; Matsya-purāṇa 7. 13; 100. 32; 154. 219, 272-3;
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 64-71; 44; 72.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 38.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 31; V. 27. 30.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 261. 55.

1c) A kalā of the moon.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 92.

1d) A son of Śatarūpā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 25.

2a) Ratī (रती).—The wife of Vibhu and mother of Pṛthusena.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 6.

2b) See Māyāvatī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 55. 7.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Katha (narrative stories)

Rati (रति) is the wife of Kāma (god of love), who was destined to be reunited with Kāma’s human incarnation Naravāhanadatta, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 34. Accordingly, as Śiva said to Rati: “that husband of thine [Kāma], who was formerly consumed, has been born in the palace of the King of Vatsa, under the name of Naravāhanadatta, conceived in a mortal womb on account of disrespect shown to me. But because thou hast propitiated me thou shalt also be born in the world of mortals, without being conceived in a mortal womb; and then thou shalt be reunited to thy husband, once more possessing a body”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Rati, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Rati (रति).—Rati is a consort of Madana (god of love). The character of Rati is vividly drawn in the famous Rativilāpa of the Kumārasambhava.

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Rati is the same as Rakti. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Rati (रति) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.32). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rati) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Rati is the daughter of the Daksha and the wife of the God of love, Kama. She is said to be the embodiment of beauty and also held to be incomparable in her charm and grace. When her husband was burned to death by the anger of Shiva, she successfully pleaded for his life.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Rati (रति, Rati) is the Hindu goddess of love, carnal desire, lust, passion and sexual pleasure. Usually described as the daughter of Prajapati Daksha, Rati is the female counterpart, the chief consort and the assistant of Kama (Kamadeva), the god of love. A constant companion of Kama, she is often depicted with him in legend and temple sculpture. She also enjoys worship along with Kama. Rati is often associated with the arousal and delight of sexual activity, and many sex techniques and positions derive their Sanskrit names from hers.

The name of the goddess Rati comes from the Sanskrit root ram, meaning "enjoy" or "delight in." Although the verb root generally refers to any sort of enjoyment, it usually carries connotations of physical and sensual enjoyment. Etymologically, the word rati refers to anything that can be enjoyed; but, it is almost always used to refer to sexual love.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

One of the daughters of Mara (q.v.).

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Rati (रति, “pleasure”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, rati).

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Rati (रति).—What is meant by ‘liking for certain objects’ (rati)? Desire for different and strange kinds of pleasures, not relishing the minor vows and other spiritually beneficent activities is called rati. What is the difference between rati and arati? Rati implies rest and arati implies restlessness.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Rati (रति, “indulgence”) refers to “liking for certain objects” and represents one of the nine types of the Akaṣāya (“quasi passions”) classification of of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. Cāritramohanīya refers to one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha). What is meant by liking for certain objects (rati) karmas? The karmas rising of which causes liking for pleasant things are called ‘liking for certain objects’ karmas. 

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

rati : (f.) attachment; love; liking for.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Rati, (f.) (Classic Sk. rati, fr. ram) love, attachment, pleasure, liking for (Loc.), fondness of S. I, 133 (°ṃ paccanubhavati), 207; III, 256; Sn. 41 (=anukkhaṇṭhit’adhivacanaṃ Nd2 537), 59 (id.), 270, 642, 956 (=nekkhamma-rati paviveka°, upasama° Nd1 457); J. III, 277 (kilesa°); DhA. IV, 225; PvA. 77.—arati dislike, aversion S. I, 7, 54, 128, 180, 197; V, 64; Sn. 270 (+rati), 642 (id.); Dh. 418 (rati+); Th. 2, 339; DhsA. 193; PvA. 64; Sdhp. 476.—ratiṃ karoti to delight in, to make love Vism. 195 (purisā itthīsu). (Page 563)

— or —

Rāti, (Sk. to give, bestow; given at Dhtp 369 & Dhtm 597 in meaning “ādāne, ” with doublet ) to take up: no refs. (Page 570)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

rati (रति).—f (S) The wife of Kamadew (the Hindu Cupid). 2 Love, the tender passion. 3 Fondness, attachment, engagedness of the affections: also desire. 4 Coition.

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ratī (रती).—f (raktikā S) The seed of Abrus precatorius used as a weight: also a fictitious weight denominated from the seeds originally so used. It averages nearly 2¼ grains Troy. 2 (Shortly for daivācī rati The love or favor of Fortune.) Fortune, destiny, luck. Ex. ratī phiralī, ratī anukūḷa jhālī.

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rātī (राती).—f (Poetry. rātra S) Night.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rati (रति).—f The wife of kāmadēva. Love; fondness.

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ratī (रती).—f A weight of nearly 2¼ grains Troy as ratīmātra. Luck. Ex. daivācī ratī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rati (रति).—f. [ram-ktin]

1) Pleasure, delight, satisfaction, joy; अकृतार्थेऽपि मनसिजे रतिमुभयप्रार्थना कुरुते (akṛtārthe'pi manasije ratimubhayaprārthanā kurute) Ś.2.1.

2) Fondness for, devotion or attachment to, pleasure in (with loc.) प्रीतिः परा तात रतिश्च जाता (prītiḥ parā tāta ratiśca jātā) Mb.3.112.11; पापे रतिं मा कृथाः (pāpe ratiṃ mā kṛthāḥ) Bh.2.77; स्वयोषिति रतिः (svayoṣiti ratiḥ) 2.62; R.1.23; Ku.5.65.

3) Love, affection; S. D. thus defines it; रतिर्मनोनुकूलेऽर्थे मनसः प्रवणायितम् (ratirmanonukūle'rthe manasaḥ pravaṇāyitam) 27; cf. 26 also; (it is the Sthāyibhāva of the rasa called śṛṅgāra q. v.) ससत्त्व- रतिदे नित्यं सदरामर्षनाशिनि (sasattva- ratide nityaṃ sadarāmarṣanāśini) Ki.15.27.

4) Sexual pleasure; दाक्षिण्योदकवाहिनी विगलिता याता स्वदेशं रतिः (dākṣiṇyodakavāhinī vigalitā yātā svadeśaṃ ratiḥ) Mk.8.38; so रति- सर्वस्वम् (rati- sarvasvam) q. v. below.

5) Sexual union, coition, copulation.

6) The goddess of love, the wife of Kāma or Cupid; साक्षात् कामं नवमिव रतिर्मालती माधवं यत् (sākṣāt kāmaṃ navamiva ratirmālatī mādhavaṃ yat) Māl.1.15; Ku.3. 23;4.45; R.6.2.

7) The pudenda.

8) Name of the sixth digit (kalā) of the moon.

9) Ved. Rest, cessation.

1) Name of magical incantation recited over weapons; Rām.

Derivable forms: ratiḥ (रतिः).

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Rāṭi (राटि).—A bird. -f. War, battle.

Derivable forms: rāṭiḥ (राटिः).

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Rāti (राति).—a. Ved.

1) Liberal, favourable, generous.

2) Ready.

-tiḥ A friend (opp. to arātiḥ). -f.

1) Giving, bestowing, presentation.

2) Wealth; विज्ञानमानन्दं ब्रह्म रातिर्दातुः परायणम् (vijñānamānandaṃ brahma rātirdātuḥ parāyaṇam) Bṛ. Up.3.9.28; Bhāg.5.5.3.

3) A favour.

4) A gift, present.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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